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Full text of "Rand, McNally & co.'s handbook of the World's Columbian exposition"

)1S 62701 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/randmcnallycoshaOOwade 



RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S A WEEK AT THE FAIR. 

With maps, plans, and illustrations. 288 pages. Size 6 x 8% inches. Illuminated Pape 
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RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S BIRD'S-EYE VIEWS AND 
GUIDE TO CHICAGO. 

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Bound in Paper, 50 cents. 



RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S HANDY GUIDE TO CHICAGO AND 
THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 

ILLUSTRATED. 

Pocket form. 219 pages. In Handsome Illuminated Paper Cover, 25 cents. 
In Flexible Cloth Cover, Rounded Corners, 50 cents. 



RAND, McNALLY &. CO.'S CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY DIRECTORY 
AND STREET NUMBER GUIDE. 

With an accurate map of the city 21x28 inches. 243 pages. Price, in Paper Cover, 
25 cents. In Flexible Cloth, 50 cents. 



RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S A WEEK IN CHICAGO. 

Profusely Illustrated. Eighty-eight pages. Illuminated Cover. Price, 25 cents. 



RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S SKETCH BOOK. 

An illustrated and descriptive album of the World's Columbian Exposition. 
Bound in Fine Cloth, Gold Stamped. Price, 50 cents. 



RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S ART FOLIO OF THE 
WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 

A veritable edition de luxe. Each picture mounted on super-enameled and embossed cards. 
Put up in a handsome portfolio 11x13 inches. Price, $2.50. 



RAND, McNALLY & CO.'S 



HANDBOOK 



World's Columbian Exposition 



Special Descriptive Articles 



Mrs. Potter Palmer, The Countess of Aberdeen, Mrs. Schuyler Van 

Rensselaer, Mr. D. H. Burnham (Director of Works), Hon. W. E. 

Curtis, Messrs. Adler & Sullivan, S. S. Beman, W. W. Boying- 

ton, Henry Ives Cobb, W. J. Edbrooke, Frank W. 

Grogan, Miss Sophia G. Hayden, Jarvis Hunt, W. 

L. B. Jenney, Henry Van Brunt, Francis 

Whitehouse, and other Architects of 

State and Foreign Buildings. 



MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



CHICAGO 

Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers 

1893 



Copyright, 1893, by Rand, McNally & Co. 



F8% 
C53.31 

Rl27h 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Explanation of Reference Marks. 6 

Preface 7 

Map of the Grounds 8 

Calendar of Exposition 10 

Chapter I. — Chicago — Arrival at the World's Fair City 13 

Information regarding railway depots; baggage-checking; hack and 
carriage fares; where and how to find accommodation in hotels, boarding- 
houses, or private rooms, and the rates charged thereat; location of 
restaurants, theaters, and other places of amusement, etc. 

Chapter II. — History of the Exposition ig 

Information regarding all land and water routes, fares, etc., from the 
city and suburbs to the Fair grounds; a concise history of the Exposi- 
tion, statistics, etc.; a visit to the Transportation Building. 

Chapter III. — Principal Buildings 41 

Visit to the Mines and Mining and Administration buildings; banking 
facilities, etc. 

Chapter IV. — What an Art Critic Says 5S 

The Fair Grounds; Columbian Fountain; Electricity Building, etc. 

Chapter V. -.-Machinery Hall, Etc 75 

Live Stock Pavilion; Cliff Dwellers; Dairy Building, etc. 

Chapter VI.— Other Principal Buildings. go 

Anthropological and Forestry buildings; Convent Santa Maria de la 
Rabida. 

Chapter VII. — Agricultural Building 101 

Movable Sidewalk, Music Hall, etc. 

Chapter VIII. — Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building, Etc 114 

Chapter IX.— United States Government Buildings . .... 127 

Battle-ship " Illinois," etc. 

Chapter X. — Horticultural Building, Etc . . 136 

Fisheries Building, Wooded Island, etc. 

Chapter XL — The Art Building, Etc. . -150 

Chapter XII. — The Woman's Building ... 159 

Gondolas, electric launches, etc. 

Chapter XIII. — Foreign Buildings . _ 167 

Architecture of many lands, etc. 

Chapter XIV. — The State Buildings _. .182 

An itinerary of a visit to the State and Territorial homes; Esquimau 
Village. 

Chapter XV. — The Midway Plaisance 212 

The homes of people of many climes; Chinese theater and tea garden; 
Irish villages, etc. 

Hotels Adjacent to World's Fair 221 

General Index . 223 

(5) 



155SG9 



EXPLANATION OF REFERENCE MARKS. 



In the following pages all the buildings and noticeable features of the 
grounds are indexed in the following manner: The letters and figures fol- 
lowing the names of buildings in heavy black type (like this) are placed 
there to ascertain their exact location on the map inserted at the end of the 
guide. 

Take for example Administration Building (N 18): 



13 



N° 



<?. 



& 



18 

On each side of the map are the letters of the alphabet reading down- 
ward; and along the margin, top and bottom, are figures reading and increas- 
ing from i, on the left, to 27, on the right; N 18, therefore, implies that the 
Administration Building will be found at that point on the map where lines, 
if drawn from N to N east and west and from 18 to 18 north and south, 
would cross each other at right angles. 

With this extremely simple arrangement at his command, the visitor will 
experience but little difficulty in speedily and surely locating any sought- 
for building or spot within the Exposition grounds. For those seeking a 
similar useful arrangement in regard to the city, streets, and parks of 
Chicago itself, reference may be made to ' ' The City Railway Directory 
and Street Number Guide " issued by the publishers of this book. 



<*) 



Pref; 




ace. 



HE adage that " All roads lead to Rome " must, for the year 1893 at 
least, be changed to "All roads lead to Chicago," for from e very- 
land and clime the nations of the world are flocking to the ' ' Phoe- 
nix City," that lies upon the shores of Lake Michigan; the proud 
and peerless young giant that fears no rival and succumbs to no 
calamity. Right royally, too, does she welcome her invited 
guests, and with a boundless hospitality greets them, regardless 
of race or creed. 

As most of these visitors are utterly unacquainted with Chicago, some means 
of obtaining full and reliable information becomes a necessity; hence this 
work, whose object is to enable all English-speaking ^ople to understand 
thoroughly the best methods of reaching and seeing the Exposition, with as 
little expenditure of time, money, and vital energy as possible, and also to 
give them a perfect conception of its origin, designs, and plans, and the 
methods which have, in the great " White City," built up the grandest and 
loveliest aggregation of exhibition palaces (combined with the most glorious 
landscapes) that was ever created. These buildings, the statues, paintings, 
and other decorations, have in nearly every case been described for this 
work by the architects, sculptors, and artists who created them, in language 
so plain and forcible as to make even the technicalities of their art clear to 
the reader. 

While not pretending to be a catalogue of the exhibits, yet the ground- 
plans herein, locating all exhibits, and the accurate indexed map point out 
to the visitor, in a clear and lucid way, how he may see the best and choicest 
of everything, so that he need waste no time upon trivial matters, such as 
may be seen at any time in any city of Europe or America. 

Avoiding in this way mere dull, dry details, yet enabling the visitor to see 
everything, from the least to the greatest, the compiler has spared no pains 
in making the information herein thorough, complete, and comprehensive; 
and the publishers have placed it at a popular price — within the reach of all. 
Should the visitor desire to visit points of interest in and about the city 
while here, he will find in " The Handy Guide to Chicago " and " Bird's-eye 
Views and Guide to Chicago," issued by the publishers of this work, complete 
and accurate information in regard to them. 



(7) ILLINOIS ST 

OLD 
SPRINGFIELD. ILLINOIS 62701 



< 

B 



n 



t— e — r 



INDEX TO FOREIGN SITES AND BUILDINGS 



Brazil E-17 

Canada E-20 

Ceylon C-18 

Colombia D-18 

Costa Rica D-18 



East India E-18 

France C-18 

Germany D-19 

Great Britain E-21 

Guatemala D-lu 



Haiti E-19 

Japan G-16 

New South Wales .E-19 

T icaragua E 18 

Noiway D-18 



Adams Express Co...G-13 
Algeria and Tunis — F-5 
Amer.-Ind. V.llage...F-3 

[Austrian Village G-4 

:Blu • Grotto of Capri. F-2 

SCairo, Street F-7 

Captive Balloon F-4 

Chinese Vill. & Th'r..F-4 

Dahomey Village G-4 

Diamond Match Co. .F-14 
Eiffel Tower F-6 



NDEX TO MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 

Irish Village F-ll 

Japanese Bazar — F-ll 




Electric Scenic Th'r.F-12 

Ferris Wheel F-6 

Fire & Guard Sta G-5 

Frenc i Cider Press.. G-5 

German Village F-8 

Hagenbeck AnimalsG-11 
Hung. Nat.Orpheum.G-2 

Ice Railway G-6 

Indian Bazar F-5 

Inter.Dress &Cos.Co.F-13 
Irish Industries G 14 



Javanese and South 
Sea Settlement. .G-10 

Lapland Village G-3 

Libhey Glass Co. . .F-12 

Moorish Palace G-7 

Natatorium G-9 

New England Log 

Cabin G-12 

Nursery Exhibit. . . .G-2 



Slam D-19 

Spain D-19f 

Sweden I 

Turkey E-17J 

Venezuela E-18 1 

Sou 



Pano. Bernese Alps . .G-9 
Pano. Volcano Kil- 

aueau F-5 

Persian Cone ssion . . F-7 

St. Peier G-5 

Turkish Village G-8 

Venice Murano Co . .G-ll 

Vienna Cafe F-5 

Workingman's 

Home F-14 

Zoopraxiscope I -7 




flil fi^J I c 



Cairo Street JIM (J, 

Indian!*] ,<f 

111 L|Wheel 
Austrian \\*\ , 




1 Administration. N-18 
Admissions and 
Collections udgl-15 
Agricult.Impl'tsO-2 3 

Agriculture 0-22 

Anthropological Q-25 
Army Hospital. H-19 
Art Galleries.... C-17 
Art Gall. E. An..C18 
Art Gall. W. An.C-15 
Australian Squa- 

ters' Hut K-17 

Band Stand 1-21. 

M-19.N-19 
Banquet Hall...K-19 

Badn M-20 

Blooker's Cocoa 

Wind mil 1 Q-23 

Buf.Bill'sAV'dW.K-1 .: 
Cafe de Marine E-17 
Carpenter Shop. Q 14 

Car Shops R-25 

Casino M-23 

Charging Station 

for Launches. 0-23 
Children s Bldg. G-15 
Chocol. Menier .N-18 

Choral Bldg J-15 

Clam Bake E-19 

Cliff Dwellers . . . 0.-24 

Coal Shed 

Cold Storage.... 0-15 

Colonnade P-21 

Columb. Foun.. N-19 
Combinatio > 

Booth 1-20, J-21 

Conv.LaRabida.K-23 
Crane Co 

Dairy Q-24 

Dairy Birns R-24 

Distiller v Exh...R-25 
Ducker HospitalG-14 

Dwelling S-24 

Electrio Foun's.M-19 
Electricity ....L-18 



7Tim 



ERAL INDE 



J 



Esquimaux Vill . A-14 
Ethnogvaph.Ex.O-24 
Ex. B'g&Barn..R-16 
Fire &G'rdSta.. E-19 

Fish ries F-18 

th " " 



Fish Storage Yd. K-19 

Fores ry Q-25 

FrenchBak'yEx.P-22 
French Colonies Q-24 

Gov. Plaza H-19 

Great Whi.eHorse 

Inn Q-22 

Green House 1-14 

Harbor ' -24 

Hiyward Rest..M-10 
Homeop.Headq.G-i4 
Horticulture ..1.-15 
Hunters' imp. K-17 
Hygeia Cooling 

Plant ...N-16 

I.C. 60th St. Sta.G-12 
i. C. So. P. Sta...A-13 
Indian School... 0-23 
Intraui.(El)RRSta 

F-1J, A-17.B-14, F-14 

J-14, M-15,0-10, P-21 



Izaak Walton's 

House D-18 

Jackson's House P-14 
Jap. Tea House. . E-17 

Ki chen R-14 

Krupp's GunExO-24 

Lagoon K-18 

Landscape Dpt .S-25 
Lextner Exh....P-24 
LifeSav. Sta....F-J9 
Lighthouse Exh F 19 

Log Cabin 23 

Loggers Camp .P-20 
London & Provin- 
cial Dairy Co. .P-22 
Lumber Yard. .Q-15 

Machinery P-19 

Mac'i. Annex . . P-17 
Mach. Shop and 

Boiler Honse.. Q-19 
Manitoba Exh. . . C-14 
Mnfrs.&Lib.ArtK-26 
Mer. Tail. Exh ..E-10 
Merck.tCo.,DrugF-14 
Mid. Plaisance ...F-6 

Mines L-17 

Model Sunday 



Music Hall L-22 

Naval Exh F-21 

Naval Observ'y..F-20 

News Stan. i K-21 

N. Y. Working- 
man's Homo . Q-21 

North Canal L-19 

North Inlet E-22 

North Loop G-18 

North Pond D-17 

N. VV. Pond B-14 

Obelisk P-21 

Office Elec. Dept P-20 

Oil House P-14 

Oil Industries... Q-19 
Oil 'lank Vault . S-26 
OldTmesDis Co.R-24 
Ore Mining Co..N-15 
Outs'd Exh. Ger.Q-21 
Mar h. Q-19 
Outside Exhibit 
Trans. Dept...K-14 

Pa nt Shop P-14 

Penn. RR. Exh..N-15 

Peristyle K-23 

Perron 0-17 

Photo Bldg J-14 

Pier L-26 

Polish Cfe E-18 

Power House... 
Pub.Comf. Bdg. E-15 

Puck G-15 

PumpH«.useP-£OS 

R.R. Depot 0-17 

Res aurant Forest 

King Q-24 

Rol.ingChair CoH-20 
Rose Garden... J-17 
Ruins of YucatanQ-24 
Russian Kiosk . .1-20 

Sawmill Q-19 

Service Building J-15 
Scales Office.... N-14 
Sewage Clean ing 

Works .1-25 

Signal Station. . .R-15 
Smith, Crimp & 

Eastman R-14 

Soda Pavilion.. E-20 

SouthCanal 0-2'^ 

School D-14 South Inlet N-24 

Mov. Sidewalk . .L-25 -south Loop 0-23 

k^LJL^U I 1 L*— 



SouthPond P-23 

S.S.Uap.Trau.Sta.M-15 
Statue Franklin .M-18i 
Stat of Republic . .L,-22 

Stock Exhibit R-20 

StockPavi.ion. . . .P-21 

Swedi h Rest E-17jiM_fe," 

Terminal R. R....O-16 
Terminal StationO-17 
Transportation. .L-16 
U.S.Bn'd W-h(A)R-15 



.... ji-zzsssqp 
)wney 'Woodi. 
>av..L-22 S4« 
ouses 
!)...R-19 
'sfor 

.Cases I 

&F)U-16 - 11 



U. S. Gov't 

Building. H-19 
U.S. Wind En. 

&P'mpCoN-15 
Vanderbilt 

RR.Exh..M-15 
VanHouten& 

Zoon H-20 
Walter Baker , 

&Co K-22 

W.M.Lowney WoodL 

Co'sPav..L-i 
Wan houses 

(l&C). 
Wareh 

Pack.Ca 

(D.E& 
W.C.E.B'rnc-14 
Weath.BurF-.9 
Wellington 

Catering 

Co M-23 

W. sting- 
house's 

Office ... Q-18 
Westinghouse 

Co'sSto'hR-16 
WhalingBark 

" Progr's"P-23 
White Star 

Line G-15 

Windmills. Q-23 
WdlawnPk 

Station... L-l 
Woman's 

Building. .F-15' 
Wooded 

Island J-17 

Yards of 

Buildings & 

Grounds. Q-17 





25 I ^ H 




Arkansas . . . 
California . . 

Colorado 

Connecticut 
Delaware ... 
Florida 



.B-15 
.D-15 
.D-14 
.B-18 
.B-17 
.B-15 






20 I 2J I 55 I 23 I 24 I 

INDEX TO STATE SITES AND BUILDINGS 

Idaho A-17 New Jersey??. B-17 A 

Illinois E-16 New York C-17 

Indiana D-15 North Dakota.B-15 

Iowa A-18 

Kansas A-15 

Kentucky B-16 

Louisiana B-15 

Maine B-18 

Maryland B-17 

MassachusettsB-17 

Michigan D-15 

Minnesota — B 15 

Missouri -16 

Montana A-16 

Nebraska B-15 

New Hamp.... B-18 



Ohio D-15 

Pennsylvania. B-16 
Rhode Island . B-17 
South Dakota. C-15 _ 
Tit's. Joint(Ariz., * 
N.Mex.,Okl )B-16 

Texas A-15 

Utah A-16 

Vermont B-18 

Virginia A-17 v 

Washington ..C-15 
West Virginia.B 16 
Wisconsin D-15 






lElertBTBTSta. Exh. "M^VU <&^$. 



Rand, McNally & Co.'s 

New Indexed 
Miniature Guide Map £ 

2 OF THB 

World's Columbian w 
Exposition 

XT 

Chicago, 1893. 



pPWfw 




CALENDAR OF THE EXPOSITION. 

Being a list of the principal events taking place on the several days men- 
tioned. These dates are subject to change by the Exposition 
authorities if necessity arises. 



May i. — Opening Ceremonies; Rose 
Show, Horticultural Building; the 
Thomas Orchestra, Music Hall; 
Dedication Montana State Build- 
ing; Dedication Woman's Build- 
ing at 2.30 p. m. 

May 2. — Banquet to the Duke of Vera- 
gua at Hotel Metropole, by Presi- 
dent Thomas W. Palmer; Inaugu- 
ral Concert, Music Hall. 

May 3. — Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 4. — Utah Dedication. 

May 5. — Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 6. — Public Reception for the 
Duke of Veragua and brother, 
Marquis de Barboles, in Adminis- 
tration Building; Orchestral Con- 
cert, Music Hall; first exhibition 
of Electric Fountain. 

May 8. — Unveiling of Montana's Sil- 
ver Statue. 

May 9. — Catholic Knights of America; 
Orchid Show, Horticultural Build- 
ing; Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 10. — Vermont Day; Travelers' 
Protective Association. 

May 12. — Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 15. — Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra, Music Hall; Woman's Prog- 
ress Congress, Art Institute; first 
day of Congresses of Education, 
Industry, Literature, and Art; 
Moral and Social Reform; Phil- 
anthropy and Charity; Civil Law 
and Government and Religion. 



May 18. — Dedication Illinois and 
Washington State Buildings. 

May 19. — New York Symphony Or- 
chestra Concert, Music Hall. 

May 20. — Closing day for Entries 
for Dog Show; New York Sym- 
phony Orchestra Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 22. — Kneisel Quartette Concert, 
Festival Hall; commencement of 
Congresses of the Public Press, 
Public Health, Religious Press, 
Trade Journals; Address by Clara 
Morris, on "Women on the Stage"; 
Orchestral Concert, continuing to 
June 30th; concerts in Music Hall 
by Sousa's great band. 

May 23. — Wisconsin, forty-fifth anni- 
versary of admission into state- 
hood; Kneisel Quartette Concert, 
Festival Hall; Orchestral Con- 
cert, Music Hall. 

May 24. — Maine Day; Kneisel Quar- 
tette, Festival Hall; Apollo Club 
Concert. 

May 25. — Kneisel Quartette, Festival 
Hall; Chicago Apollo Club, Festi- 
val Hall. 

May 26. — Exposition Children's 
Chorus, 1,400 voices, Festival 
Hall; Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 27. — Wagner Concert, Festival 
Hall; Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

May 29. — Congress Medicine and Sur- 
gery, Music Hall. 

May 30. — Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 



May 16. — Boston Symphony Orches- Junei. — Dedication of Kentucky State 

tra, Music Hall; Woman's Prog- Building; opening of Steele Mac- 

ress Congress, continuing two kaye's Spectatorium ; preliminary 

weeks; National Editorial Asso- hearing of Sons of Temperance 

ciation Convention. to be held. 

May 17. — Washington Day; Norway Junes. — Commencing to-day and con- 
Day, tinuing for seven days, a Russian 

(10) 



CALENDAR OF THE EXPOSITION. 



11 



Choir will give concerts in Festi- 
val Hall, under the direction of 
Madame Eugenie Lineff; Den- 
mark, new constitution granted 
by King Frederick VII., 1849; first 
day Temperance Congress, con- 
tinuing one month; Sportsmen's 
Contest; Nebraska Fete Day. 

June 7. — Eastern Choral Societies' 
Festival, Festival Hall. 

June 8. — Nebraska Day; Eastern 
Choral Societies' Festival; Pri- 
mary Congress of Charity and 
Philanthropy. 

June 9. — Orchestral Concert, Music 
Hall. 

June 10. — Travelers' Protective Asso- 
ciation. 

June 12. — Commencement Moral and 
Social Reform Congress; General 
Congress Charity and Philan- 
thropy; Max Bendix String Quar- 
tette, Recital Hall. 

June 13. — Max Bendix String Quar- 
tette, Recital Hall. 

June 14. — Handel's " Messiah," Music 
Hall; France Day. 

June 15. — Germany, ascension of em- 
peror to throne. 

June 16. — Bach's " Passion," Music 
Hall. 

June 17. — Massachusetts Day. 

June 19. — Indianapolis Choral Festi- 
val Association, Festival Hall; 
Congress Bankers and Financiers; 
Boards of Trade; Railway Com- 
merce; Building Association and 
Insurance Congresses of all de- 
scriptions. 

June 20. — North Dakota Day; St. Paul 
and Minneapolis Choral Associa- 
tion, Music Hall. 

June 21. — New Hampshire, on that 
day of the year 1788, voted to rat- 
ify the Constitution; Western 
Choral Societies, Festival Hall; 
Women's Amateur Musical Clubs, 
Music Hall, lasting until the 24th. 

June 22. — Western Choral Societies, 
Festival Hall. 

June 23. — Sweden (Swedish Midsom- 
marafton); Western Choral Socie- 
ties, Festival Hall. 

June 24. — Cincinnati Festival Associa- 
tion, Music Hall; midsummer 
afternoon. 

June 27. — Arion Society Concert, 
Music Hall. 



June 28. — Handel's" Messiah," Music 
Hall. 

June 29. — Millers' Day. 

June 30. — Bach's " Passion," Music 
Hall. 

July 1. — National Congress of Social- 
ists. 

July 3. — Commencement of Musical 
Congress. 

July 4. — Calladium Show, Horticult- 
ural Building. 

July 7. — New York Liederkranz Con- 
cert, Music Hall. 

July 8. — New York Liederkranz Con- 
cert, Music Hall; International 
Congress of Brewers. 

July 10. — New York Liederkranz Con- 
cert, Music Hall; commencement 
Literary Congress. 

July 11. — Concert by Cleveland Vocal 
Society, Music Hall. 

July 12. — Western Choral Association, 
Festival Hall. 

July 13. — Confectioners' Day; Western 
Choral Association, Festival Hall. 

July 14. — France Fete Day; Western 
Choral Association, Festival Hall. 

July 15. — Concert by Junger Maen- 
nerchor (Philadelphia), Music 
Hall. 

July 17. — The Congress of Stenog- 
raphers; commencement of Edu- 
cational Congress; Youths' Con- 
gress, lasting three half -days. 

July 20. — Colombian Anniversary of 
Independence of Colombia; Col- 
lege Fraternities meet; Swedish 
Societies' Concerts, Festival Hall. 

July 21. — Swedish Concert, Festival 
Hall. 

July 22. — Swedish Concert, Festival 
Hall. 

July 24. — Utah Day, the First Mor- 
mon pioneers marched into the 
valley; gathering of Commercial 
Travelers' Association. 

July 26. — Liberia, forty-seventh anni- 
versary of the establishment of 
the free republic; Commercial 
Travelers' Grand Concert, Festi- 
val Hall. 

July 27. — Turner Bund; Scandinavian 
Concert, Festival Hall. 

July 28. — Scandinavian Concert, Fes- 
tival Hall. 

July 31 to August 6. — The Scottish 
Days; commencement of Con- 
gress of Engineers, also Art and 



12 



CALENDAR OF THE EXPOSITION. 



Architecture, etc.; Congress of 
Photographers, lasting until Octo- 
ber 5th. 

August i. — Fete Day, New South 
Wales; Constitution Day; the 
band of the Guarde Republique 
of Paris will give concerts every 
other day throughout this month 
in Festival Hall. 

August 2. — National Union. 

August 7. — Commencement of Con- 
gresses of Government, Law 
Reform, Political Science, etc.; 
Inventors, lasting one week. 

August 9. — Knights of Pythias; Vir- 
ginia State Day; Angling Tourna- 
ment, lasting twelve days. 

August 12. — Independent Order of 
Foresters. 

August 14. — Commencement General 
Congress; also Africa and her 
people; Dental, Pharmaceutical, 
Medical Jurisprudence, Horticult- 
ure Congresses. 

August 16. — Haiti. 

August 18. — North Carolina, in honor 
of Virginia Dare's memory, the 
first white child born on American 
soil; Austria Fete Day, anniver- 
sary birth of Emperor Francis 
Joseph. 

August 21. — Cattle and Horse Show 
to September 21st; commence- 
ment Congress of Science and 
Philosophy. 

August 25. — Colored People Fete Day, 
continuing until September 25th; 
a Parliament of Religion. 

August 28. — Commencement of He- 
brew Religious Congress; also 
Labor and Economic Science 
Congresses. 

August 31. — Netherlands Fete Day; 
thirteenth anniversary of corona- 
tion of queen. 

September 1. — Nicaragua. 

September 2. — Catholic Educational 
Day. 

September 4.— New York Fete Day; 
commencement of Religious and 
Mission Congress to be held in the 
different churches in Chicago. 

September 5. — Continuing until the 
following Friday, the Jewish 
Women's Congress; Catholic Con- 
gress, continuing until the 9th. 

September 7. — Brazil Fete Day; Anni- 
versary of Independence. 



September 9. — California Day ; admis- 
sion of State to Union Anniver- 
sary. 

September 11. — Beginning September 
nth, concerts under the direction 
of Doctor Mackinzie, extending 
over a period of two weeks; 
commencement of Religious Con- 
gress. 

September 12. — Maryland Fete Day. 

September 13. — Michigan Fete Days, 
extending to the 15th. 

September 14. — Meeting of Amateur 
Athletic Club, continuing for three 
days; Handicap Athletic Field 
Games. 

September 15. — Kansas Fete Day; 
Convention of Theosophists; Mex- 
ico Fete Day; Amateur Athletic 
Club; team contests; Costa Rica 
Fete Day. 

September 16. — New Mexico Fete 
Day; Convention of Theosophists; 
Amateur Athletic Club ; Track and 
Field Meeting. 

September 18. — Nevada. 

September 19. — Colorado Fete Day; 
Dog Show. 

September 20.— Montana Fete Day; 
Patriotic Order Sons of America. 

September 21. — Iowa Fete Day. 

September 25; — Sheep and Swine 
Show to October 14th; continuing 
for three weeks from this date, 
concerts under the direction of 
Mr. Saint-Saens. 

September 28. — Commencement of 
Sunday Rest Congress; com- 
mencement of Mission Congress, 
continuing until October 5th. 

October 1. — Sunday, Missionary Day. 

October 5. — Rhode Island ^ete Day. 

October 9. — Virginia Fete „y. 

October n. — Connecticut i -:e Day. 

October 12. — Spain discoveied Amer- 
ica 1492; Italian Societies; four 
hundred and first anniversary 
Columbus' landing; first day 
Public Health Congress. 

October 13. — Minnesota, date the Con- 
stitution was adopted; Congress 
Public Health. 

October 16. — Poultry, Pigeons, and 
Pet Stock Show to October 28th; 
Fat Stock to October 28th; first 
day Agricultural Congress. 

October 25 — Homing Pigeon Contest, 
extending through October. 



Hand-book of the World's Columbian 
Exposition. 



CHAPTER I. 
CHICAGO— DEPOTS AND DOWN-TOWN HOTELS. 



(whose inspection of the wonders of 
the World's Fair will be necessarily 
as superficial as his time is short) the 
Central Railroad Depot of the World's 
Columbian Exposition will necessarily 
be the main objective point. No mat- 
ter by what line he travels, a mar- 
velous system of tracks will convey 
him to the point he aims to reach. 
For the majority of visitors, whose 
stay in the Garden City will be of 
a week's duration at least, the ter- 
minal railway depots of the city will 
be the spots where Chicago first greets 
them. 

Two hundred and sixty-two through 
express and mail trains arrive in or 
leave Chicago each day. In the same 
period 660 local, suburban, or accom- 
modation trains arrive or depart; 274 
merchandise trains, and 164 grain, 
stock, and lumber trains reaching Chi- 
cago or leaving it in every twenty- 
four hours; thus making a grand 
total of 1,360 as the average daily 
movement of all classes of trains, an 
aggregate reached by no other city 
in the universe. 

Seven terminal depots accommo- 
date the trains of thirty-five different 
companies, and about one hundred 
way-stations within the city limits 
provide for the convenience of local 
passengers. 

The Union Depot, Canal and Ad- 
ams streets, used by the Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago, the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, Chicago, 
) 




m a recent 
magazine article, 
' ' will be the 
main exhibit of 
the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposi- 
tion." And reit- 
erating this, a 
noted English 
journalist ex- 
claims: " She is 
one of the won- 
ders of the 
world." In trans- 
portation facili- 
ties alone the 
World's Fair 
City would make a singularly sub- 
stantial showing. Puny indeed ap- 
pear the cities of the entire civilized 
world when compared with one 
wherein thirty-seven railroads, with 
an aggregate of 76,865 miles of track, 
center and discharge passengers; 
wherein any of the 88,000,000 of in- 
habitants of an entire continent of 
8,000,000 square miles can, without a 
single change of cars, be safely landed 
in the heart of the city, or at the very 
gates of the Columbian Exposition 
itself, over a system of railroads with- 
out equal and beyond comparison. 
For the excursionist of a singie day 

(13 



14 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Milwaukee & St. Paul, and other rail- 
roads; the depot of the Michigan 
Southern and Rock Island roads, Van 
Buren Street; that of the Chicago & 
North - Western, Wells and Kinzie 
streets; the Dearborn Station, Dear- 
born and Polk streets, and the Grand 
Central Depot, are among the most 
prominent buildings in the city. 

The first named is one of the finest 
railroad depots in the world. Front- 
ing on Canal Street, and extending 
from West Madison Street to West 
Adams Street, a distance of 1,200 
feet, it occupies four entire blocks. 
Alighting under cover, passengers en- 
ter the lofty, commodious, and richly- 
decorated ticket -office, from which 
they pass either to the platforms or 
to any of the waiting-rooms, retiring- 
rooms, or restaurants with which this 
model depot is provided. 

Baggage and Baggage-Checking 
on Incoming Trains. — One of the prin- 
cipal cares of the visitor is the safe 
delivery of his impedimenta, be they 
gripsacks or great boxes, and in this 
respect an excellent system of bag- 
gage-checking is in vogue in Chi- 
cago. 

If you do not expect to make a very 
long visit, try to get along without 
bringing a trunk, or other baggage 
that has to be checked. Put what 
you need to wear, besides the clothes 
you have on, into a bag or small va- 
lise, and carry it with you into the 
car in which you travel. It will save 
you a great deal of trouble and annoy- 
ance, as no one depot baggage-room 
in Chicago is large enough to hold all 
the trunks which will have to be han- 
dled each day; and unless the passen- 
ger is able to claim his baggage as 
soon as it arrives at Chicago, by the 
train upon which he travels, it will 
probably have to be looked for at a 
conveniently located warehouse, not 
far from the depot. If, therefore, you 
do not find your trunk at the station 
baggage-room when you apply for it, 
you will surely be informed by the 
baggage-man at what place it can be 
easily found, and by surrendering your 
" duplicate baggage-check," so called, 
and paying a small fee for its care, 
there will be no delay in its delivery 
to you, or to the authorized agents 



of Parmelee's Omnibus & Baggage 
TransferCo. This transfer company 
is a responsible one, and its agents 
go out from Chicago, meet all incom- 
ing trains, and will deliver your bag- 
gage to any place within reasonable 
distance in the city for 50 cents per 
trunk; and you can safely surrender 
your baggage-checks to such agents, 
receiving their " claim checks " in ex- 
change. If you do not know, before 
you arrive in Chicago, where you are 
going to stay, hold on to your checks, 
and after you have located yourself 
call at the office of the Parmelee Com- 
pany, at 132 Adams Street — near the 
post office — and there make arrange- 
ments for the prompt delivery of your 
baggage. Don't trust your checks 
with unauthorized individuals. When 
you desire to return home, go again 
to 132 Adams Street and arrange to 
have your baggage sent for. Pay 
no attention to "runners "or solicit- 
ors for second-rate hotels and board- 
ing-houses who may be on the out- 
side of the Chicago depots awaiting 
the arrival of trains. Say " No," and 
walk quickly along until you are out 
of their reach. Don't let them take 
hold of your hand-baggage, and do 
not be persuaded to do anything by 
their eloquence. They are harmless 
but persistent individuals, and if the)^ 
perceive you know your business and 
pay no attention to them will soon let 
you alone, and in less than a minute 
you will be clear of even the sound 
of their voices. 

If you want to know anything while 
walking the streets of Chicago ask 
questions of the nearest, uniformed 
policeman. There is one or more on 
every corner, or in that vicinity. He 
is paid to be a fountain of knowl- 
edge, and you can rely upon his knowl- 
edge of locations, street-car lines, etc. 

Street-car fares in Chicago are five 
(5) cents per passenger. 

Omnibus fares to hotels are fifty (50) 
cents per passenger. 

Hack or cab fares are as follows: 

Two-Horse Hacks. — One passen- 
ger, not exceeding one mile, $1.00; 
one passenger, not exceeding two 
miles, $1.50; each additional passen- 
ger, 50 cents. 

Hansom or Cab.— One or two 



DEPO TS AND DO WN- TO WN HO TELS. 



15 



passengers, one mile, 50 cents; each 
additional passenger, one mile, 25 
cents; one or two passengers, per 
hour, 75 cents. 

Where to Stay in Chicago.— The 
visitor to the World's Columbian Ex- 
position will have the choice of three 
ways of living during his stay: 

1. Taking rooms, with or without 
board, at some one of the many ho- 
tels in or near the business part of 
the city, and going by rail or boat to 
the Fair each day. 

2. Living at one of the hotels, 
clubs, or boarding-houses near the 
grounds. 

3. Obtaining rooms through the 
Bureau of Public Comfort, and eating 
at restaurants in the Fair. 

THE HOTELS OF CHICAGO. 

Palatial in appearance, luxurious 
in surroundings, the ,1,400 hotels of 
the Garden City are well able to care 
for all of the myriad visitors flocking 
to the Columbian Exposition. 

Located in every conceivable quar- 
ter of the city itself or in close prox- 
imity to the World's Fair grounds, a 
complete or even partial enumeration 
of them would require more space 
than the limits of a guide to the Ex- 
position could in justice afford. 

It may be sufficient for the purpose 
of the present work to briefly state the 
hotel capacity of Chicago, to enu- 
merate a few of the principal hostel- 
ries and their location and rates, and 
refer the traveler in quest of further 
information to the pages of the city 
directory or the efficient assistance 
of the Bureau of Public Comfort, con- 
ducted, for the benefit of all visitors 
to the city or Exposition, by the 
World's Columbian Exposition itself. 

At the Centennial and Paris Expo- 
sitions hundreds walked the streets 
or slept in the parks, but they were 
the careless and improvident ones, 
who came without having previously 
attempted to secure accommodations. 

While there is little chance for any 
such fate in Chicago, the Exposition 
authorities have been most careful of 
the welfare and comfort of visitors. 
They have created an official Bureau 
of Public Comfort for the purpose 
of contributing, as far as possible, to 



the wants and comfort of expected 
visitors. The most ample provisions 
have been made for food and refresh- 
ments wit kin the Exposition grounds, 
fully detailed in the pages descrip- 
tive of the Fair itself; but prima- 
rily the duty of this bureau was to 
organize a hotel and rooming depart- 
ment, so as to secure suitable and de- 
sirable lodging accommodations at 
fair and suitable rates for all who 
should apply. 

As the bureau has already accommo- 
dations for 30,000 visitors on its reg- 
isters, tourists who do not desire hotel 
accommodations can do no better than 
to address their inquiries to Mr. W. 
Marsh Kasson, Chief of the Bureau of 
Public Comfort, Room 509 Rand- 
McNally Building, Chicago. 

Prices of rooms with board: 

PER DAY. 

Single room, single bed, one per- 
son $1.35 

Double room, double bed, one 

person 2.12 

Double room, double bed, two 

persons 2.70 

Double bedded room, two double 

beds, two or three persons 3. 50 

Double bedded room, two double 

beds, three persons 4.15 

Double bedded room, two double 

beds, four persons 5.50 

Hotels. — The following list is fairly 
representative of the hotels in the 
heart of the city: 

Atlantic Hotel (American), Van Bu- 
ren and Sherman streets. Rates $2 
to $4. 

Auditorium Hotel (American), Con- 
gress Street and Michigan Avenue. 
Rates $5 to $20. 

Briggs House (American), Ran- 
dolph Street and Fifth Avenue. Rates 
$2.50 to $3.50. 

Brunswick Hotel (American), Adams 
Street and Michigan Avenue. Rates 
$2.50 to $4. 

Burke's Hotel (European), 140-142 
Madison Street. Rates $1 to $2.50. 

Clifton House (American), Wabash 
Avenue and Monroe Street. Rates 
$2. 50 to $3. 50. 

Gault House (American), Madison 
and Clinton streets. Rates $2 to $3. 

Gore's Hotel (European), 266-274 
Clark Street. Rates $1 to $3. 



re 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Granada Hotel (European and 
American), Rush and Ohio streets. 
(Private and high priced.) 

Grand Pacific Hotel (American and 
European), Clark and Jackson streets. 
Rates $3 to $15. 

Grand Union Hotel (European), 148- 
156 Dearborn Street. Rates $1 to 
$2.50. 

Great Northern Hotel (European), 
Jackson and Dearborn streets. Rates 
$2 to $8. 

Hotel Brevoort (European), 143-145 
Madison Street. Rates $1 to $3. 

Hotel Imperial (European), Twelfth 
Street and Michigan Avenue. Rates 
$3 to $15. 

Leland Hotel (American), Michigan 
Avenue and Jackson Street. Rates 
$3 to $10. 

McCoy's Hotel (European), Van Bu- 
ren and Clark streets. Rates $1 to $3. 

Marquette Hotel (European), Ad- 
ams and Dearborn streets. Rates $1 
to $3. 

Palmer House (American), Monroe 
and State streets. Rates $3 to $15. 

Revere House (American), Clark 
and Michigan streets. Rates $2.50 to 
$4. 

Richelieu Hotel (European), Mich- 
igan Avenue near Jackson Street. 
Rates $3 to $17. 

Saratoga Hotel (European), 155-161 
Dearborn Street. Rate $1. 

Sherman House (American), Clark 
and Randolph streets. Rates $3.50 
to $6. 

Tremont House (American), Lake 
and Dearborn streets. Rates $3 to $5. 

Victoria Hotel (American), Van Bu- 
ren Street and Michigan Avenue. 
Rates $4 to $8. 

Virginia Hotel (American), Rush 
and Ohio streets. (Private and high- 
priced.) 

Wellington Hotel (European), Wa- 
bash Avenue and Jackson Street. 
Rates $3 to $15. 

Windsor Hotel (European), 145-153 
Dearborn Street. Rates $1 to $2.50. 

In the World's Fair district and 
along the boulevards leading to the 
Exposition very many handsome ho- 
tels are in operation, with scores in 
close proximity to the World's Fair 
grounds. 

As regards all hotels the only safe 



plan is to secure accommodations in 
advance, and before leaving for Chi- 
cago. The characteristics of and 
many interesting data concerning Chi- 
cago's noted hostelries will be found 
more fully dwelt upon in the ' ' Handy 
Guide to Chicago," issued by the pub- 
lishers of this guide. 

The hotels outside the business dis- 
trict, along the road to or in close prox- 
imity to the World's Fair grounds, 
will accommodate 50,000 visitors or 
more without overcrowding. 

Furnished Rooms. — Private lodg- 
ings, or "furnished rooms," as the 
Chicago phrase goes, are preferred to 
a hotel by many persons, and in some 
respects are to be recommended. A 
list of advertisements is to be found 
in any of the daily papers, while an 
advertisement inserted by any vis- 
itor will produce a host of replies, 
from which selection can be made af- 
ter inspection and discussion of terms; 
or, better still, an application to the 
Bureau of Public Comfort, Room 509 
Rand-McNally Building, will secure 
accommodations reliable in every re- 
spect, and officially inspected and ap- 
proved of by the bureau's officers. 
This is by far the best method to pur- 
sue. 

Boarding-Houses. — These are to be 
obtained in the same manner as fur- 
nished rooms. The prices vary from 
$6 for the cheapest to six times that 
amount per week, according to loca- 
tion, cuisine, and accommodations. 
They number over 15,000. 

Baths. — At every hotel and in all 
of the large barber-shops in Chicago 
a bath may be obtained, either hot, 
or cold, or shower, with soap and tow- 
els, uniform price 25 cents. Russian 
and Turkish baths are numerous. 
Four natatoriums, one at 504 West 
Madison Street, another at 408 North 
Clark Street, a third at 2327 Wabash 
Avenue, and the fourth on the Mid- 
way Plaisance, afford the swimmer 
an opportunity of essaying in pure 
Lake Michigan water. 

Restaurants. — Sleeping accommo- 
dations being satisfactorily disposed 
of, the next and most natural inquiry 
will be for eating-houses or restau- 
rants. 

General Restaurants. — Few cities 



DEPOTS AND DO IVN-TO WN HOTELS. 



1? 



in the world are better supplied with 
restaurants and eating-houses of ev- 
ery kind than Chicago, and a very- 
large number of the city's inhabitants 
live wholly at them. One thousand 
and over in number, they are to be 
found in every street of the city, and 
vary from the grandeur and excellence 
of cuisine to be found at the Rich- 
elieu, Northern, Auditorium, or Kins- 
ley's (105 Adams Street) to the 5-cent 
"beaneries" of savory South Clark 
Street. The restaurants of the prin- 
cipal hotels are good and reliable; 
besides these, Chapin & Gore's, 73 
Monroe Street; Burke's, 336 Clark 
Street; The Saratoga, 155 Dearborn 
Street; The Lakeside, southwest cor- 
ner of Clark and Adams streets; Kohl- 
saat's, 196 Clark Street, 59 Wash- 
ington Street, 324 Dearborn and 83 
Lake streets; The Grand Pacific, 240 
Clark Street; The American, south- 
east corner of State and Adams 
streets, and the Columbia Lunch 
Room, 148 Monroe Street, are worthy 
of a visit and excellent in fare. 

Oyster Saloons are common every- 
where, the most prominent of which 
are Rector's Oyster House, Dearborn 
and Monroe streets, and Adams 
Street between Wabash Avenue and 
State Street, the Boston Oyster 
House, 120 Madison Street, and The 
Lakeside, Clark and Adams streets. 

Ladies are not supposed to go to the 
chop-houses. Their favorite luncheon 
places, when shopping, are at the mag- 
nificent restaurants provided in the 
great department stores. Especially 
favored by the fair sex are the res- 
taurants provided in Marshall Field 
& Co.'s, State Street; Mandel's, State 
Street; Carson-Pirie's, State Street, 
corner of Washington ; The Fair, State 
and Adams streets, andSiegel, Cooper 
& Co.'s, State Street, corner of Con- 
gress. Many restaurants especially 
reserve seats for ladies, and so an- 
nounce on signs at their doors. 

The following list of restaurants 
will be of use to the visitor: 

American Oyster House and Res- 
taurant, State and Adams streets. 

Ashland Restaurant, Randolph and 
Clark streets. 

Baldwin's Restaurant, 125 Fifth 
Avenue. 
2 



Boston Oyster House and Restau- 
rant, Madison and Clark streets. 

Chicago Oyster House and Restau- 
rant, 140—142 Madison Street. 

Chicago Restaurant, 176 Adams 
Street. 

Henrici's restaurants, 175 Madison 
Street and 208 Dearborn Street. 

Kern's Restaurant and Oyster 
House, 108-110 La Salle Street. 

Kinsley's Restaurant and Cafe, 105- 
107 Adams Street. 

Lafayette Restaurant (table d'hote), 
112 Monroe Street. 

Lakeside Restaurant, Clark and Ad- 
ams streets. 

Milan & Co.'s Restaurant, in Mad- 
ison Street. 

Peacock Annex Cafe and Restau- 
rant, 114 Madison Street. 

Rector's Oyster House, Monroe and 
Clark streets. 

Rector's Restaurant, 35 Adams 
Street. 

Restaurant Francais (table d'hote), 
77 Clark Street. 

Rome Cafe (table d'hote), 14S Jack- 
son Street. 

Saratoga Restaurant, 155 Dearborn 
Street. 

Schiller Cafe* and Restaurant, 105- 
107 Randolph Street. 

Schlogl's Cafe, 109 Fifth Avenue. 

Tacoma Restaurant, Madison and 
La Salle streets. 

The Frogs, Restaurant and Cafe", 
126 Clark Street. 

Thomson's Restaurant, 145 - 153 
Dearborn Street. 

Places of Amusement. — While the 
varied sights of the vast ' ' White City" 
(as an author has prettily termed 
the World's Fair buildings) will occupy 
much of the sight-seer's leisure, it is 
to be reasonably expected that the 
local Temples of Thespis will have 
some attraction for the majority, oc- 
cupied as their boards are by the best 
companies and the brightest of com- 
edians. The subjoined list of the the- 
aters and places of amusement will 
therefore be of service: 

Academy of Music (Jacobs'), 83 
South Halsted Street. 

Alhambra (Jacobs'), 1920 State 
Street. 

Auditorium, Wabash Avenue and 
Congress Street. 



18 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Barlow's Pavilion, Twenty -first 
Street and Archer Avenue. 

Buffalo Bill's Wild West, Sixty- 
third Street, near the World's Fair. 

Casino, 227 Wabash Avenue. 

Central Music Hall, State and Ran- 
dolph streets. 

Chicago Opera House, Washington 
and Clark streets. 

Chickering Music Hall, 241 Wabash 
Avenue. 

Clark Street Theater (Jacobs'), North 
Clark and Kinzie streets. 

Columbia, 10S Monroe Street. 

Criterion, Sedgwick and Division 
streets. 

Engel's Pavilion, 463 North Clark 
Street. 

Epstean's Dime Museum, in Ran- 
dolph Street. 

Fisher's Garden, north end of Lin- 
coln Park and Diversey Avenue. 

Grand Opera House, S7 Clark 
Street. 

Hardy's Subterranean Palace, Wa- 
bash Avenue, between Sixteenth and 
Eighteenth streets. 

Havlin's, 1836 Wabash Avenue. 

Haymarket, 169 West Madison 
Street. 

Hooley's, 149 Randolph Street. 

John Brown's Fort, 1341 Wabash 
Avenue. 

Kimball's Music Hall, 247 Wabash 
Avenue. 

Kohl & Middleton's Clark Street 
Dime Museum, 150 Clark Street. 

Kohl & Middleton's State Street 
Dime Museum, 294 State Street. 

Last Days of Pompeii, Cottage 
Grove Avenue and Sixty-first Street. 

Libby Prison, Wabash Avenue, be- 
tween Fourteenth and Sixteenth 
streets. 

Lyceum, Desplaines Street, between 
Madison and Washington streets. 

Madison Street Theater, 85 Madison 
Street. 



Marlowe Opera House, Sixty-third 
Street and Stewart Avenue. 

Mystic Labyrinth, Congress Street, 
near Elevated Railroad. 

McVicker's, 82 Madison Street. 

Olympic, 51 Clark Street. 

Panorama, Battle of Gettysburg, 
401 Wabash Avenue. 

Panorama, Chicago Fire, 130 Michi- 
gan Avenue. 

Panorama, Jerusalem and the Cruci- 
fixion, 402 Wabash Avenue. 

People's, 339 State Street. 

Schiller, Randolph Street, between 
Clark and Dearborn streets. 

Standard, Halsted and Jackson 
streets. 

Steele Mackaye's Spectatorium, 
Fifty-sixth Street and Evarts Avenue, 
near World's Fair. 

Trocadero, Michigan Avenue and 
Adams Street. 

Uncle Tom's Cabin, in Libby Prison. 

Waverly, West Madison Street, be- 
tween Loomis and Throop streets. 

Windsor Theater, North Clark 
Street, near Division Street. 

For any more extended particulars 
as to the World's Fair City the visitor 
is referred to Rand, McNally & Co.'s 
" Handy Guide to Chicago," " Bird's- 
eye Views and Guide to Chicago," 
" A Week in Chicago," or other sim- 
ilar guides to the city itself. The 
requirements of the Fair prevent any 
more lengthy reference to matters 
outside of the Exposition itself. The 
parks and boulevards are well worth 
a visit; their verdant lawns and cool 
green groves will be found fully de- 
scribed in the above-mentioned books; 
while for the huge office-buildings, 
familiarly called "sky-scrapers," or 
for general wanderings around the 
city, reference may well be had to the 
"Street Number Guide to Chicago," 
also issued by the publishers of this 
book. 



CHAPTER II. 



HISTORY OF THE EXPOSITION. 




/-»-* HE His- 1S89, 

^K* tor y of loot 

£m£ the World's and 
yJIv Columbian with 



Exposition. 

— Hardly 
necessary- 
does it seem, 
in present- 
ing a brief 
resume" of 
the events 
which led to 
the loca- 
tion of 
World's 



the formation of a committee of 

to secure the Fair for Chicago, 

the chartering of a corporation 

alike intent in August of 1889, 

we find that the real contest began in 

December of that year, when Senator 

Cullom introduced the World's Fair 

Bill in the United States Senate. 

Keen was the contest for the honor 
of the site ; the debate at times rang- 
ing from the acrimonious to the ridic- 
ulous. 

Cumberland Gap was suggested 

and voted for by one enthusiastic or 

the waggish representative, but the real 

Co- contest lay between Chicago and New 

York. " 



lumbian Ex- York. Ultimately, on the 24th of Feb- 

position at ruary, 1890, Congress definitely ac- 

Chicago, to corded the honor of inviting the world 

proceed historically from the begin- as guests to the " Phoenix City of the 



nmg. The densest intellect will 
readily have grasped the fact that 
the " White City " is erected in honor 
of the 400th anniversary of the dis- 
covery of this continent by Christo- 
pher Columbus. 

Just as many cities contended for 
the honor of Homer's birthplace, and 
as more than one does for Columbus' 
birth or bones, so many claimants 
have arisen for the distinction of 
first conceiving the idea of a quadri- 
centennial celebration of the grand- 
est and most accidental discovery 
the world's annals will ever record. 

Leaving contestants and claimants 
to settle their own differences, it may 
be safely stated that the first recorded 
and concerted formal action is to be 
found in a resolution of the Directory 
of the Interstate Exposition at Chi- 
cago on the iSth of November, 1885. 

Passing by in rapid review the New 
England organization of 18S6, Sena- 
tor Hoar's resolution of 31st of July 
in that year, in the interest of an 
exposition at Washington, D. C, and 
a similar resolution of the City Coun- 
cil of Chicago on the 226. of July, 



Great Lakes. 



31 



# 




Director-General G. R. Davis. 

On July 2, 1890, the present site of 
the World's Columbian Exposition 
was selected by the Directory and 
approved by the National Commis- 
sion, but the World's Fair can not be 
said to have been actually under way 
until the beginning of the following 
year. In January, 1891, the Exposi- 
tion headquarters were formally 
opened in the Rand-McNally Build- 
ing; the Department of Publicity and 
Promotion was organized, and at once 



(19) 



2D 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



began telling the whole newspaper- 
reading earth about the World's Fair 
that was to be. The Hon. George 
R. Davis was elected Director-Gen- 
eral on September 19, 1890, and on 
the 20th of the following month Mrs. 
Potter Palmer was chosen as the pres- 
ident of the Board of Lady Managers. 

Construction work began on the 
2d of July, 1 891, the Mines Building 
having the place of honor in this re- 
spect. The dedication of the build- 
ings, a ceremonial so impressively 
grand as to be without equal and be- 
yond comparison, took place October 
2i, 1S92, in the vast Manufactures 
and Liberal Arts Building. 

A brief statement of the financial 
expenditures and resources of the 
Exposition is not only of interest, but 
marvelous in the magnitude of its 
amounts. To secure the coveted dis- 
tinction, Chicago was required to fur- 
nish a site which should be acceptable 
to the National Commission (repre- 
senting every State and Territory in 
the Union) and $10,000,000. Unhesi- 
tatingly she pledged herself to the gi- 
gantic undertaking, and has faithfully 
and fully kept her promise. To con- 
vey something of an impression of 
the magnitude of the enterprise, the 
accompanying estimate of cost of con- 
struction, etc., made by the Way sand 
Means Committee, is given: 

Grading, filling, etc $ 450.400 

Landscape gardening... . . 323,490 

Viaducts and bridges 125,000 

Piers 70,000 

Water-way improvements. 225,000 

Railways 500,000 

Steam plant Soo,ooo 

Electricity ... 1,500,000 

Statuary on buildings 100,000 

Vases, lamps, and posts 50,000 

Seating 8,000 

Water supply, sewerage, 

etc 600,000 

Improvement of lake front 200,000 

World's Congress Auxiliary 200,000 
Construction Department 

expenses, fuel, etc. 520,000 

Organization and adminis- 
tration 3-308,563 

Operating expenses 1 ,550,000 

$10,530,453 



When the $8,000,000 estimated as 
the cost of the main buildings are 
added to this, the sum total is $18,- 
530,453; subsequent additions to the 
plan of construction will bring the to- 
tal cost of the Exposition to an amount 
exceeding $22,000,000. 

The Site of the World's Fair.— 
Concerning the site, no difference of 
opinion or criticism is possible. Noth- 
ing approaching it in beauty or extent 
was ever offered to any previous ex- 
position. Stretching 2% miles from 
the point nearest the city to the 
southern extremity of Jackson Park, 
it comprises some seven hundred 
acres. Along the entire front lies Lake 
Michigan, the loveliest of the Great 
Lakes, the most beautiful body of 
fresh water in the world. In the back- 
ground semicircle the trees, the ver- 
dure, and bloom of the vast South 
Park system. This beautiful location 
is within easy distance of the busi- 
ness portion of Chicago, and is 
accessible by means of the most com- 
plete transportation facilities. Jack- 
son Park has a frontage on Lake Mich- 
igan of 1 % miles, and contains 600 
acres of ground. This Midway Plai- 
sance, which forms the connecting 
link between Jackson and Washing- 
ton parks, is one mile long and 600 
feet wide, making an additional area 
of eighty-five acres. The frequent 
illustrations of buildings and grounds, 
with careful descriptions, shown in 
this guide will give the reader a very 
complete idea of this stupendous 
work. The comfort and convenience 
of visitors has been considered in 
every arrangement, so that a visit to 
the Exposition will not only be en- 
joyable and instructive in the high- 
est degree, but it will be one to cherish 
as the great event of a lifetime. 

With the growth and development 
of the original plans the financial ne- 
cessities of the Fair have also tremen- 
dously increased, but public enthusi- 
asm has fortunately kept pace with 
this rapid development, until the con- 
templated five million dollar World's 
Fair of three years ago has now grown 
to a World's Columbian Exposition 
with $18,750,000 available, and to be 
actually expended before the gates 
are opened to visitors. In addition to 



HISTORY OF THE EXPOSITION. 



21 



this millions of dollars have been ex- 
pended by the several States in the 
construction of State buildings and 
installation of State exhibits. 

The management of the World's 
Columbian Exposition may be said to 
be vested in four organizations: The 
National Commission, authorized by 
Congress; the World's Columbian Ex- 
position, organized under the laws of 
the State of Illinois; the Board of 
Lady Managers, authorized by Con- 
gress, and the World's Congress Aux- 
iliary. The National Commission is 
composed of eight commissioners-at- 
large with alternates; two commis- 
sioners from each State, Territory, 
and the District of Columbia — one 
Democrat and one Republican — ap- 
pointed by the President on a nom- 
ination by their respective govern- 
ors. This Commission has dele- 
gated its authority to eight of its 
members, who constitute a Board of 
Reference and Control, and who act 
with a similar number selected from 
the World's Columbian Exposition. 
The officers of this Commission are: 
President, Thomas W. Palmer; vice- 
presidents, Thomas W. Walker, M. 
H. de Young, D. D. Penn, C. W. 
Allen, and Alexander B. Andrews; 
secretary, John C. Dickinson. The 
World's Columbian Exposition is com- 
posed of forty- five citizens of Chicago, 
elected annually by the stockholders. 
On this body falls the burden of rais- 
ing the necessary money and of the 
active management. Its officers are: 
President, Harlow N. Higinbotham; 
vice-president, F. W. Peck; second 



The Board of Lady Managers is 
composed of two members, with alter- 
nates, from each State and Territory, 




^Xj^ 




T. W. Palmer. 

vice-president, R. A. Waller; secre- 
tary, H. O. Edmonds, and solicitor, 
W. K. Carlisle. 



H. N. Higinbotham. 

and nine from the city of Chicago. 
It has the supervision of women's par- 
ticipation in the Exposition, and of 
whatever exhibits of women's work 
may be made. This recognition of 
woman marks an epoch in World's 
Expositions, as in no previous inter- 
national fair have woman and her 
work, influences, and industrial im- 
portance been recognized. Mrs. 
Bertha Honore Palmer is president, 
and Mrs. Susan Gale Cooke secre- 
tary of the Board of Lady Managers. 
The World's Congress Auxiliary 
was organized for the purpose of 
holding a series of Congresses, to 
supplement the exposition that will 
be made of the material progress 
of the world by a portrayal of the 
achievements in science, literature, 
education, government, jurispru- 
dence, morals, charity, art, religion, 
and other branches of mental activity. 
The Hon. C. C. Bonney of Chicago 
is president of the Congress Auxil- 
iary, but equal praise for its success 
is due to the Hon. Thomas B. Bryan, 
the cosmopolitan scholar of the Ex- 
position, whose matchless diplomacy 
has been so many times invoked to 
crown the triumphs of the great 
World's Fair enterprise. George R. 
Davis of Chicago is Director-General 
of the entire Exposition, and there- 
fore its chief executive officer. In 
the joint Board of Control is of 
course vested the actual manage- 
ment, and from the verdict of this 
board there is no appeal. 



22 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



The following table comparing the 
World's Columbian Exposition with 
other World's Fairs of the past, will 
be peculiarly interesting: 



ti 



d © 









C <U 



°x5 



£^ o 

c ? 

3 h 



< O D, 



5 ^ 






M fa 



fe 



8 2 



-+ O 



rj> co 



M O 

to o 
u-) en 



n ci co 



4 8 



co in O co co 



O r^ O in en 

O CO O M IT) 

O O O r-^ en 

d 4- d c? o 

O io m en -3- 

c i °i ^ 9. " 

d ^ o> « » 

M M CJ 



r^ N CO N N 
M N O u-i -t 



o o o 

O O O O ci 
O O co O ■* 



rt m co co 



o 


vO 


,_, 


M 


en co 


CO 


O 


sO 


o 


I~^ 


O CO 


ir 


r^ 


CO 


0* 


en 


o o 


CO 



\ei \c-J \oj 



8 £ 



C» M fH 



en c3 
«-^ co & 



CO O M 



0) M M 



^ .;_ .j_ y 



Oh > PU Oh 



It will be seen from this table that 
the World's Columbian Exposition 
cost three times as much as any 



previous exposition in the history 
of the world; that it occupies four 
times as many acres and has about 
twice as much space under roof as 
the greatest of former expositions. 




C. C. Bonney. 

Eighty-six nations, colonies, and 
principalities exhibit, thirty-eight 
being specially represented by official 
commissions; and the moneys appro- 
priated by all for the purpose of ex- 
hibits and buildings amount to over 
$8,000,000. No less than sixteen 
foreign governments erect special 
buildings wherein to receive their 
guests and exhibit their valuables. 

It is estimated that the expendi- 
tures of foreign governments, in re- 
spect of exhibits and in addition to the 
above, will amount to at least $2,- 
500,000. 

The true magnitude of the World's 




T. B. Bryan. 

Columbian Exposition can only be 
realized when it is stated that (the 



BUILDINGS OF THE EXPOSITION. 



23 



United States not considered) the architectural arrangements of the 
space allotted to foreign nations World's Columbian Exposition than 
alone exceeds the total space of any from the master mind who, as Chief 
previous World's Fair. In addition Supervising Architect and Director 
to this comes the space of American of Works, planned and perfected all. 
exhibitors, which far excels the ag- The following interesting and valu- 
gregate of all the foreign nations of able contribution, prepared by Direct- 
the world. Nearly every State in the or of Works Daniel H. Burnham, and 
Union has made appropriations for written especially for Rand, McNally 
State buildings or State exhibits, & Co.'s Guides, forms a most valu- 
and there are no less than thirty- able historical document in relation to 
eight separate State buildings on the the "building of the 'White City."' 
grounds. Mr. Burnham entitles his article "The 

The most important bureau in con- 



nection with the World's Columbian 
Exposition is undoubtedly the Bureau 
of Construction. Of this bureau D. 
H. Burnham is chief, Edward C. 







Buildings of the Exposition,"* and 

says of them: 

When Coleridge sang to Mont Blanc 
in the Vale of Chamouni, "Thou 
risest from forth thy silent sea of 
pines," his inspiration probably came 
from much the same enthusiasm 
which long afterward reechoes from 
the lips of those who remember the 
Jackson Park of two years ago — a 
marsh of tangled undergrowth and 
a waste of ill-tempered oaks, from 
which have arisen the stately struct- 
ures of the Exposition. Its appear- 
ance at that time presented but little 
promise of the noble city to be erected 
after swamps had been drained, 
canals, lagoons, and basins cut, 
grassy slopes established, and flowers 
and shrubs planted to transform the 
once dreary landscape. Advantages 
which would more than compensate 
for the almost discouraging amount 
of labor required to render them 
available were apparent in this des- 
olate wilderness; otherwise Jackson 
Park could never have been chosen 
as the site of the Exposition. Other 
locations were eagerly offered, some 
of them beautifully improved parks, 
earnestly wishing to welcome an hon- 
ored guest to a hospitality ready to 



D. H. Burnham. 

Shankland is chief engineer, and F. 
L. Olmsted the able landscape archi- 
tect. In their several departments 
the work of each of these gentlemen 
shows to excellent advantage. Chief 
Burnham has been indefatigable in 
his labors, and the acres of graceful 
structures that now adorn these 
grounds are a monument to his exec- 
utive abilities. The credit of com- 
pleting these buildings in the remark- 
ably short time is by public acclaim receive it; all had boasted advantages 
accorded to Chief Burnham. The ex- yet to Jackson Park, humble in its 
ample of his unceasing energy has sheer ugliness, came the choice. The 
been an inspiration to every subordi- decision bringing it here was not 
nate, and in an enterprise where so reached through undue favoritism or 
much depended upon cooperation he influence, but was the result of much 
has made the construction department thought and the carefully weighing 
a perfect mechanism. of the merits of all. 

From no more authentic source was It was about the time that the dis- 
it possible to obtain a description of cussionof the site question had reached 
the construction work and marvelous a reputable degree of warmth — and 

The preparation of this paper, as to its literary form, was left in the hands of Mr. Mont- 
gomery B. Pickett, to whom acknowledgment is due. 



24 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



few who were in it would be will- 
ing to admit that it had ever been 
less than ardent— that Mr. Frederick 
Law Olmsted, the honored father of 
American art in landscape, together 
with his late partner, Henry Sargent 
Codman, were called into consulta- 
tion. To them, after careful consid- 
eration, it was plain that area, dignity 
of effect, location, adaptability, trans- 
portation, and many other points 
were in favor of Jackson Park; and 
so the choice was made, being defi- 
nitely settled only in the fall of 1S90. 
Winter coming on, the months which 
could not be devoted to grading, 
dredging, and kindred operations, 
prior to the preparation of the ground, 
were well spent in making a most 
careful survey of the entire area, 
which had been extended to include 
the Midway Plaisance. Washington 
Park was also tendered for Expo- 
sition purposes, but the 600 acres 
which had already been secured were 
deemed sufficient. In the spring of 
1 891 an army of earth- workers made 
such rapid progress that the homeli- 
ness of the site was crippled after a 
very few weeks. The bogs began to 
dry up, the undergrowth surrendered 
to the prosaic but effective grubbing 
hoe, and for the first time in their 
existence the knotty little old scrub- 
oaks bowed — the ax is an inexorable 
tutor in that branch of etiquette. 
Canals, lagoons, and basins were 
lined out so that they touched the 
site of each of the main buildings. 
In June everything was ready for the 
foundations. 

The main buildings, as originally 
planned, were ten: Manufactures, Ad- 
ministration, Machinery, Agriculture, 
Electricity, Mines, Transportation, 
Horticulture, Fisheries, and the 
Venetian Village. At this time it 
was the purpose of the Exposition to 
establish the exhibit of fine arts upon 
the Lake Front Park; this plan being 
subsequently abandoned, the Art Gal- 
leries and the Woman's Building 
were the first of the later structures 
to find a place upon the plan. As 
the importance of the work gradii- 
ally developed, necessity for addi- 
tional space became clear, and the ten 
original buildings quickly secured 



neighbors in the Forestry, Dairy, 
Stock Pavilion, Terminal Station, 
Music Hall, Peristyle, Casino, Choral, 
Anthropological, and so on through- 
out a list of great and small, until 
there are now nearly three hundred 
separate and distinct structures under 
roof in Jackson Park, not including 
the scores of minor pavilions and shel- 
ters of a less important character, built 
by concessionaires, exhibitors, and 
others. When the Midway Plaisance, 
with its varied and startling archi- 
tecture, is added, the total is in- 
creased to about four hundred. 

The designs were not secured by 
competition, many reasons being 
against the adoption of such a method; 
the time was short and the work was 
great; harmony of effort must be had 
of men possessing genius and ability. 
Direct selection was, therefore, the 
only safe method, and the buildings 
were accordingly allotted by the 
Chief of Construction as follows: 
Administration, Richard M. Hunt of 
New York; Transportation, Adler & 
Sullivan of Chicago; Manufactures, 
George B. Post of New York; Mines, 
S. S. Beman of Chicago; Agricult- 
ure, McKim, Meade & White of 
New York; Venetian Village, Burling 
& Whitehouse of Chicago; Machinery, 
Peabody & Stearns of Boston ; Horti- 
culture, W. L. B. Jenney of Chicago; 
Electricity, Van Brunt & Howe of 
Kansas City; Fisheries, Henry Ives 
Cobb of Chicago. Late in the spring 
of 1891, after the other buildings were 
designed and about ready for con- 
struction, Mr. Charles B. Atwood 
entered upon his labors with the Ex- 
position, and to him we are indebted 
for the chastely beautiful Art Build- 
ing; that impressive trio, the Peri- 
style, Music Hall, and Casino; the 
imposing Terminal Station; the For- 
estry, Dairy, and other buildings, 
in addition to his great work as 
Designer-in-Chief. The Stock Pa- 
vilion is an example of the scholar- 
ship of Messrs. Holabird & Roche 
of Chicago. In unrestricted compe- 
tition the plan of Miss Sophia G. 
Hay den was selected for the Wo- 
man's Building. The Venetian Vil- 
lage at the end of the great pier 
being abandoned, Mr. Whitehouse's 



BUILDINGS OF THE EXPOSITION. 



25 



services (he in the meantime losing 
by death his partner) were retained 
for the Choral Building. 

The limits of this article will not 
warrant a detailed description of each 
structure, and this, moreover, is un- 
necessary, as its architect tells of his 
own work elsewhere in this "volume. 
It may be well, however, to mention 
a few points of general interest. 
Among the first of these is the ma- 
terial which has done so much to pro- 
duce those charming effects other- 
wise impossible to attain. The use 
of staff has not been confined to the 
covering for buildings alone, but it 
has been applied with an eminent de- 
gree of success to sculpture, orna- 
mentation of almost every kind, the 
construction of balustrades, vases, 
facing for docks, etc. To no part of 
the work has more attention been paid 
than to the artistic decoration of 
buildings. Almost every structure 
within the grounds bears testimony 
to the skill of well-known artists, not 
alone in painting, but in sculpture as 
well. The engineering has been of a 
magnitude never reached before. The 
Manufactures Building has become 
known, wherever the Fair is spoken of, 
as the greatest building ever erected. 
Its arches, which constitute, pos- 
sibly, the most interesting feature of 
the entire engineering work, were de- 
signed and constructed under the su- 
pervision of Mr. E. C. Shankland, 
Chief Engineer, who has had charge 
of all the work of this character 
throughout the Exposition. The 
power plant, located in Machinery 
Hall, is expected to supply energy 
equal to 30,000 horse-power. The 
shafting in the various buildings is 
driven by electricity conducted 
through underground passages or 
subways. An area of about two hun- 
dred acres is under roof ; of this amount 
1 50 were built by the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition, the remainder being 
constructed by the governments of 
States and foreign powers, concession- 
aires, and special exhibitors. Three 
distinct motives are apparent in the 
grouping of the buildings. Those 
about the Grand Basin — the Admin- 
istration, Manufactures, Agriculture, 
Machinery, Electricity, Mines, and 



also the Art Building — are essentially 
dignified in style; those lying farther 
to the north — the Horticultural, Trans- 
portation, and Fisheries — being less 
formal, blend readily with the more 
or less homelike headquarters build- 
ings of the vStates and foreign gov- 
ernments, which are grouped among 
the trees of the extreme northern 
portion of the grounds. Upon the 
Midway Plaisance no distinct order 
is followed, it being instead a most 
unusual collection of almost every 
type of architecture known to man 
— oriental villages, Chinese bazaars, 
tropical settlements, ice railways, the 
ponderous Ferris wheel, and reproduc- 
tions of ancient cities. All of these are 
combined to form the lighter and 
more fantastic side of the Fair. 

There are two columns east of the 
Administration Building; between 
them rolls the cascade of the Columbia 
Fountain. Each column bears a 
name ; upon one, that of John W. Root; 
upon the other, Henry Sargent Cod- 
man. One of these men laid down his 
work where it had scarcely begun, 
leaving the first sketches of his bril- 
liant plans; the other passed away 
with the beauty of his almost finished 
labors bright before him. These 
simple inscriptions mean more to us 
who knew and loved the men to whose 
memory they are placed, than all the 
glorious achievements about them, of 
which so great a part was theirs. 
D. H. BURNHAM, 
Director of Works. 

Few persons outside the imme- 




M. P. Handy. 

diate and principal officials of the Ex- 
position have the slightest conception 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



of the vast amount of preliminary- 
work done in popularizing the Expo- 
sition or the labor involved in telling 
the world of its myriad wonders. 
The Department of Publicity and Pro- 
motion, under the masterly direc- 
tion of Maj. Moses P. Handy, not only 
worked like beavers, but achieved 
wonders. 

The World's Fair site is 1,037 
acres in area, nearly four times the 
space of any previous exposition, 
while the number of square feet under 
roof — over 5,000,000 — is nearly twice 
as much as the greatest exposition of 
the past. The beauty of the location 
of the buildings of the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition is, that nearly 
every structure fronts on Lai-e Michi- 
gan. In the northern portion of the 
park are grouped nearly all the State 
buildings, the Fine Arts Building, and 
the various structures of foreign na- 
tions. Next comes the Fisheries 
Building, which is situated just north 
of the lagoon; and directly west of the 
Fisheries Building, on the opposite 
side of the park, stands the Woman's 
Building; on the same side of the 
lagoon, which parallels the lake, are 
the Horticultural Building and the 
Transportation Building. To the 
southward of the Government Build- 
ing, on the east side of the lagoon and 
bordering on the lake, is the giant 
structure of the Fair, the Manufact- 
ures and Liberal Arts Building. 
South of this edifice is the great pier 
for lake steamers, extending 2,500 
feet into the lake, and on one wing of 
which is the Music Hall. Extending 
westward from the pier is a long 
avenue several hundred feet wide. 
All down this grand avenue, encom- 
passing a beautiful sheet of water, 
stand imposing buildings, along the 
majestic facades of which the de- 
lighted gaze of the visitor sweeps until 
it rests on the Administration Build- 
ing, nearly a mile distant. West of 
the Agricultural Building stands 
Machinery Hall, which is its equal in 
size and is especially rich in archi- 
tectural lines and details. To the 
northward of the Administration 
Building, on either side, and facing 
the grand avenue, stand two more 
immense buildings, one for the elec- 



trical and the other for the mining 
exhibit. Near by is the wooded island, 
a delightful gem of primitive nature, 
in striking contrast with the elaborate 
productions of human skill which 
surround it. In the southwest por- 
tion of the grounds are great depots, 
the numerous railway tracks, and the 
stock exhibits. The Forestry Building 
fronts the lake in the southeast, and 
near by is the Sawmill, the Dairy 
Building, the Krupp exhibit, the Con- 
vent of La Rabida, and various other 
smaller but equally interesting struct- 
ures. 

Buildings and Grounds. — The di- 
mensions of the great Exposition 
buildings are indicated in the fol- 
lowing table: 

Dimen- Area 
sions in 
Manufactures and Lib- in feet, acres. 

eral Arts 787 x 1687 30.5 

Administration 262 x 262 1 . 6 

Mines 350 x 700 5.6 

Electricity - 345 x 690 5.5 

Transportation 256 x 960 5.6 

Transportation Annex 425 x 900 8.8 

Woman's 199 x 388 1.8 

Art Galleries 320 x 500 3 . 7 

Art Gallery Annexes (2) 120 x 200 1.1 

Fisheries 165 x 365 1.4 

Fisheries Annexes (2). 135 diam. .8 

Horticulture 250 x 998 5.7 

Hort'ture Gr'nhous's(8) 24 x 100 . 5 

Machinery 492 x 846 9.6 

Machinery Annex 490 x 550 6.2 

Power House 490 x 461 ) 

Pumping Works.. 77 x 84 [- 2. 1 

Machine Shop 106 x 250 ) 

Agriculture . 500 x 800 9 . 2 

Agriculture Annex 300 x 550 3.8 

Agriculture Assembly 

Hall, etc 125 x 450 13 

Forestry 208 x 528 2.5 

Sawmill 125 x 300 .8 

Dairy. 100 x 200 .5 

Live Stock (2) 65 x 200 .9 

Livestock Pavilion.. 280 x 440 2.8 

Live Stock Sheds 40.0 

Casino 120 x 250 .7 

Music Hall 120 x 250 .7 

U. S. Government 345 x 415 3.3 

U. S. Government imi- 
tation battle-ship. -69.25 x 348 .3 

Illinois State 160 x 450 1.7 

Illinois State Wings (2) .3 

Total 159-3 



HOW TO REACH THE EXPOSITION. 



2? 



The Exposition buildings, not in- 
cluding those of the Government and 
Illinois, have also a total gallery area 
of 45.9 acres, thus making their total 
floor space 199.7 acres. The Fine 
Arts Building has 7,885 lineal feet, or 
145,852 square feet of wall space. 

HOW TO REACH THE EXPO- 
SITION. 

Site.— The World's Columbian Ex- 
position is located at Jackson Park 
and the Midway Plaisance, seven 
miles south of the city hall of Chicago. 
By railroad the time occupied to reach 
it is about half an hour, by steamboat 
forty- five minutes, and by cable cars 
about one hour's journey. 

Approaches. — There are five prin- 
cipal methods of reaching the Expo- 
sition grounds with a possible sixth 
route for the leisurely and luxurious, 
to be found by driving to the park by 
way of the magnificent Michigan 
Avenue Boulevard, and the inevitable 
last resort, the seventh, in walking 
to the grounds, for those fortunate 
enough to secure accommodations in 
close proximity to the gates. 

The more usually used routes are: 

1. The South Side Rapid Transit 
Railroad (the Alley Elevated road), 
whose down-town terminal is located 
on Congress Street, between Wabash 
Avenue and State Street, within a 
stone's throw of the Auditorium 
Hotel. This line serves as one of 
the principal routes to the World's 
Fair grounds, having a capacity for 
conveying over 40,000 passengers per 
hour. It has 46 locomotives, 180 cars, 
37 miles of track, and cost $6,750,000. 
Opened for traffic on June 6, 1892, it 
reaches Jackson Park in 35^ minutes 
for local slow trains and 24^ minutes 
from Twelfth Street by through fast 
trains. 

The stations are Congress Street 
(down-town terminus) , Twelfth, 
Eighteenth, Twenty-second, Twenty- 
sixth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-first, 
Thirty-third, Thirty-fifth, Thirty- 
ninth streets, Indiana Avenue (here 
the line crosses to the alley between 
Prairie and Calumet avenues), Forty- 
third, Forty-seventh, Fifty-first, Fifty- 
fifth, Fifty-eighth, Sixty-first streets, 



South Park Avenue, Cottage Grove, 
Lexington, Madison, Stony Island 
avenues, and Jackson Park. Fare, 
5 cents, single journey. 

At the Fair grounds the train lands 
the visitor right in the grounds, in 
a specially constructed depot on the 
roof of the annex of the Transpor- 
tation Building. Admission tickets 
to the grounds can be purchased at all 
stations except Congress Street, where 
the pressure of traffic is too severe. 

The Intramural station is alongside 
and just east of the "L" station. 
Passengers landing on the west track, 
who want to take the Intramural, 
pass through turnstiles and go across 
a bridge which hangs directly over 
the staircase beyond the edge of the 
platform to the east; and those land- 
ing on the east tracks will find turn- 
stiles to admit them to the Intramural 
platform, which is only divided from 
the east platform by a fence. 

2. The Illinois Central Railroad 
Company, whose depots are located at 
the Lake Front foot of Lake Street, 
at the foot of Van Buren Street near 
the World's Fair steamship landing, 
and at Twelfth Street and Park Row. 
This line has a capacity of 240,000 
World's Fair passengers per day in 
addition to its ordinary and extensive 
suburban traffic. Its trains for the 
Exposition start as soon as filled, 
every i\ minutes if necessary, and 
reach Fifty-ninth Street and Midway 
Plaisance (G 13) in 15 minutes. The 
suburban trains starting from Park 
Row and Twelfth Street are conven- 
ient for reaching the State buildings, 
foreign buildings, Art Palace, and 
Woman's Building by alighting at 
Fifty-seventh Street (South Park Sta- 
tion), (B 13); while the Sixty-third 
Street Station (Q 12) is convenient 
for the Transportation, Administra- 
tion, and other principal buildings, 
the Grand Court of Honor, the Per- 
istyle, etc. The fare for the round 
trip from Van Buren Street to Six- 
tieth Street by World's Fair trains 
is 20 cents. By special concession all 
passengers from Van Buren Street 
are landed on the Midway Plaisance 
instead of entering the Central Depot 
of the Exposition. The special cars 
for World's Fair traffic are roomy and 

1701 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



cool. Boarding one at Van Buren 
Street the visitor is rapidly carried 
past the Lake Front Park on the 
right, with its Columbus Statue and 
the huge stone structure of the Audi- 
torium Hotel as landmarks; on the 
left is the harbor, with innumerable 
craft of all kinds, all bound for the 
' ' White City. " He skirts the choicest 
residence section of Chicago, passes 
the Farragut Boat Club House on 
the lake shore, and runs on the land- 
ward side of the huge Chicago Beach 
Hotel at Fifty-first Street. He now 
enters the World's Fair District and 
at Fifty-seventh Street Station gets a 
view of the grounds on the left. The 
train stops and the visitor alights 
at the Midway Plaisance, where he 
can enter the grounds proper by go- 
ing to the left, or explore the Plais- 
ance by taking the right-hand course. 

3. By Other Railroads to the Ex- 
position. — All railroads bringing pas- 
sengers to Chicago enter the Central 
Railroad Depot (N 16), in the rear of 
the Administration Building, where 
the most satisfactory arrangements 
for visitors' comfort have been made. 
Several roads have made switching 
arrangements whereby passengers 
from their down-town depots will be 
able to travel direct to the Fair. 
Residents on the West Side of the 
city can travel by the Northern Pa- 
cific and Baltimore & Ohio, landing 
at the Central Railroad Depot. 

4. By Steamer on Lake Michigan. 
— The water route to the World's Fair 
is the scenic route, and to the ma- 
jority of visitors is the most attract- 
ive, embracing as it does a sail for 
several miles on the bosom of Lake 
Michigan, an excellent view of the 
harbor, and a continuous panoramic 
picture of Chicago's water front to the 
gates of the Exposition. 

At Jackson Park very extensive 
piers and docks have been con- 
structed, and a fine pier at Van 
Buren Street has been built for the 
express use of the World's Fair Steam- 
ship Company, which has the exclu- 
sive right of'landing city passengers 
in the Exposition grounds. This 
company has a fleet of some twenty- 
five steamers and conveys passengers 
at a uniform rate of 15 cents single 



fare and 25 cents for the round trip. 
In the fleet is the new steamer ' 'Arthur 
Orr" (3,000 tons, capacity 3,500 pas- 
sengers); and the largest passenger 
steamer afloat, the new whaleback 
' ' Christopher Columbus " (4,000 tons, 
capacity 5,000 passengers). 

The Columbian Navigation Co.'s 
boats from Randolph Street land at 
Fifty-fifth Street, two blocks from 
entrance to grounds. Single fare, 
15 cents; round trip, 25 cents. 

5. The Street (Cable) Car Route 
to the Fair consists of two principal 
lines, namely: The Cottage Grove 
Cars, which, starting from the loop 
at Randolph Street, run along Wabash 
Avenue to Twenty-second Street, 
thence to Cottage Grove Avenue as 
far as the power-house at Fifty-fifth 
Street, thence to Jefferson Street, to 
Fifty-sixth, and then to Lake Avenue. 
To the leisurely traveler there can in 
pleasant we.ather be few more agree- - 
able methods of reaching the Expo- 
sition grounds. The line skirts the 
largest of the city's breathing-spaces 
— Washington Park — until at Fifty- 
fifth Street the power-house, with 
its mammoth wheels and whirring 
engines, is on the left. Here the 
visitor desirous of reaching the north- 
ern (or State buildings) end of the Ex- 
position grounds (B 14) should transfer 
to a South Park car (if not already on 
one), which turns to the left. Inquiry 
of the gripman or conductor will pre- 
vent mistake. The line running 
straight ahead lands visitors at the 
Fifty-ninth Street entrance to the 
Midway Plaisance (F 1), or by transfer 
to an electric-car system at the Sixty- 
third Street entrance to the grounds 
(L 14). Fare, 5 cents. 

The State Street Cable-Cars, one 
block westward of the Cottage Grove 
cars, start from the loop near the 
Masonic Temple and traverse the 
heart of the retail-stores district of 
Chicago. Ask for a transfer before 
reaching Sixty-first Street, and there 
take the electric cars to the left, 
which will land the visitor within one 
block of the Exposition. Fare, 5 cents. 
6. Driving to the Fair.— The Mich- 
igan Avenue Boulevard forms a most 
attractive route to the Fair, and the 
finest street in the world (as Max 



HOW TO REACH THE EXPOSITION. 



29 



O'Rell styled it) is well worth travers- 
ing for those who have the time and 
can afford the carriage-hire. At nu- 
merous livery-stables well-appointed 
carriages can be secured at reason- 
able rates and a line of handsome 
four-horse coaches runs regularly be- 
tween the city and the Exposition 
grounds. The boulevard is bordered 
by the houses of Chicago's wealthiest 
citizens, and the route is fully des- 
cribed in the various guides to the 
city issued by the publishers of this 
guide. 

7. Walking to the Fair.— As 
many hundreds of hotels and apart- 
ments are located in the immediate 
vicinity of the Exposition grounds, 
many will dispense with any method 
of conveyance other than their pedal 
extremities. To aid them in selecting 
the appropriate entrance, gate facil- 
ities have been provided as follows: 

Cornell Avenue. 

Fifty-seventh Street. 

Fifty-ninth Street. 

East Illinois Central tracks. 

West Illinois Central tracks. 
South end: 

Sixtieth Street. 

Sixty-second Street. 

Terminal Station. 

Elevated Railroad. 

Sixty-fourth Street. 

Sixty-fifth Street Terrace. 

Southwest corner park. 

Palmer Avenue. 
Midway Plaisance: 

Monroe Avenue. 

Greenwood Avenue. 

Cottage Grove Avenue. 

Greenwood Avenue (south). 

Oglesby Avenue. 
Steamer Landings : 

Main Pier. 

Naval Pier. 

The big days at the Fair will see a 
crush about the ticket-windows at 
Jackson Park. In order to do away 
with this as much as possible ar- 
rangements have been made for the 
sale of tickets down-town as follows: 

Van Buren Street Pier. 
Depots of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road: 

Van Buren Street. 

Randolph Street. 

Twenty-second Street. 



Thirty-sixth Street. 

Forty-third Street. 
Hotels: 

Palmer House. 

Auditorium Hotel. 

Auditorium Annex. 

Sherman House. 

Victoria Hotel. 

Grand Pacific Hotel. 

The visitor should refrain from pur- 
chasing admission tickets from street 
fakirs or strangers. The entrance- 
gates are novel, and operated by the 
insertion of the ticket, which is muti- 
lated by machinery. They also reg- 
ister the entrance of each visitor. 

The Trip to the Fair. — Let us as- 
sume that the visitor has arrived in 
Chicago over night, and has reached 
his hotel or previously engaged rooms. 
Then, refreshed by a sound sleep, 
fortified by a substantial breakfast, 
he naturally desires to start off bright 
and early to visit the myriad wonders 
of the vast and beauteous ' ' White 
City." Certainly he will desire on the 
first day of his visit to reach the Fair 
grounds as rapidly as possible. Let 
him proceed to the Elevated Railroad 
Depot at Congress Street, between 
Wabash Avenue and State Street, 
there taking the car direct for the 
World's Fair grounds. The route 
has already been fully described (ante 
p. 27). 

The Exposition station is located 
on the roof of the annex of the Trans- 
portation Building (Q 15), with a 
station of the Intramural Elevated 
Railroad in close proximity, so that 
a transfer to that system can be had 
without descending to the ground. 
Paying his 50 cents, securing a 
ticket, and passing through the auto- 
matic turnstile, the visitor descends 
a grand stairway fifty feet wide, and 
at length stands on that enchanted 
inclosure of white palaces which rose 
from a marsh and a morass in two 
years or less. In reaching the ground 
the visitor passes over the special ex- 
hibit of the Vanderbilt Railroad lines 
and Wagner Palace Car Company (M 
15), while facing him are the exhibits 
of the Hygeia Mineral Springs Com- 
pany (N 16), and a little farther to 
the right the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company's exhibit and a model 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



water station exhibited by the United 
States Wind-Engine and Pump Com- 
pany of Batavia, 111., with an ore- 
yard of the Ore Mining Company 
behind it. 

The lofty building beyond this is 
the Hurcules Iron Company's cold- 
storage plant, with a real ice skating- 
rink as part of its exhibit. However, 
the visitor longs for the greater 
buildings, and will probably bear to 
the left past the south end of the 

TRANSPORTATION BUILD- 
ING 

(Q 15), with its polychrome decora- 
tion and funny manikin statuary (by 
John J. Boyle of Philadelphia), repre- 
senting various inventors of improve- 
ments in transportation, subsequently 
more particularly described. The 
Transportation Building is in the 
form of three large train-sheds, is 
256 x 960 feet, and has a floor area 
of nearly 9^ acres. An annex is 425 
xgoo feet, and contains 9^ acres of 
floor area. Cost of both, $370,000. 
Architects, Messrs. Adler & Sullivan 
of Chicago, who thus gracefully 
describe their artistic edifice: 

The Transportation Building, de- 
signed by Messrs. Adler & Sullvan 
of Chicago, is one of the group form- 
ing the northerner picturesque, quad- 
rangle. It is situated at the south- 
ern end of the west flank and lies 
between the Horticultural and the 
Mines buildings. It is axial with 
the Manufactures Building on the 
east side of the quadrangle, the cen- 
tral feature of each of the two build- 
ings being on the same east and 
west line. The Transportation Build- 
ing is simple in architectural treat- 
ment, although it is intended to make 
it very rich and elaborate in detail. 
In style it is somewhat Romanesque, 
although to the initiated the manner 
in which it is designed on axial 
lines, and the solicitude shown for 
good proportions and subtle relation 
of parts to each other, will at once 
suggest the methods of composition 
followed at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 
Viewed from the lagoon, the cupola 
of the Transportation Building will 
form an effective feature southwest 



of the quadrangle; while from the 
cupola itself, reached by eight ele- 
vators, the northern court, a beauti- 
ful effect of the entire Exposition, will 
be seen. The main entrance to the 
Transportation Building consists of 
an immense single arch enriched 
with carvings, bas-reliefs, and mural 
paintings; the entire feature forms 
a rich and beautiful yet quiet color 
climax, for it is treated entirely in 
gold-leaf and called the golden door. 
The remainder of the architectural 
composition falls into a just relation 
of contrast with the highly wrought 
entrance, and is duly quiet and mod- 
est, though very broad in treatment. 
It consists of a continuous arcade 
with subordinated colonnade and 
entablature. Numerous minor en- 
trances are from time to time pierced 
in the walls, and with them are 
grouped terraces, seats, drinking- 
fountains, and statues. 

The interior of the building is 
treated much after the manner of a 
Roman basilica, with broad nave and 
aisles. The roof is therefore in three 
divisions. The middle one rises much 
higher than the others, and its walls 
are pierced to form a beautiful 
arcaded clear-story. The cupola, 
placed exactly at the center of the 
building, and rising 165 feet above 
the ground, is reached by eight ele- 
vators. These elevators of them- 
selves naturally form a part of the 
transportation exhibit, and as they 
also carry passengers to galleries at 
various stages of height, a fine view of 
the interior of the building may be 
easily obtained. The main galleries 
of this building, because of the abund- 
ant placing of passenger elevators, 
proves quite accessible to visitors. 
The cupola, with its broad balconies, 
and the wide terrace at the foot of 
the clear-story roof is used as a prom- 
enade for visitors. From these 
points a most beautiful view of the 
surrounding country can be obtained. 
The roof over the great main entrance 
is used as an outdoor restaurant. 

The main building of the transpor- 
tation exhibit measures 960 feet front 
by 256 feet deep; from this extends 
westward to Stony Island Avenue a 
triangular annex covering about nine 



32 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



acres, and consisting of one-story 
buildings sixty-four feet wide, set 
side by side. As there is a railway- 
track every sixteen feet, and as all 
these tracks run east and west, these 
annex buildings may be used to ex- 
hibit an entire freight or passenger 
train coupled up with its engine. 

Not the least interesting feature 
of the Transportation Building is the 
beautiful scheme of polychrome dec- 
oration to be applied to its exterior. 
To treat the building externally in 
many colors was the original thought 
of the architects in the first conception 
of their design. The architecture of 
the building, therefore, has been care- 
fully prepared throughout with refer- 
ence to the ultimate application of 
color, and many large plain surfaces 
have been left to receive the final 
polychrome treatment. The orna- 
mental designs for this work in color 
are of great and intricate delicacy; 
the patterns, interweaving with each 
other, produce an effect almost as 
fine as that of embroidery. As re- 
gards the colors themselves, they 




Willard A. Smith. 

comprise nearly the whole galaxy, 
there being not less than thirty dif- 
ferent shades of color employed. 
These, however, are so delicately and 
softly blended and so nicely balanced 
against each other that the final 
effect suggests not so much many 
colors as a single beautiful painting. 
The general scheme of color treat- 
ment starts with a delicate light-red 
tone for the base of the building. 
This is kept entirely simple and free 
from ornament in order to serve as a 




TRANSPOR TA TION B UILDING. 




United States A 

Germany B 

France C 

Austria D 

Great Britain E 

Canada F 

Mexico G 

Spain H 

Russia I 

Brazil J 



34 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



base for the more elaborate work 
above. The culmination of high color 
effect will be found in the spandrels 
between the main arches. Here the 
work is carried to a high pitch of in- 
tensity of color, and reliance is placed 
on the main cornice of the building, 
which is very simply treated, to act as 
a balancing and quieting effect in 
the general composition. In the cen- 
ter of the spandrels is placed a beauti- 
ful winged figure representing the 
idea of transportation. This figure is 
painted in light colors, and will have 
a background of gold-leaf. 

The color scheme of the building 
as a whole, of course, culminates in 
the great golden doorway. This en- 
tire entrance, ioo feet wide and 70 
feet high, which is incrusted over its 
entire surface with delicate designs 
in relief, is covered throughout its en- 
tire extent with gold, and colors in 
small quantities are worked in be- 
tween the designs and reliefs so as 
to give the whole a wonderfully 
effective aspect. 

ADLER & SULLIVAN, 
Architects. 

Chicago, February 25, 1893. 

At the entrance to the south door 
of the Transportation Building stand, 
on the right, statues of Stephenson, 
Barrett, Scott, and a figure typical of 
water transportation; and on the left, 
statues of Montgolfier, Vanderbilt, 
Watt, and a figure typical of land 
transportation. Between these groups 
the visitor finds the southern door- 
way, and enters the building. 

The Department of Transportation 
includes the following groups: 

GROUP NO. 

80. — Railways, Railway Plants, and 
Equipment. 

81. — Street-Car and other Street-Line 
Systems. 

82. — Miscellaneous and Special Rail- 
ways. 

83. — Vehicles and Methods of Trans- 
portation on Common Roads. 

84. — Aerial, Pneumatic, and other 
Forms of Transportation. 

85. — Vessels, Boats; Marine, Lake, 
and River Transportation. 

86. — Naval Warfare 'and Coast De- 
fense. 



Entering the south door of the 
Transportation Building, Germany's 
display is found occupying this entire 
end and part of the Annex. Its dec- 
orative exhibits are very fine. The 
particular features consist of two 
large locomotives; all kinds 01 cars, 
including a Red Cross ambulance 
train; interlocking switch systems, 
etc. Next on the right of the main 
aisle is the International Navigation 
Company's (the Inman Line) fine dis- 
play of models of ocean steamers, 
and a full-size section of one of their 
ocean liners; and opposite, to the left 
of the aisle, is the exhibit of the 
Harlan & Hollingsworth Co., with 
its collection of gas engines, naphtha 
launches, etc. On the right, again, is 
found the Austrian display, consist- 
ing chiefly of saddlery and carriages, 
but also showing the zone system 
peculiar to the railway management 
of that country. On the opposite side 
is the display of Japan. Adjoining 
Japan's exhibit comes that of the 
Bethlehem Iron Company, which also 
occupies a corner of the Austrian 
space across the aisle. 

In this is displayed the striking 
exhibit from their famous Gun and 




Model of Steam Hammer. 

Armor Works, situated in the Lehigh 
Valley, at South Bethlehem, Pa., an 
exact reproduction of Bethlehem's 125- 
ton steam hammer— the largest in 
the world, 



TRA NSPOR TA TION B UILDING. 



o5 



Bethlehem's exhibit is divided into 
three sections. Passing to the left 
through one of the hammer-legs, we 
enter the first section, and discover 
two immense steel forgings which 
are the barrel and 
jacket of a navy 13- 
inch cannon. They 
are splendid exam- 
ples of the hollow 
forgings Bethle- 
hem turns out from 
its famous hydrau- 
lic presses. 

In the corner 
near the staircase is a smooth-forged 
trunnion hoop for securing a 12 -inch 
50-ton army gun to its carriage. At 
the front of this section is a navy 12- 
inch breech-loading rifle, fabricated 
at the Washington Gun Factory of 
Bethlehem, fluid-pressed, hydraulic- 
forged steel. It weighs 45.2 tons, is 
37 feet long, has a muzzle velocity of 
2,000 feet sec, and fires an 850-pound 
projectile with 425 pounds of powder, 
with an energy sufficient to perforate 
22i inches of iron. 

Crossing the aisle at the foot of the 
stairway and entering the second sec- 
tion we find on the right a model of 
a 113-ton ingot of steel from which 
the armor plates are forged. 

Directly opposite is a pile of forged 
steel hoops, and three splendid ex- 
amples of steel armor, and a nickel- 
steel ventilator for the monitor ' ' Puri- 



required to form the barbette of 
the battle-ship "Indiana." While its 
shape displays the power of Beth- 
lehem's huge bending-presses, its ex- 
quisite finish shows the marvelous ma- 





U 



Mmm? 



Harveyized Steel Armor Plate. 



tan," seven feet in diameter, forged 
in one piece without welds. The 
largest is a curved nickel-steel plate, 
seventeen inches thick, one of thirteen 



Twelve-inch Rifle, Bethlehem Iron Works. 

chine facilities that establishment must 
possess. 

The next is one of Bethlehem's 
celebrated case-hardened^, nickel-steel 
plates, 10^ inches thick, which has 
been subjected to an attack of the 
enormous energy of 25,040 foot tons, 
during which the five 8-inch 250-lb. 
Holtzer armor-piercing shells were 
completely pulverized, without seri- 
ously injuring the plate. 

The third plate is the first heavy steel 
armor plate made in the United 
States, and is u| inches thick. 

To the right 
is one of the 
most remarka- 
ble articles of 
the exhibit — a, 
fluid-cor 
pressed stc 

ingot, 15 feet , tforShaftof Ferris WheeK 
long, 54 inches 

in diameter, weighing 48.3 tons. 
From a similar ingot, weighing 65 
tons, was made the shaft of the 
famous Ferris Wheel in Midway 
Plaisance. 

Crossing another aisle, in the di- 
rection of the Annex, we enter Beth- 
lehem's third section, and see on our 
left a hollow hydraulic-forged shaft, 
67 feet long and 20 inches in diam- 
eter, forged in one piece. 

The exquisitely finished shaft on the 
right, 40 feet long, 27 inches in diame- 
ter, weighing 30 tons, is for the Old 
Colony Steamboat Company's ' ' Puri- 
tan. " At the end of the section is a fine 
example of a built-up crank for the 
Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

The handsomely polished steel shaft 
on the right as we pass out of this 




THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



section is a solid crank for the U. S. 
cruiser " Minneapolis." 

France is next, with several loco- 
motives and other railway equip- 
ments, models of ocean steamers, etc., 
filling part of a section on the left 
of the aisle, extending on through 
the Annex, and also another section 
on the right. On the left, adjoin- 
ing the French exhibit on that side, 



Britain comes next, covering four full 
sections extending entirely across the 
building, and also into and across the 
Annex; the Australian exhibit occu- 
pying one corner. There is an end- 
less amount of material here, chief of 
which is the locomotive " Lord of the 
Isles," built in 1851 for the first 
World's Fair, and which has been in 
continuous use ever since. There is 




^V*<D W-^ya.-V-^ 



The Golden Door. 



is the display of the Adams & 
Westlake Co. ; and in immediate prox- 
imity on the same side is the ex- 
hibit of the town of Pullman. 
Near this exhibit is a model ticket- 
office, fitted up by the firm of Rand, 
McNally & Co. of Chicago. The center 
of the building has now been reached, 
and here, in a circular open space, is 
found the exhibit of the Otis Co. , con- 
sisting of eight passenger elevators, 
which convey visitors to the top of 
the building, whence a splendid view 
is had. For this service a charge of 
10 cents is made. Passing on, Great 



also a complete train of English cars, 
with the grand compound locomotive 
" Great Britain," affording an oppor- 
tunity for comparing British and 
American railway methods. The 
marine exhibit of Great Britain is es- 
pecially fine; nearly all of her great 
ship-building firms being represented 
by models. One model, that of the 
armored war-ship "Victoria," is 
thirty feet long, and cost $20,000. 
Many of her finest Atlantic liners 
and her largest war- vessels are dis- 
played, and a model of the great 
Forth bridge in Scotland is shown. 



TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. 



37 



Australia shows a model of the display is seen, consisting largely of 
wonderful zigzag railway in the Blue exquisitely fine saddles and horse- 
Mountains of New South Wales, trappings. Here is also a relief map 




Rand, McNally 

Canada's exhibit, like that of the 
mother country, extends entirely 
across the main building and Annex, 
but occupies much less space. One 
of its features is the splendid Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway train, the wood- 
work of which is of solid mahogany. 
This is probably the most luxurious 
train in existence. Next on the right 
is found the Johnson Railroad Sig- 
nal Co., and across the aisle is the 
exhibit of Spain, which is made up 
chiefly of marine models, reproduc- 
tions of celebrated fortresses, and a 
model of the Cordova bridge, whose 
foundations were laid when Jesus 
was a boy in Nazareth. To the right 
again is the CunardS. S. Co.'s exhibit, 
consisting of nine models of their 
steamers. Here is seen their first 
vessel, the "Britannia," built in 1840, 
with a tonnage of 2,050, and 405 horse- 
power; and also their last, the "Cam- 
pania," built in 1893, with a tonnage 
capacity of 13,000, and 30,000 horse- 
power. Turning now to the right, 
down the space between this and the 
carriage section is an aisle running 
south. First on its right is found the 
exhibit of the Argentine Republic, just 
at the back of the Cunarders; while 
across the aisle to the left Mexico's 



& Co.'s Exhibit 

of that republic showing modern sys- 
tems of transportation. Brazil, next 
in order, occupies a space on both 




Madeira Sleighs. 

sides of the aisle. Passing this the 
visitor is again in the Canadian ex- 
hibit, with that of Great Britain fol- 
lowing. Having examined these sec- 
tions, and passed through that of 



3s 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



France, which comes next, the space 
occupied by Russia is entered. Its 
chief object of interest is the fine lo- 
comotive "Androvitch." Crossing the 
aisle to the right a portion of 
Austria's exhibit is again encount- 




Ship Models. 

ered, with T. H. Truscott & Sons 
next on the left, followed on the 
same side by Chase, Eton & Co., 
and still on the same side by the Bath 
Iron Co. The balance of the space, to 
the end of the building, is devoted to 
the German exhibit, which has been 
already examined. Reaching this 
end the visitor turns to the left until 
another aisle, next to the wall, is 
found. Passing down this, more of 
the German display is seen. On the 
same side, and occupying a small 
space to the right, Russia's exhibit 
is once more entered, followed by 
those of France, Great Britain, Can- 
ada, Brazil, and Mexico, respectively. 
Turning now to the left the visitor 
goes straight ahead until the aisle 
next beyond the central one is 
reached. Passing south into this the 
New York Air Brake Co. is first on 
the right, across from the Westing- 
house Co. Walking on, the extreme 
western aisle is entered. Along this 
the visitor finds the rear portion of 
the displays, which lie to the right of 
the last aisle passed through. The 
Baltimore & Ohio Railway's historical 
exhibit deserves special mention. 
The Pilot Commission of New York is 
another special display. The British 
section contains the original Stephen- 
son locomotive, the "Rocket." The 
Chicago & North- Western's exhibit 
contains the old " Pioneer," the first 
locomotive ever brought to Chicago. 
Jay Gould's passes are framed, and 
make a unique exhibit. The north 



end of the building is taken up by 
the display of wagons, carriages, bug- 
gies, etc. , and this exhibit offers rare 
attractions, though it is impossible 
to particularize, even by mere name, 
the exhibits whose merits deserve it. 
The visitor should be in- 
formed that in any building 
whose contents specially in- 
terest him a section of the 
official catalogue can be pur- 
chased at a reasonable price. 
Having proceeded through 
the building the tourist, 
emerging from the northern 
door, should face it, and in- 
spect the statuary grouped 
about this end of the build- 
ing. On his right hand, as he 




The Pilot 



TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. 



89 



stands facing the door, are seen 
statues of J. Edgar Thompson, Erics- 
son, Fulton, and a figure typical of 




Old Locomoti 



water transportation; on his left are 
Watt, Papin, Stephenson, and a 
figure emblematic of land transporta- 
tion. A good plan is next to go 
around to the front of the building, 




Robert Fulton. 



facing the lagoon, in order to in- 
spect the statuary and the famed 
"Golden Door," whose decoration 
alone cost $25,000. 
The statuary on the 
lagoon facade of the 
building is similar, 
but in reverse order, 
on each side of the 
"Golden Door." 
The groups are: Elec- 
trical Group, Aerial 
Group, Locomotive 
Group, and Navigation Group. They 
were all executed by John J. Boyle of 
Philadelphia. The polychrome deco- 
rations of the building are, to say the 
least, beautiful and attractive, and 
great credit is due to the Director of 
Color, Mr. F. D. Millet, and the archi- 
tects of the building, who have cer- 
tainly produced a novel and artistic 
effect. 

Until one has made a thorough inves- 
tigation of the contents of the Trans- 
portation Building, he can form no idea 
as to the number and variety of the 
modes of locomotion used by the diff- 
erent tribes and nations who inhabit 
the earth. In boats the types run from 
the balsa and other species of raft on 
up through innumerable gradations to 
the palatial ocean steamers of the lat- 
est date and finest finish. There are 
canoes hollowed out of a single log by 
the crudest of methods; proas with 
triangular lateen sails; double canoes 
and canoes with balancing outriggers, 
and sailing, rowing, and steam craft 
innumerable. 

In methods of land locomotion we 
find about as many varieties, and the 
types are fully as curious. The burro, 
or ass, of the Spaniard is about as 
primitive as any, leaving out man's 
first and most natural means of getting 
about from place to place— his pedal 
extremities. Oxen, as riding animals, 
and bullock-carts, common to Sicily, 
Corsica, and many other countries, 
are rather slow and crude means of 
transportation, so far as conveyance of 
passengers is concerned, though some- 
what superior to the dog-sledges of the 
Eskimo. Our palace-cars of to-day rep- 
resent the highest types, though the 
balloons and pneumatic-tube transits 
of the future may far distance them. 



CHAPTER III. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS. 




O many 
the dis- 
play of 
miner- 
als and 
mining 
appliances 
will prove 
more inter- 
esting than 
any other 
exhibit a t 
the Fair, 
and they 
will now 
have a chance to satisfy their curiosity 
in regard to such matters, as the 
opening of this chapter will be 
devoted to the consideration of the 
exhibits of ores and minerals, whether 
of the economic class, such as coal, 
iron, etc., or of the precious metals, 
as gold, silver, etc., as displayed in 
their proper structure. The visitor 
has already explored the wonders of 
the edifice devoted to transportation, 
and it is to the left of this building 
that he notices the Hall of Mines 
and Minerals (L 17), whose architect, 
Mr. S. S. Beman of Chicago, thus 
ably describes this artistic edifice: 

THE MINES AND MINING 
BUILDING 

Is located at the southern extremity 
of the western lagoon, or lake, be- 
tween the Electricity and Transpor- 
tation buildings, and is 700 feet long 
by 350 feet wide. Its architecture has 
its inspiration in the best types of 
early Italian Renaissance, though 
sufficient liberty is taken to invest 
the building with the animation that 
should characterize a great general 
exposition; this imparts a French 
spirit to the exterior design. In plan it 



is simple and straightforward, embrac- 
ing on the ground-floor spacious ves- 
tibules, restaurants, toilet-rooms, etc. 
On each of the four sides of the build- 
ing are placed the entrances, those 
of the north and south fronts being 
the most spacious and prominent. 
To the right and left of the entrances, 
inside, start broad flights of easy 
stairs, leading to the galleries, which 
are sixty feet wide and twenty-five 
feet high from the ground-floor, and 
are lighted on the sides by large win- 
dows, and from above by a high 
clear-story extending around the 
building. 

The main fronts look southward 
on the Great Central Court, and 
northward on the western and middle 




F. J. V. Skiff. 

lagoons and an island gorgeous with 
flowers. The principal fronts display 
enormous arched entrances, richly 
embellished with sculptural decora- 
tions, emblematic of mining and its 
allied industries. At each end of 
these fronts are large square pavilions, 
surmounted by low domes, which 
mark the four corners of the buildings 
and are lighted by large arched win- 
dows extending through the galleries. 
Between the main entrance and 



(41) 






42 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



EEE 



ITALY 



the pavilions are richly decorated 
arcades, forming an open loggia on 
the ground-floor and a deeply recessed 
promenade on the gallery 
floor level, which commands 
a fine view of the lakes and 
islands to the northward, 
and the Great Central Court 
on the south. The covered 
promenades are each 25 feet 
wide and 230 feet long, and 
from them is had access to 
the building at numerous 
points. The loggia ceilings 
are heavily coffered and richly 
decorated in plaster and color. 
The ornamentation is appro- 
priately massed at the promi- 
nent points of the facade. 
The exterior presents a mass- 
ive though graceful appear- 
ance. S. S. BEMAN. 
Chicago. 



The official classification of B 2 
the Department of Mines and 
Mining consists of 123 classes, 
grouped as follows: 

GROUP NO. 

42. — Minerals, ores, native 
metals, gems, crystals, 
geological specimens. 

43. — Mineral combustibles — 
coal, coke, petroleum, 
natural gas. 

44. — Building stones, marbles, 
ornamental stones, 
quarry products. 

45- — Grinding, abrading, and 
polishing substances. 

46- — Graphite, clays, fictiles, 
asbestos, etc. 

47- — Limestone, cement, and 
artificial stone. 

48. — Salts, sulphur, fertilizers, 
pigments, mineral Ava- 
ters, and miscellaneous 
useful minerals and com- 
pounds. 

49. — Metallurgy of iron and 
with products. 

50.— Aluminum and its alloys. 



55. — Extraction of gold and silver by 

milling. 
56. — Extraction of gold and silver by 



FRANCE 



NEW SOUTH 



GREAT BRITAIN 



H 

c 

m 



COLOMBIA 




V 



GERMANY 



CAPE COLONY 



MEXICO 



/ 



lillllllluj jpT 



J 

PENNSYL- 
VANIA 


NORTH 
CAROLINA 


VIRGINIA 


WEST 
VIRGINIA 


OREGON 




NEW YORK 


JERSEY 


LA. 4 
TENN. 


KENTUCKY 


ESOTA 


OHIO 



MISSOURI 




?S 




X 

I 




s. I 3 

DAKOTA | 




CALIFORNIA 


/ 


IDAHO 




UTAH 


4? 

4? 


MONTANA 


* 


sCOLORADO 




MAIN FLOOR. 

Ground Plan Mines and Mining 
Building. 

lixiviation. 
steel, 57. — Extraction of gold, silver, and 
lead by fire. 
58. — Quarrying and working stone. 
51.— Copper and its alloys; metallurgy. 59.— Placer, hydraulic, and "drift" 
52.— Metallurgy of tin, tin plate, etc. * mining. 

53.— Metallurgy of zinc, nickel, and 60.— Tools and appliances for under- 
cobalt, ground mining, timbering, and 
54. — Metallurgy of antimony and supporting. 

other metals. 61. — Boring and drilling tools and ma- 



MINES AND MINING BUILDING. 



43 



chinery; apparatus for breaking 

out ore and coal. 
62. — Apparatus used in mining for 

pumping, draining, and hoisting. 
63. — Moving, storing, and delivering 

ores, coals, etc. 
64. — Apparatus for crushing and pul- 
verizing. 
65. — Sizing appliances. 
66. — Assaying apparatus and fixtures. 
67. — History and literature of mining 

and metallurgy. 
68. — Originals or reproductions of 

early and notable implements. 



mining and extraction methods, while 
on the same side as France, to the 
southward, is the exhibit of New South 





Colorado Mineral Exhibit. 

Wales, one of the most interesting 
on the grounds. Part of this exhibit 
takes up a small section across the 
aisle. The most striking feature of 
the display is a collection of gold nug- 
gets of various sizes, aggregating in 
value over $50,000. Adjoining New 
South Wales on the south is -the 
section devoted to the exhibit of Great 



Block of Coal. 

The Exhibits.— On entering the 
building it will be best to adopt a sys- 
tematic plan for 
inspecting the va- 
rious exhibits, and 
thus economize 
both time and vi- 
tal energy. En- 
tering at the north- 
ern door and turn- 
ing to the right, let 
the visitor proceed 
to the aisle or 
street west of and 
parallel with the 
main aisle. At the 
corner of the first 
block on the left ( I 
the French exhibit ^ 



is located, occupy- 
ing the entire block 
in this, the north- 
west, Corner with Brazilian Mineral Exhibit. 

a fine display of minerals, mining Britain. This country is strongest in 

appliances, and the chemicals used in her display of the economic ores and 

the preparation and extraction of minerals. Opposite is the unique dis- 

metals from their ores. Opposite play of Japan. Continuing south, 

France, across the aisle, Austria has the main east and west aisle, or pas- 

an exhibit of her minerals and her sage way, is crossed and the German 




44 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 




exhibit reached. This 
occupies both sides of 
the aisle and is the 
finest of the foreign 
displays in the Min- 
ing Building. The 
exhibit is unique, and 
beauty and utility are strangely blend- 
ed in it. At each corner stands a 
gigantic column of iron and steel 
pipes, rails, angle-iron, and flat bars, 
bent, twisted, and intermingled in 
graceful curves and forms, producing 
an obelisk fifty feet high. Next to 
Germany, on the same side, is the Cape 
Colony exhibit of South Africa. Here 
are seen 10,000 carats' weight of uncut 
diamonds from the Kimberley dia- 
mond-fields, together with tons of the 
peculiar earth (" blue ground," as it 
is technically called) in which the 
gems are found. The process of dig- 
ging for and washing out the precious 
stones is shown. On the opposite 
side of the aisle is the display of 



Mi 



Spain, with 
gold, iron, 
quicksilver, 
and many 
other minerals exhib- 
ited, together with her 
peculiar mining meth- 
ods and plans for ore 
extraction. On the side 
of the aisle opposite to 
Spain, and next to Cape 
Colony on the south, is 
the exhibit of Mexico. 
in the southwestern 
corner of the building. 
A beautiful model of the 
Castle of Chapultepec, made of pure 
gold, is displayed. Passing on around 
the Mexican exhibit, which occupies 
an entire block, the central aisle is 
reached, on the right-hand side of 
which going north is seen the exhibit 
of Colorado — one of the finest of the 
State displays — faced along the main 
aisle with a balustrade of Colorado 
marble, with shafts of Gunnison red 
granite and Corinthian capitals of 
red sandstone. " The Silver Queen," 
a 10-foot figure crowned with a brill- 
iant diadem of rich ores and seated 
in a chariot, represents the mining- 
camp of Aspen, Colo. On each front 
corner of the pedestal is a Cupid four 
feet high — one pouring a stream of 
silver dollars from a horn of plenty, 
the other as profuse with golden coins. 
An underground tunnel, a model in 




Ohio Mineral Exhibit 

silver of the Colorado Mineral Palace, 
and the bas-relief figure of a miner 
are noticeable features of this display. 
Next to and north of Colorado comes 



MINES AND MINING BUILDING. 



45 




W 



her rival 
in the pro- 
duction of 

precious metals — 
Montana. Fifty- 
tons of ore samples 
and $50,000 worth 
of gold nuggets form 
part of her display. 
She shows what is 
probably the larg- 
est sample of gold quartz ever 
mined. It came from the Mclntyre 
lode, near the surface, and weighs 
1 . 785 pounds. She also shows a statue 
of Justice in pure silver — one of the 
wonders of the Fair. Montana, like 
Colorado, has, in addition to silver, 
gold, and copper, exhibits of asphal- 
tum, mica, iron, coal, etc. Her next 
neighbor is Utah, exhibiting lead and 
placer gold, coal, building-stone of 
many kinds, copper, and many other 
minerals. Idaho, across an intersect- 
ing aisle, but also on the right-hand 
side of the main avenue, comes next. 
In addition to her display of precious 
and economic minerals she shows a 
handsome and artistic piece of work 
in the shape of a shield made of mag- 
nesia stone for the groundwork, and 
black and white marbles and other 
minerals for the scenes represented. 
A deep mountain canon, flanked on 
either side by high mountain ranges, 
and with a tiny river flowing down 
its center, makes up the foreground 
of the picture, while in the distance 
may be seen a stamp-mill, a lone pine- 
tree, a farmer's boy plowing in a 
lovely valley, and the rays of the 
rising sun just showing over the east- 
ern mountains, the whole making a 
very realistic Idaho landscape. On 
the right of the shield stands the figure 
of a prospector; on the left, a female 
ligure representing Justice, and over 
its top the head of an elk appears. 
The pedestal is formed of a sheaf of 
wheat and the "Star of Idaho." 



Across the 
avenue from 
Idaho is the 
section occu- 
pied by Bra- 
zil, which 
pro due e s 
phosphates, 
gold, silver, 
and diamonds; and next north of it on 
the same side is California's magnifi- 
cent exhibit. This is a very fine dis- 
play, showing not only gold and silver, 
but also coal, iron, lead, copper, mar- 
ble, onyx, and a model of the only 
quicksilver mine in the United States, 
that of New Almaden. Here is also 
the original nugget of gold found by 
James W. Marshall on January 19, 
1848, while digging a race for Sutter's 
mill. It is now the property of Judge 
W. W. Allen of San Francisco. The 
mining appliances, antique and mod- 
ern, shown by this State are of rare in- 
terest. Another intersecting aisle is 
crossed, and Wisconsin's pavilion is 
found opposite the east side of Ger- 
many's exhibit, which has already 
been examined. Wisconsin displays 



40 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 



some fine pearls and numerous miner- 
als. Wisconsin's neighbor is Mis- 
souri, with possibly the finest display- 
in the building. Cannel and bitumin- 
ous coal, lead, zinc, iron, copper, gold, 
silver, onyx, marble, ochres, lime and 
sand stones, fine china and terra-cotta 
clays, tripoli, kaolin, pottery, and fire- 
clays. Across the main east and west 
intersecting roadway, on the same 
side of the main avenue, lies the 




Wisconsin Mineral Exhibit. 

exhibit of one of Missouri's chief 
rivals — Michigan. Her pavilion is a 
very fine one, executed in native 
sandstone and marble. Surmounting 
the main entrance is a group of 
miners. A copper globe twelve feet 
in diameter is one of the chief trophies. 
There is a collection of prehistoric cop- 
per tools and mining implements 
found in the mines of the upper 
peninsula. Then the " Hoosier State," 
Indiana, makes a characteristic ex- 
hibit of her chief mineral, coal; and 
just opposite to Michigan, across the 
main avenue, is the exhibit of Eng- 
land, which has been visited, and 
next to which is seen that of Ontario, 
one of the provinces of her colony, 
our neighbor Canada. This display, 
while not a large one, is very fine, con- 
sistingof almost every known mineral. 
Next to Ontario on the same side 
of the avenue is New South Wales, 
which has been inspected; while op- 
posite to it, across an intersecting 
aisle from the Indiana exhibit, and 
with the Ohio fine display between, is 
that of Kentucky. The entrance to her 



exhibit is through a handsome arch 
of polished cannel coal, 33 feet high 
and 23 feet wide, bearing at its center 
in letters of gold the name " Ken- 
tucky." The mineral exhibit is won- 
derful, consisting of samples of coals, 
iron ores, gold, silver, marble, build- 
ing-stones, and the finest tile-clay in 
the United States. Across an inter- 
secting aisle to the north is the white 
marble pavilion of New York. Here 
is a wonderful dis- 
play of minerals, 
her marbles and 
granites being ex- 
ceedingly beauti- 
ful. The mining 
tools and appli- 
ances shown are 
of great interest. 
Her chief trophy is 
a polished granite 
column, 1 8 feet 
high, taken from 
one of the finest 
quarries in the 
" Empire State." 
Another alley is 
crossed, and West 
Virginia's exhibit 
is reached. The chief feature of 
this exhibit is a solid block of coal 
weighing seven tons and said to be 
the largest single mass of coal ever 
mined. Following West Virginia on 
the same side, and in the same block, 
is the exhibit of Pennsylvania, and like 




Mineral Cabin, New Mexico. 

the last display this consists chiefly of 
coal and iron. In these minerals the 
' ' Keystone State" excels. Turning to 
the right around the corner of the 
Pennsylvania display, at the north- 
east corner of the block, the Potts- 



MINES AND MINING BUILDING. 



47 



town (Pa.) Iron Co. has an exhibit of 
its machinery, etc. Passing south 
along the aisle on which the Pottstown 
Iron Co. has its display, to the left 
are seen the exhibits of the Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Co., the Sullivan Ma- 
chine Co., the Chrome Steel Works, 
Raymond Bros., the Dewees Wood 
Co., and others, all of which are 
worthy of inspection. To the right 
of this aisle is Minnesota, which 
shows, among a fine display of build- 



and placer gold in many districts. Pe- 
troleum and its products, asphalt, 
iron, coal, and many other minerals 
are exhibited. Washington joins 
Wyoming on the south, and presents 
a fine collection of mineral specimens. 
Her coals and iron ores are especially 
worthy of inspection, and indicate that 
this State is destined to be the Penn- 
sylvania of the Pacific Coast. An in- 
tervening aisle separates this display 
from that of New Mexico, whose chief 




Stur 



Mining Exhibit. 



ing-stones and other minerals, the 
celebrated red pipestone which sup- 
plied the Indians with the great cal- 
umets used in their ceremonies when 
declaring war or making peace. 
There is but a single known quarry of 
this singular stone. A line of private 
exhibits now fills both sides of the 
aisle. Wyoming's, on the right-hand 
side of the aisle, is the next State ex- 
hibit. Gold and silver are not the 
only minerals displayed by this State, 
though she has silver lodes, and lead 



mineral wealth consists of gold and 
silver. Next to New Mexico is her 
sister Territory, Arizona. Like the 
last-described exhibit, that of Arizona 
is chiefly rich in gold and silver. Op- 
posite New Mexico and Arizona, 
Fraser & Chalmers of Chicago make 
a large and very complete exhibit of 
mining appliances, tools, and machin- 
ery. Iowa, whose chief mineral is 
coal, shows a loaded coal-car with life- 
sized figures at work getting out coal. 
There is also a reproduction of the 



48 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Ottumwa Mineral Palace, exhibited 
on a pedestal of coal. The north and 
northeast portions of the gallery are 
devoted to chemical exhibits. The 
central eastern portion shows asphalt 
and cements, and here the Acme Ce- 
ment Co. makes a fine display. The 
western gallery is largely given up to 
private foreign displays. Louisiana 
has among her other mineral displays 
a statue of Lot's wife carved from a 
single block of rock-salt. Alabama 
and Georgia show splendid samples of 
iron ores, coal, manganese, and gold, 
besides other minerals. Russia's dis- 



senting the crystal caves of Central 
America is the mineral pavilion of 
Honduras. Peru, Chile, Costa Rica, 
Paraguay, Ecuador, Colombia, Guate- 
mala, the Argentine Republic, and 
other foreign nations have sent ex- 
cellent displays. Italy's marbles for 
statuary, monuments, and decorative 
purposes are beautiful. The colored 
marbles of Tennessee, which sends 
coal, iron, and other minerals, are 
lovely, as are also those of Georgia. 
The visitor has now completed his 
hurried survey of the wonders of the 
mineral kingdom, and passes on the 



«fe 




Central Terminal Railroad Depot. 



play is characteristic, with samples of 
malachite, gold, platinum, copper, 
gems, etc. North Carolina, while ex- 
hibiting coal, iron, gold, etc., makes 
a specialty of fine mica. Ohio makes 
a fine display of stone, clay, iron, 
coal, and petroleum products. New 
Hampshire has exquisite samples of 
granite and building-stone. England 
has on exhibition a copy of Bartholdi's 
" Liberty," carved from rock-salt, 
and twelve feet high. Washington, 
West Virginia, and Pennsylvania 
claim the largest single block of coal. 
South Dakota has gold, silver, coal, 
iron, etc. , and makes a display of tin 
ore which she considers as her spe- 
cialty. An opalescent grotto repre- 



west of the Mines Building, near its 
southern extremity, Dr. Henderson 
Hay ward's restaurant (M 16) — and 
a few paces south reaches the Hand- 
some Central Terminal Railroad 
Depot of the Exposition (O 17), 
which lies due west of the Adminis- 
tration Building and forms the west- 
ern end of the Court of Honor, of 
which the Mines, Electricity, and 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts build- 
ings form the north side; the Machin- 
ery and Agricultural buildings the 
south side; and the Peristyle the east- 
ern end or side. Within this 
square is the beautiful sheet of 
water known as the Basin (M 21). 
The architecture of this building is 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



49 



of the mixed Roman-Corinthian style, 
modeled after the famed baths of 
Caracalla in Rome, corresponding to 
that of the Peristyle at the opposite 
end of the court. It was designed by 
Mr. C. B. Atwood, the able Designer- 
in-Chief of the Exposition. The sta- 
tion is divided into three sections, the 
central portion being 200 feet long. 
This forms the great vestibule through 
which the trains are emptied. The 
eastern and western sections are three 
stories high, and contain the waiting- 
rooms, check-rooms, lunch-counters, 
and the general railway and custom- 
house offices. On the second floor, 
the full circuit of the central section, 
is an immense gallery 25 feet wide and 
600 feet long. It is reached by two 
broad stairways from the main floor. 
The frieze of clock-faces, twenty-four 
in number, in the upper part of the 
great hall shows the time at that num- 
ber of the principal cities of the world. 
Three grand loggie, 25 x6o feet each, 
open to the east. Above the station 
rise two immense balls of glass and 
iron 10 feet in diameter, with clock- 
dials facing in every direction, show- 
ing local time. Around the balustrade 
above the cornice are a series of stat- 
ues 14 feet high. Leaving the main 
entrance of the Central Depot, the 
visitor pauses to notice on his left the 
artistic booth erected for the dis- 
pensing of Chocolate Menier, and then 
passes into the wide plaza by which 
all persons coming by rail enter the 
Fair. 

Before us looms, impressive in its 
grandeur, the golden dome and grace- 
ful proportions of the sculpture- 
bedecked 

ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 

(N 18), that masterly architectural 
creation of Mr. Richard M. Hunt of 
New York. Well has it been termed 
"the gem and crown" of the whole 
Exposition; and of its artistic archi- 
tectural details the architect's nephew, 
Mr. Jarvis Hunt of Chicago (himself 
no mean designer of choice edifices, 
as witness Vermont's artistic home), 
thus pleasantly and practically writes: 
The Administration Building, 
placed as a center to the principal 



group, is the keystone of the Expo- 
sition. Its position rendered the 
building equally conspicuous on every 
side, thus demanding uniformity of 
design with an expression of gener- 
ous hospitality and welcome, and a 
composition so dignified and concise 
that the numerous surrounding domes 
and minarets would not detract from 
its grandeur and unity. 

It is in its main body an octagon, 
surmounted by a dome inclosing an 
inner one, the diameter of which is 
120 feet, with a height of 250 feet, 
while the outer measures 275 feet 
from floor to apex. 

This main body is pierced at right 
angles by two grand passages across 
the great reception-hall, through 
which the visiting peoples are ushered 
forth and introduced to the art and 
civilization of the United States, as 
evidenced both here and beyond. 

At the four corners are pavilions 
eighty-four feet square and four stories 
high, in which are the various bureaus 
of administration. 

On entering the rotunda the eye is 
carried above the arched and grilled 
entrance-portals to the frescoed pan- 
els beneath the balcony which caps 
the interior cornice; then upward to 
an order of pilasters, supporting the 
paneled and ornamented ceiling of 
the first dome. Through the open- 
ing at the crown one sees the mag- 
nificently frescoed higher dome, from 
a skylight in the apex of which the 
entire rotunda is flooded with light. 

Swift elevators transport one up 
100 feet to a gallery, which connects 
on the outside with a wide and open 
colonnade, surrounding the whole 
dome, from which one may look 
down upon the many vistas formed 
by the different buildings, the beauti- 
ful lagoons with their many fountains 
and statues, and beyond, the mighty 
waters of Lake Michigan. 

The exterior may be divided into 
three parts, the pavilion story, colon- 
nade, and dome. The pavilions are 
treated in Doric simplicity, with the 
cornice sixty feet from the ground to 
conform with the height and style of 
surrounding buildings. Surmounting 
this cornice on the three corners of 
each pavilion are groups of statuary, 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



51 



expressive and in keeping with the 
dignity of their position. Below, mag- 
nificent groups flank each entrance, 
while single figures cap the columns at 
this level on either side of the portals. 

The loggia story is an open colon- eur. 
nade of the Ionic order, with four The architect is 
domed and circular stairway pavil- Hunt of New York. 



The different tiers produce a pyra- 
midal effect, and with the masterly 
blending of architecture, sculpture, 
and frescoing present a building of 
dignity, repose, and retiring grand- 



Richard Morris 
The sculptor is 




War" Group on Administration Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor. 

Karl Bitter. The painter, William 



ions between the heavy piers, corre- 
sponding with the square pavilions 
below, while the richly colored walls 
of the inner octagon bring out the full 
beauty of the columns. Surmounting 
the piers are winged groups of a 
more ornate style and a row of 
bronzed flambeaux upon the cornice 
of the colonnade, forming a tiara 
around the brow of the mighty gilded 
dome, with its ribbed and paneled 
ornamentation. 



Leftwich Dodge. 
Chicago. JARVIS HUNT. 

Decorations, Dome, and Statuary. 
— In no other building on the grounds 
is there so much magnificent decora- 
tion; in none of the others was so 
much attempted. The Administration 
Building is principally for show — ex- 
cept the four corner pavilions, in which 
the offices of the Fair managers are 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



located- 
dollars 



-so neither gold-leaf nor gold height of about 250 feet, sloping in 
were spared in making it from half-way up and meeting 



beautiful. around a center skylight that looks 

like a great Cyclopean eye. From 
the ground-floor rise eight grand 
arches to a height of about forty 
feet. Four of these lead away in 
rotundas to the corner pavilions, 
and through the others open the 
doors from the outside. Each of 
the former is supported by two 
massive pillars toward the side, 
between which, half-way up, is a 
balcony, or gallery, looking out on 
the floor below. 

In the panels between these 
grand arches, set in the wall well 
toward the top, are sixteen huge 
bronze plates. In these are writ- 
ten, in gilded letters, the names of 
the great countries of the earth, 
all of which have representations, 
great or small, in the big Colum- 
bian show. Extending around the 
dome, at the top of these arches is 
a strip of huge white molding, 
handsomely carved, and with its 
I cuts and crevices worked in gilt. 
! Resting on this molding are eight 
huge panels, one at each 
side of the octagon, and each 
one has a gilt slate, sup- 
ported by two winged fe- 
male figures. 

On each slate is the record 
of some great discovery or 
event in the history of the 
world's progress. 

Above these panels is a 
row of light terra-cotta-col- 
ored panels, through the 
tops of which, at regular 
intervals, are let in small, 
square latticed windows. 
Farther up, on another 
stretch of molding, are 
printed the names of men 
whose discoveries and in- 
ventions have been of great 
importance in the progress 
and development of the 
world. 

Beyond these is a row of 
plaster medallions show- 

" Fire Controlled " Group on Administration Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor j n g {he heads of the dif- 

The rotunda at the base is octago- ferent types of women of the world, 
nal in form and about 100 feet across, and still farther up, at the summit of 
The gilded, frescoed walls rise to a the first dome, are eight panels, each 




A D MINIS TRA TION B UILDING. 



53 



having a handsome plaster group. 
The central figure in all of these is 
a woman with outstretched arms, and 
holding in each hand a wreath with 
which to crown some one of the fig- 
ures bent before her. The central 
figure is the genius of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, W-C-E, the 
initial letters of these words, being 
inscribed over her head; and the 
kneeling figures in front represent 
literature, the sciences, arts, and indus- 
tries, upon which recognition and 
honor are being bestowed. 



representing music and poetry, and 
the arts, sciences, and industries. 
There are also four winged horses 
drawing a model of the Parthenon, 
and over it are winged females draw- 
ing back the canopy from the amphi- 
theater in which all such gatherings 
were held by the ancients. 

Around the dome on the outside 
appears the roll of honor of the great 
discoverers. 

Sculpture. — With the exception of 
the Agricultural Building, no single 
edifice approaches the Administration 




"Industry" Group on Administration Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor. 



It is upon the outer and upper 
dome that Dodge has painted his 
picture, "The Glorification of the 
Arts and Sciences." The idea there 
carried out is in the representation of 
Apollo sitting on a lofty throne and 
conferring honors upon the victors in 
war and the leaders in science and 
in art. The form of a warrior is bent 
before him, and other favorites ap- 
proach on the broad steps that lead to 
the throne. In the procession which 
extends around the dome are figures 



Building for profusion of sculpture or 
richness of design. Describing it in 
detail, its able author, the sculptor 
Karl Bitter of New York, says: 

The Administration Building is dec- 
orated with twenty-eight groups and a 
number of single figures and relievos. 
Bas-reliefs of a larger size are espe- 
cially used for adorning the interior of 
the dome. The most remarkable are 
those groups which are placed at the 
sides of the entrances. They are 
each thirty-four feet high, and repre- 



54 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



sent the four elements — " Fire," 
«« Water," " Air," and " Earth." At 
the one side of an entrance we see the 
element in its natural, unsubdued con- 
dition, and at the other side it is rep- 
resented as in the service of man and 
subdued by him. 

At the side opposite to the Central 
Railroad Depot there is exhibited the 
element "Earth." The first group 
appears crowned with the figure of an 



stately figure of a woman is proudly 
lifting in the air a crown, pearls, and 
precious stones, while with the other 
hand she lets droop her vesture in rich 
folds. She will show that man forced 
from the earth all that was exquisite, 
valuable, and desirous to him. Be- 
neath her is a strong man breaking a 
rock in order to get at the raw ma- 
terials, which, completely manufact- 
ured, she is holding in her hand. At 




Group on Administrati 

old but powerful man, who, resting 
his sturdy fist on his knee, is staring- 
forward. It is to allegorize the bulk 
of a mountain, the imposing form of 
a rock. Beneath this figure is stand- 
ing a fierce fellow, who, leaning on a 
chopped mammoth-tooth, looks at his 
wife, who is wrestling with an ape 
for fruit. Thus it is to represent the 
earth in its original relations to man, 
who lived like the animals. 
At the other side the opulent, 



on Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor. 



her right side is standing a youth, 
who, with a smile, carries upon his 
shoulder a basket full of fruit and 
grain. 

Opposite to the Machinery Hall is 
to be seen the element " Fire." The 
fury and demon-like nature of the 
uncontrolled element is shown by a fe- 
male figure pushing forward, holding 
in her outstretched right hand a snake, 
toward the spectator. She is resting 
on the form of a man, who, with full, 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



55 



sensuous face, represents the storm, 
and who seems to force the woman in 
the direction where his arm is point- 
ing. Beneath, there is crouched the 
figure of a woman with a malicious 
expression secretly trying to set fire to 
a pile of wood. 

At the other side of this entrance 
" Genius" is lifting a torch as a symbol 
of light, the best gift rendered to us 



beneath him a daughter of Nereus, in 
her bold play with a Triton, shows us 
allegorically that which we admire in 
water masses. Emerging from the 
depth to the crest of the wave, her 
hair tangling in the white foam, the 
daughter of Nereus grasps the locks 
of the Triton and pulls him over. His 
anguish shows that he is compelled 
to submit and that soon the smooth 




"Fine Arts" Group on Administration Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor. 

by fire. A smith who has stricken a uprising will disappear under his 

demon with his hammer to the feet of mighty crash. 

" Genius " is intended to represent the As a counterpart, showing the ele- 

usefulness of fire for the daily usage ment in its subdued state, we see a 

of man. vigorous youth in a boat carried on 

Looking toward the lake and the the breast of the water, which is now 

beautiful lagoons are placed the groups forced to lend its strength to carry 

representing "Water." Neptune, as man, with an oar in hand pushing his 

the mythological representative of way onward. Another draws to the 

this element, stands as the center surface Nereus' daughter, and tears 

figure, and rules with mighty out- from her the pearls which she has so 

stretched hand the agitated waters; long guarded at the bottom of the sea, 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



At the fourth side, opposite to the 
Mining Building, we find placed the 
element "Air." Two maiden figures 
are in dancing motion between the 
clouds. One of them is turning her 
body as though to show the twirling of 
the wind. Overhead there are two 
Cupid-like figures of children also 
contesting in play. 

As counterpart a man is eagerly 
holding in his hands the model of an 
air-ship. By his enthusiastic features 



nature renders to man. Strength, 
patriotism, religious sentiment, dili- 
gence, charitableness, love of liberty, 
satisfaction by pleasure, respect for 
traditions, etc., are thus symbolized. 
Special regard is thus paid to the 
character and the principles of the 
American nation. In the highest 
points, at the sides of the four smaller 
domes which surround the main 
dome, there are finally placed eight 
more groups, allegorizing the extreme 




Commerce " Group on Administration Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor. 



is plainly seen " he has succeeded." 
The genius which rises behind him 
seems to be lifting the ship. Be- 
neath the inventor is the figure of a 
youth as the assistant of the aeronaut, 
who is looking in ecstasy upon the 
success of the work. 

The Administration Building has 
four wings, popularly called pavilions. 
They are decorated by twelve groups, 
each pavilion having three, allegoriz- 
ing the elements, their capacities, in- 
clinations, and dispositions which 



culminating points of human culture, 
as art and science, industry and com- 
merce, war and peace, theology and 
j ustice . In constructing these groups , 
of course more consideration was paid 
to the decorative effect than to an 
accurate representation of the theme. 
They are located at such a height that 
the boys sounding on the trumpets, 
who are bending forward at each side 
of the middle figures, exhibit more 
architectonical lines than the pretty 
forms of their bodies. The leading 



ADMTNISTRA TION B UILDING. 



57 



motive of these groups, with their 
winged female figures and rich decor- 
ative additions, is to display a most 
charming interruption to the archi- 
tectonical masses. 

Above each entrance there are 
standing two single figures, which 
belong to the representation of the 
elements beneath them. 

Inside, in the uppermost part of the 
dome, just below the ceiling-piece, can 
be seen bas-reliefs representing " Co- 
lumbia" sitting upon a throne. She 
distributes laurels as a symbol of rec- 
ognition to the different industries 
shown below her. Among these bas- 
reliefs there is a circle of winged 
genii holding tablets with inscrip- 
tions referring to the most prominent 
inventions. 

A number of female figures sym- 
bolical of Victory, stepping forward 
and carrying palms of peace, are 
placed upon the columns at the en- 
trance to the dome, animating in 
spirit and sentiment, and rendering 
to the sum total the impression of en- 
tire perfection. 

KARL BITTER. 

New York. 

The dome of this building is visi- 
ble for miles, being coated with alu- 
minium bronze, and greatly resembles 
in appearance the celebrated Inva- 



h'des, which holds the tomb of the 
great Napoleon, at Paris. The richly 
and tastefully decorated interior of 
this building affords offices for the 
administration officials, bank, fire, 
and police departments, and of course 
is not complete without a magnifi- 
cent restaurant. 

Banking Facilities at the Fair. — 
On the main floor in the southwest 
pavilion of the Administration Build- 
ing a national bank of Chicago con- 
ducts a model bank, with safe deposits 
in the basement, immediately be- 
neath the banking-room. 

The Statue of Columbus. — As the 
visitor leaves the magnificent Ad- 
ministration Building, possibly alter 
having taken a superb bird's-eye view 
of the grounds, buildings, and water- 
ways from the outer galleries en- 
circling the huge golden dome, the 
heroic statue of Columbus, modeled 
by Miss Mary T. Lawrence of New 
York, is immediately before him. 

The pose of the figure is simple 
and natural, yet vigorous and im- 
pressive, and the characterization of 
the head seems to be happily real- 
ized. It is Columbus as he may well 
have looked when, worn and sad- 
dened by the trials of his voyage 
and those which preceded it, he felt 
that he was planting the cross in a 
new world. 



CHAPTER IV. 




WHAT MRS. VAN RENSSELAER SAYS. 



HE view from the front 
of the Administration 
Building is perhaps 
the grandest vista in 
( this " White City of 
/^ magnificent dis- 
tances." To the 
artistic and the art 
critic it affords the 
finest field for graceful dic- 
tion. It is appropriate, there- 
fore, here to present the 
very interesting and valua- 
ble article especially writ- 
ten for Rand, McNally & Co.'s Hand- 
Book of the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition, by Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensse- 
laer of New York, one of the best- 
known art critics of America. The 
noted authoress of that noble volume, 
" English Cathedrals," has nothing 
but praise for the "White City" as 
a whole — praise from her able and 
artistic pen being in this respect 
' ' praise indeed. " Entitling her grace- 
ful criticism 

"THE FAIR GROUNDS," 

Mrs. Van Rensselaer says: 

The great French Exhibition of 
1889, more beautiful than any of its 
predecessors in any land, was part and 
parcel of the city of Paris. Its 
transitory, festal character was, in- 
deed, very evident, and contrasted 
with the monumental stability and 
seriousness of the streets through 
which one passed to reach it. Never- 
theless, the Fair buildings were, 
broadly speaking, in architectural ac- 
cord with the city's general aspect. 
From any point which overlooked 
them their beauty was greatly in- 
creased by the beauty of the encir- 
cling town. But for the gates and 
ticket-takers it might have been hard 



to divine where permanent Paris 
ended and its Exhibition grounds be- 
gan. And this was doubly true be- 
cause no place of entrance immedi- 
ately gave the visitor a very fine point 
of outlook; he had to find his way 
to some more central spot before he 
realized the full splendor of the Fair. 

But here miles of suburbs filled 
with railroad-tracks and half-built 
boulevards stretch between Chicago 
and the new " White City," and the 
separation in site is not more dis- 
tinct than the separation in architect- 
ural character. Of course, the unity 
which was possible at Paris facili- 
tated in one way the labors of the 
builders of its Fair. Yet gain in an- 
other way attended the division 
which exists at Chicago; for, accent- 
ing the exhibition as a new creation 
for a special purpose — as a fairy-land 
of beauty quickly wrought for a 
single summer's use — it permitted 
the builders to found and fashion in 
quite unhampered ways. Even 
French architects, I think, might be 
glad of so fresh and free an oppor- 
tunity. And at all events, as Chicago 
— despite the novel triumphs of con- 
structional science with which it will 
amaze foreign eyes — has not the 
architectural beauty of Paris, the in- 
dependence of its Fair, although de- 
termined by necessity, may certainly 
be accounted a piece of artistic good 
fortune. 

Working in perfect freedom, neither 
helped nor fettered by the close vi- 
cinity of a permanent town, our 
artists have created a more beautiful 
Fair than even the Parisian one of 1886. 
I do not think that any one who has 
seen the two will question this fact. 
And it is a fact which seems all the 
more creditable to our young nation, 
inexperienced in the management of 



(58) 



THE FAIR GROUNDS. 



59 



vast artistic undertakings and unas- 
sisted by official organization and 
guidance, when we remember that all 
natural advantages in the way of site 
were in the Frenchmen's favor. 

At Paris there lay all ready for the 
Fair builders' hands the vast level 
Champ de Mars, already once put to 
similar service. Bordering it ran the 
wide River Seine, crossed by hand- 
some bridges, edged by dignified 
buildings, and dotted with verdurous 
islands. And on the opposite side 
of the Seine rose the imposing slope 
of the Trocadero Hill, crowned by 
its turreted palace, a permanent 
legacy from the exhibition of 1878. 
No more convenient or more beauti- 
ful site for the erection of another 
Fair could have been desired, and 
those who dealt with it made the 
most of it in a very artistic way, 
greatly improving upon the aspect of 
the Fair of 1878. Their buildings 
were beautifully designed, grouped, 
and decorated, and the whole im- 
pression made by the grounds on 
both sides of the river as one saw 
them from the bridge, from the top of 
the Trocadero Hill, or from a bal- 
cony on the Eiffel Tower, was digni- 
fied and splendid as well as extremely 
gay, picturesque, and charming. 

Our Fair, I say, is still more beau- 
tiful; and what was its site two years 
ago? 

The first idea was to create the 
Fair half along the Lake Front with- 
in the city, and half in the completed 
portion of Jackson Park, several miles 
away; but the landscape gardener, 
Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, decided 
that something better than this might 
be done, and the chiefs of construc- 
tion, Messrs. Burnham and Root, 
agreed with him. The whole of Jack- 
son Park, they said, might be used, 
although only a small part of it had 
yet been improved. This part con- 
tained some pretty plantations of 
small trees and an ornamental sheet 
of water. All the rest was a dreary 
expanse of ridgy sand-dunes, divided 
by swampy hollows where the over- 
flowing water of the lake often lay to 
a considerable depth. To transform 
this into solid ground, over an area 
half as large again as the site of the 



Paris Exhibition, would have been 
financially if not physically impossi- 
ble. And even had it been possible 
the result would have been a flat, 
monotonous, barren site, incapable 
of transfiguration into any type of 
beauty hitherto discovered by build- 
ers of great groups of independent 
yet related structures. 

But the presence of the lake in- 
spired another solution. It was the 
waters of the lake which made the 
proposed site unfit to bear great 
buildings; yet a wide outlook over 
these waters was the only natural at- 
traction which Chicago could offer 
its Fair builders. Why might not 
their properly regulated presence 
within the borders of the Fair be 
made to compensate for the absence 
of that variety in elevation, that silver 
river, and those wide green lawns and 
umbrageous trees which constituted 
the charm of the Paris site? Noth- 
ing of the kind had ever been done 
before, but to the bold imagination 
of these artists that fact seemed 
merely another favoring argument. 
And practical reasoning pointed in 
the same direction as artistic reason- 
ing. Dig the proposed canals and 
basins extensive enough to make 
them dominate in the general effect, 
and the soil thus excavated would 
suffice to solidify the spots where the 
buildings must stand. 

Go now to the top of one of the big 
domes or towers and take a bird's- 
eye view of the Fair. You will see to 
the eastward of it a limitless expanse 
of water, and to the westward a limit- 
less expanse of prairie, and will real- 
ize that where they met there might 
well have been, two years ago, not 
even a solid, ugly stretch of prairie- 
land, but only an ugly, treacherous 
marsh. Looking over this ground 
now — here with its straight, stately, 
wide canals and architectural terraces, 
and there with its irregularly shaped 
lagoons and islands — you will under- 
stand that a great artist like Mr. 
Olmsted can absolutely create in a 
way which almost equals nature's 
own. To-day it seems a simple 
enough idea — this bringing in the 
lake to solidify the land; but it was 
one of those simple ideas which only 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



a great mind conceives for the first 
time, and one of those very practical 
ideas which only an artist conceives. 
I mean, that while a practical man 
might have seen the feasibility of the 
scheme, only an artist could have 
seen its desirability; and only a great 
artist could have foretold how diversi- 
fied beauty — variety in harmony — 
might thus be secured even better 
than upon a more naturally advan- 
tageous site. 

It does not matter much by which 
of its entrances you approach the 
Fair — whether you come by water 
and, passing under the triumphal arch 
surmounted by the Discoverer group, 
find the huge golden statue of the 
Republic immediately before you; 
and past the long, wide reach of the 
Great Basin, flanked by the facades 
of four immense palaces, see in the 
distance the America Fountain, and 
beyond it the square, solid mass of 
the Administration Building, sur- 
mounted by the vast dome which 
is the Fair's crowning feature; or 
whether you come by rail and, pass- 
ing through the splendid vestibule 
which this building forms, stand in 
the Plaza, with the fountain in the 
foreground and the Basin beyond, 
finished by the towering America, 
and the colonnaded portico giving 
glimpses of the lake on the fair hor- 
izon. It does not matter, for in either 
case your point of view will have 
been carefully planned for as a first 
point of view. First impressions al- 
ways count for much; and the way 
in which our Fair builders have thus 
provided only two great entrances, 
but have given each of them monu- 
mental magnificence, and opened in 
front of each the most splendid and 
harmonious of their vistas, is certainly 
one point where they have proved 
their superiority to the builders of 
any previous exhibition. 

The harmony, the essential unity 
of this imposing vista from east to 
west or from west to east will be the 
first thing to impress you once you 
have absorbed the surprising impres- 
sion which architectural works can 
make by dint of mere colossal size, 
rich elaboration, and brilliancy of 
color, fe You will not believe that you 



are standing in a temporary pleasure- 
ground, constructed by many artists, 
uncontrolled by anything but their 
own sense of artistic fitness ; or that 
you are still living in our prosaic, 
calculating, commercial nineteenth 
century. This formally arranged por- 
tion of the Fair looks as though it had 
been built to please the eye of some 
beauty -loving potentate, able to bend 
all individual talents to a single task. 
And because of the harmony thus 
revealed on so grand a scale and with 
such richness of decoration, because 
the items of beauty and impressive- 
ness are so many and varied yet so 
concordant, you will behold a sight 
which, I am unafraid to say, has not 
been paralleled since the Rome of 
the emperors stood intact with marble 
palace, statue, terrace, bridge, and 
temple under an Italian sky no bluer 
than our own. You will feel that the 
Romans whom Augustus ruled must 
somewhere have built themselves a 
Venice, and that somehow you have 
been spirited back 2,000 years to 
see it. 

Of course, big as it is, our Fair is a 
small place compared to imperial 
Rome, and, fine though most of its 
structures are, many of them show 
faults which the Romans would not 
have committed. Nevertheless, I be- 
lieve that on no spot in the modern 
world has so impressive a panorama 
been unrolled as the one you will see 
when you stand near either of the en- 
trances to our Fair, or, still better 
perhaps, on one of the bridges which 
span the long canal where it crosses 
the Great Basin. Here four vistas, 
to east and west, to north and south, 
open out before you; three finished 
with rich arrangements of columns 
and statues, and one stretching away 
toward a distant green expanse and 
still more distant facades and domes. 

It is worth while to question upon 
what depends the harmonious unity 
of these vistas. It depends, in the 
first place, upon the existence of a 
definite, well-considered ground-plan 
for the Fair. No building, no fount- 
ain, bridge, or statue, looks as though 
it had been set down at random. If 
the position of one were altered, the 
effect of them all, we feel, would be 



THE FAIR GROUNDS. 



61 



injured. The smallest as well as the similar way were settled not only the 
largest ' was set where its presence style and the dimensions of the great 
was required by the demands of the buildings, but also the size and gen- 
general scheme. Then scale has been eral character of their chief features, 
as carefully considered as position. The same height was adopted for all 
If each feature, large and 
small, is in the right 
place, so also each is of 
the right size. Alter the 
size of one and it would 
seem out of place. Alter 
its place, and it might 
easily seem of the wrong 
size. The golden Re- 
public was not built 
ninety feet tall simply 
that she might be very 
conspicuous, or with a 
mere desire to rival the 
colossi of Egypt. Her 
height was carefully cal- 
culated with regard to 
the size of the Great 
Court, the proportions 
of the neighboring por- 
tico, and the dimensions 
of the adjacent buildings. 
Therefore she does not 
seem too large, for she 
does not throw smaller 
things "out of scale." ; 
One thinks first of her 
beauty and of the way 
in which it helps the 
general beauty of the 
scene, and only in the 
second place of her extra- 
ordinary size. It is easy 
to imagine how the effect 
of the scene as a whole 
would be injured were 
she made smaller, or did 
she change places with 
the America Fountain. 

We should never have 
had so beautiful a Fair 
if features like this had 
been left to chance, to 
the caprice of individual 
artists, or had been de- 
termined upon only after 
other parts of the work 
had been done. They 
were determined upon in 
when the right relationship of all 
features could be considered, and 
each could be adapted to the re- 
quirements of its fellows. And in a 




Statue, " Victory," Administration Building. Karl Bitter, Sculptor. 

advance, the main cornice lines, and the same 
height and span for all the great di- 
visions of the walls. The Adminis- 
tration Building towers high above 
its neighbors, but you will notice 



62 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



that its first stage corresponds with 
them in height and general design, 
varying only — as they do among 
themselves — in the treatment of the 
broadly concordant features. As it 
is the main entrance to the Fair 
grounds, the Administration Building 
was rightly made their dominating 
feature. It serves many practical 
purposes, but its chief purpose is sym- 
bolical — is to proclaim the Fair's im- 
mensity and dignity, and its build- 
ers' regard for beauty; to proclaim 
that our Fair has been organized for 
the glorification of art even more than 
for that of science and industry. Well 
expressing this idea, it strikes us as 
more original in conception than any 
other building on the grounds. As far 
as anything of the sort can be new, it 
is a new architectural type. Nothing 
of the same kind had been designed 
before. Triumphal porches, magnifi- 
cent great portals, the world has often 
seen, but never before a whole build- 
ing, of very large size, conceived as a 
vestibule. 

The fact that it is before all a mon- 
umental vestibule is clearly expressed 
by the great importance of its dome. 
The dome does not merely cover and 
complete the substructure; the sub- 
structure really exists for its sake. It 
exists for itself — to shelter incoming 
multitudes, and by its soaring lines 
to explain the existence and the 
splendor of the Fair. The dome is 
the building, and this cannot be said 
in a similar sense of any great dome 
previously built. 

It is, I think, one of the most 
beautiful domes which ever has been 
built; and when we remember that it 
is the chief feature of our Fair, while 
the Eiffel Tower, a merely scientific 
marvel, was the chief feature of the 
Parisian one, we realize in how truly 
artistic a spirit our builders have 
worked. Within their domain no ob- 
ject appealing chiefly to the sense of 
wonder has been permitted. All the 
great features appeal — or, at the very 
least, were meant to appeal — chiefly 
to the sense of beauty; and I may 
say in passing that all the minor 
features, useful or commercial, which 
are scattered around among the large 
buildings have been much more care- 



fully controlled in the interests of 
beauty than was the case at Paris. 

But despite the magnificence of its 
dome and the accordant expressive- 
ness of its lower portions, the Ad- 
ministration Building, taken as a 
whole, is not as beautiful as the Agri- 
cultural Building. This is the most 
beautiful on the Fair grounds, except- 
ing the Fine Arts Building, far 
away; the most interesting and satis- 
fying when one studies its features 
and the manner in which they are 
combined, and much the most suc- 
cessful as regards its sculptural 
adornment. 

One of the most ingeniously ad- 
mirable features of the whole Fair is 
the great colonnade, which unites 
this building with the Machinery 
Building, across the southern end of 
the canal. It not only serves this pur- 
pose of unification, but also screens 
the stock yards from sight while sup- 
plying them with a dignified portal, 
and thus excellently finishes the great 
perspective of the canal. The con- 
trast between the two structures 
which it joins is very striking yet 
harmonious. The Agricultural Build- 
ing is the more scholarly and refined, 
and its various portions are welded 
into a truer unity. But the other 
is the more imposing, the more mag- 
nificent, and, perhaps, the more dis- 
tinctly festal looking, while the Span- 
ish-American character of its tall pa- 
vilions gives it a peculiar appropriate- 
ness on these Columbian Fairgrounds. 

I need not refer to the unparalleled 
scientific triumph won by those who 
roofed the Manufactures Building, ex- 
cept to say that the huge iron trusses 
seen in its interior are as worthy of 
admiration from the esthetic as from 
the mechanical point of view. The 
simplicity of its exterior is in true ar- 
tistic accord with its vast size, for 
when a building is very large indeed 
no architectural device is so effect- 
ive as the extended repetition of simi- 
lar features. Greater variety, greater 
picturesqueness have been sought in 
the Electricity Building than in any 
of its neighbors, not everywhere with 
entire success, yet still in away which 
does not seriously mar the harmonious 
effect of the great Plaza and Basin. 



THE FAIR GROUNDS. 



63 



Passing down the canal beside it, 
and beneath a bridge, we enter the 
lagoon and the less symmetrically 
arranged portion of the Fair grounds; 
and at no point are we so much im- 
pressed by the skill of their plan- 
ners. It can not have been an easy 
task to discover how architectural for- 
mality might be contrasted with semi- 
naturalistic informality and yet the 
whole scheme be kept an artistic 
unit, and no inharmonious perspect- 
ives mar the point of juncture. But 
a way was found, and nowhere from 
water or shore do we note incongru- 
ity or disharmony of effect. 

Architectural incongruities do in- 
deed appear as soon as we enter the 
lagoon. The Transportation Build- 
ing is very simple in line and very 
gorgeous in color, yet not out of keep- 
ing with its associates; the Horticult- 
ural Building is especially success- 
ful as regards its dome, contrasting 
so effectively in shape and sub- 
stance with the solider things around 
it; and the Woman's Building is re- 
fined and pleasing. But the United 
States Building is as bad as, in these 
days, nothing but one of our gov- 
ernment buildings is likely to be. It 
is bad in design, and bad in treatment 
and finish; its only virtue is as an 
object-lesson, pointing the fact that 
a general reform is needed in the 
matter of our official architecture. 
And the Illinois Building, too big 
for its place because it shuts off the 
view of the Art Building, is also un- 
satisfactory in mass and crowned by 
a very ugly dome. But the scheme 
prepared for the architects by the 
landscape gardeners was extremely 
fine, and their special work in cre- 
ating the island I do not need to 
praise. 

Round this island, pass beneath 
another bridge, and another sheet of 
water opens before you — the one 
which existed before the Fair was 
proposed. Its shores, too, are injured 
by the excessive size of the Illinois 
Building, and by overcrowding in 
other places with foreign and State 
buildings, which do not harmonize 
with one another. Nevertheless it has 
not really been spoiled as a whole, 
and it beautifully plays its chief 



role as a foreground for the surpass- 
ingly beautiful Art Building. 

You can not look at this too long or 
admire it too greatly. It is the finest 
thing on the Fair grounds, and the 
finest building of so classical a sort 
which the modern world has construct- 
ed. It is not just like any building 
which classic nations themselves con- 
structed; it is much larger and more 
varied in mass, and its dome is a dis- 
tinct innovation. But we feel it is just 
such a building as the Greeks might 
have built had they known about 
domes and had they wanted some- 
thing of this size for a similar site and 
purpose. It is as carefully considered 
in feature as it is vigorous, yet grace- 
ful, in outline and mass; and its 
setting on the brink of the little lake 
adds immeasurably to its charm. 

Behind it, alas, the grounds are 
very crowded. So many things had 
to be built here, and they were built 
by so many different hands, that the 
effect is very much huddled and in 
many spots very inharmonious. Still, 
some of the foreign buildings are fine, 
and all of thern are interesting; and 
some of the State buildings, like New 
York's, Ohio's, and Minnesota's, de- 
serve high praise, while others, like 
California's, have the value which 
attaches to intelligent adaptations of 
old-time local ways of building. 

Then, leaving the center of the 
grounds and passing toward the lake 
shore, we find the picturesque indi- 
vidual and delightful Fisheries Build- 
ing, with its ingenious novelties in the 
way of decoration; and then can re- 
trace our course along the splendid 
esplanade which makes the seaward 
finish of the grounds, eventually reach- 
ing the Forestry Building, near their 
southern limits — a glorification, so to 
say, of "rustic" architectural methods. 

Many styles of architecture meet the 
eye as we thus make the circuit of the 
Fair, and many more if we leave its 
actual limits and survey the Midway 
Plaisance, where more purely com- 
mercial enterprises have been allowed 
to develop themselves. The effort to 
adapt some ancient style, or some 
modern kind of eclecticism, to the 
special purpose in view has not always 
been successful. But there are few 



64 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



distressing failures. Even where only 
a partial success has been obtained, 
an intelligent eye may gather much 
instruction; and there are some very 
remarkable triumphs in all portions of 
the Fair grounds. 

The Art Building, as I have said, 
is admirably, perfectly successful in its 
very pure and noble way; and I think 
the Romanesque of Southern Europe 
has rarely been so artistically used in 
modern times as in the Fisheries Build- 
ing. But taken as a whole the form- 
ally disposed southern portions of the 
grounds are of course the finest — the 
portions which have won our Fair the 
name of the ' ' White City " and of 
the "Venice of the West." Here 
the landscape architect's scheme is 
most novel, most stately and splen- 
did; and here we learn the mean- 
ing of architectural unity on an ex- 
tensive scale. We see that such unity 
creates a general beauty of effect 
which architectural diversity can not 
rival, while also the special value of 
each work is enhanced by its con- 
cordant contrast with its neighbors. 
We see, too, that unity need not 
mean monotony or the extinguishing 
of personalities if the broad architect- 
ural path is wisely chosen. The al- 
lied yet not identical Renaissance 
styles chosen by the builders of this 
part of the Fair were unquestionably 
the best for their purpose. In using 
them so harmoniously, yet so individ- 
ually, they have shown us a pano- 
rama of beauty such as we had never 
even dreamed about before; and their 
result should do much to prove to 
our people that beauty is a thing of 
priceless worth — typifying as it does 
the search for intellectual and spirit- 
ual rather than for material profit. 
No man or woman will come to Chi- 
cago this summer without recogniz- 
ing that the Fair has been based on a 
serious recognition of the fact that 
commercial prosperity alone can not 
make a nation great; and the lesson 
thus taught must be of immense na- 
tional service. Through the voice of 
the big, busy, practical, money-mak- 
ing city of Chicago America herself 
declares: Lo, it is not Mammon you 
should worship, but the light-bring- 
ing, health-giving gods of intelli- 



gence, refinement, and beauty! And 
all America's children will listen, be- 
lieve, learn, and practice, as they 
would in obedience to no voice ex- 
cept her own. 

M. G. VAN RENSSELAER. 
New York. 

With such a glorious panorama be- 
fore her, well may this broad-minded, 
brilliant, and intellectual woman ex- 
claim, with righteous indignation, in 
a recent contribution to The Forum: 
"Asa pleasuring-place Jackson Park 
will have attractions never before 
approached in our land; but as a 
place for self -instruction, self-cultiva- 
tion, it will surpass any other spot 
in the world. And yet this is the 
place that those self-styled Christians 
who do not believe Christ's distinct 
assertion that the Sabbath was made 
for man, not man for the Sabbath, 
desire to have closed on the one day 
of the week when our mind-hungry, 
beauty-starved, ignorant, but eagerly 
ambitious masses could best make 
use of its civilizing and uplifting 
ministrations." 

Sad, nay, almost sacrilegious, does 
it seem that in less than one brief 
year — 

" These cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous 

palaces, 
The solemn temples 

shall dissolve, 

And like this unsubstantial pageant faded, 
Leave not a rack behind. 1 ' 

Like the songs and sublime diction 
of that " sweet swan of Avon," they 
should endure ' ' not for an age, but for 
all time." 

In front of the Columbus Statue, on 
the verge of and facing the Main 
Basin, stands the finest and most 
artistic composition on the Exposition 
grounds — the Columbian Fountain 
(N 19), designed by Mr. Frederick 
MacMonnies, and executed by him 
principally in his Paris studio. Re- 
sembling closely in symbolical de- 
sign a remarkable sketch alleged to 
have been made by Columbus him- 
self, in part it follows the general de- 
sign of the fountain at the Paris Ex- 
position. Its sea-horses recall the new 
Fontaine de la Federation, Toulon, 
but in its entirety the conception is 



COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN. 



65 



infinitely superior, and in execution 
more artistic. Brief! y, the conception 
is as follows: The center part is de- 
signed as a medieval barge, drawn by 
huge sea-horses frothing and spouting 
foam and sea- water, and by centaurs 
bestridden and urged on. Enthroned 
and above all sits Columbia, majestic 
in dignity and pose, the personifica- 



advent and progress of the nation. 
The motto "2s filuribus ununt" (one 
out of many) is graven on the pedestal 
supporting the principal figure. Mar- 
velous in conception, masterly in exe- 
cution and design, the Columbian 
Fountain may well be regarded as 
Mr. MacMonnies' chef-d'oeuvre, and 
as a glorious triumph for a com- 




A View from the Colonnade. 



tion of liberty, freedom, and power, 
with Father Time as steersman, 
" like Palinurus nodding at the helm." 
Assisting in the propulsion of the 
Ship of State, on either side are four 
female figures, representing the arts 
and sciences, gracefully pulling huge 
sweeps, or oars. At the bow of the 
barge, Fame, a beautiful female 
figure, with a herald's trumpet in 
hand, proclaims with clarion note the 



paratively young sculptor. Snowy 
white, to match the " White City "it 
adorns and beautifies, it may be ques- 
tioned whether its most entrancing 
appearance will not be when the sun 
has sunk beneath the horizon and 
electricity comes to man's aid and 
enjoyment. Then, when the power- 
ful electric fountains on either side 
shoot forth their multicolored jets of 
water, when the spray is tinted in 



66 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



myriad rays and the huge search- 
lights lend a weird, wonderful bright- 
ness to the scene, the visitor watch- 
ing the shadow chasing the ray across 
this beauteous group of figures will 
find some substantial excuse for that 
ancient conceit of Aristotle that ' ' orig- 
inally in every block of marble there 
was a noble statue which would ap- 
pear in all its pristine glory when the 
superfluous covering was removed by 
the touch of a true artist's hand." 

Two of the largest electric fount- 
ains ever made stand on either side of 
the Columbian Fountain. Their ba- 
sins are each sixty feet in diameter. 

The Edison Company, which has 
the contracts for the fountains, as a 
part of its exhibit, made an outlay of 
over $100,000 for the display. The 
cost of operation is estimated all the 
way from $500 to $1,000 nightly, but 
the returns from attendance increased 
by the attraction of the fountains is 
expected to reach into the tens of 
thousands every night the fountains 
play. The nocturnal illumination of 
the Exposition is to be made a feature. 
Long rows of incandescent bulbs are 
arranged along the sides of canals and 
lagoons. All the buildings surround- 
ing the Grand Plaza will be ablaze 
with light, and powerful search-lights 
on lofty towers will turn the darkest 
night into day. 

The View of the Main Basin — 
Standing by the MacMonnies Fount- 
ain with his face toward the 
lake, or eastward, the visitor gazes 
upon the grandest view of the Ex- 
position — that of the Main Basin 
(M 21). Before him, impressive in its 
altitude and grandeur, French's co- 
lossal Statue of the Republic, like a 
new Venus Anadyomene, rises from 
the rippling waters of the Main Basin. 
To his right are the graceful outlines 
of Machinery Hall, with the colon- 
nade and obelisk in harmony and con- 
trast. Then the ornate and classic 
Agricultural Building projects into 
the picture, with decorations and 
sculpture bewildering in detail and 
delightful in attractiveness. The 
Casino, the classic Peristyle, and the 
Music Hall, crowned with statuary 
and crested with the grand Columbus 
Quadriga, partially obscure Lake 



Michigan's blue waters, but enhance 
their effect when viewed through fluted 
columns and snowy pillars. Two 
dwarf reproductions of the Temple of 
Vesta fill vacant corners, and the vis- 
itor's eye then reaches the colossal pro- 
portions of the Manufactures and Lib- 
eral Arts Building, severe in its mass- 
ive simplicity. Then a long vista of 
lagoon, with the huge and rather in- 
artistic dome of the United States 
Government Building, a delicate detail 
of Henry Ives Cobb's handsome Fish- 
eries Building, and Illinois' huge, 
heavy dome close the left of the 
picture, with glimpses of lagoon and 
Wooded Island, bridges crowned with 
statuary, and last of all Electricity's 
handsome, airy home. 

THE ELECTRICITY 
BUILDING 

(L 18) is thus described by its able 
architects, Messrs. Van Brunt & Howe, 
of Kansas City: 

This building lies parallel with the 
Mines Building, is of nearly the same 
dimensions — 350 x 700 feet — and the 




Henry Van Brunt. 

contrast in the architectural character 
of the two structures illustrates the 
fact that the purposes of these two 
buildings exercised a controlling in- 
fluence over the design of each. The 
Mines Building contains an exhibit of 
coarse products and heavy machinery 
and appliances, and consequently has 
been treated with broad, plain surfaces 
and large details, the aim of the 
architect having been to create an 
impression of breadth and repose. 
The Electricity Building, on the other 



~ ~ 



'If 




THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



hand, as its contents are mainly of 
delicate form and finer structure, is 
naturally treated with a correspond- 
ing refinement and delicacy of detail, 
and the idea of electricity itself has 
imposed upon the design a quality 
of restlessness or movement obtained 
by frequent repetitions of vertical 
members and by a sky-line broken 




^r=- 



Benjamin Franklin. 

by ten towers, or campaniles and 
four domes. 

As this building forms one of the 
group of seven buildings inclosing 
the Great Court of Entrance (the rail- 
way station on the west, the Peristyle 
and its pavilions on the east toward 
the lake, Machinery and Agricultural 
buildings on the south, and the Man- 
ufactures and Electricity buildings on 



the north, the Administration Building 
being in the center of the group), it is, 
like these, in a strict classic style, 
having with them a common height 
of sixty feet to the top of the cornice, 
with other features agreed upon to 
obtain a proper degree of conformity, 
but without repetitions. 

The facades of this building are 
composed with a full Corinthian 
order of pilasters set twenty- 
three feet on centers, the main 
entablatures being broken 
around the pilasters so as to 
accentuate the vertical ele- 
ments, and in conjunction with 
the frequent light towers to 
give to the general design a 
movement which in contrast 
with its neighbors may be sug- 
gestive of the mysterious func- 
tions of electricity. 

The center of each front has 
a pavilion of entrance; that on 
the north, toward the lagoon, 
and those on the east and west 
being crowned each with two 
lofty towers. The four corners 
of the building are marked by 
lighter pavilions, finishing with 
open campaniles; and on the 
two long sides there are inter- 
mediate bays slightly project- 
ing, with postern doors, and 
treated with low, square domes 
to relieve the uniformity of the 
architecture without absolutely 
breaking the continuity of the 
order. 

On the south is the main en- 
trance* on the court. This, for 
the sake of distinction, is treated 
as a solid pylon, pierced by 
a triumphal arch, 58 feet wide 
and 92 feet high, which forms 
the frame of a great semicir- 
cular niche, or hemicycle, cov- 
ered by a half dome. In the 
center of this niche stands on a lofty 
pedestal a colossal statue of Franklin, 
who, in his discovery of the electrical 
properties of lightning, happily asso- 
ciates a patriotic name with the prog- 
ress of electrical investigation. The 
great Corinthian order is carried 
around this niche, which contains three 
main doorways, and the half dome is 
divided by corresponding ribs into 



ELECTRICITY BUILDING. 



panels, and treated with Renaissance 
devices in relief against a background 
of greenish-blue. The upper part of 
this pylon is distinguished from the 
rest of the sky-lines of the edifice by a 
treatment of simple horizontal lines, 
and the main fabric is supported on 
the right and left by consoles or orna- 
mental buttresses, two on each side, 
each being crowned with a statue fif- 
teen feet high representing the func- 
tions of electricity as applied to the 
industrial arts. 

The north end, toward the lagoon — 
where the formal character of the 
court is abandoned and a more pict- 
uresque treatment is adopted, in sym- 
pathy with the features of irregular 
outline in water and land which pre- 
vail there — has its central entrance 
pavilion, containing a great arched 
window recessed between two semi- 
circular or apsidal projections — these 
three features occupying together the 
whole of this front. 

Each bay of the facades all around 
the building contains two ranges of 
windows corresponding with the in- 
terior stories. The lower range is 
decorated with a small Ionic order, 
which, when carried around these 
two apses, forms between them an 
open porch with a great balcony over 
it. The frieze of this inferior order 
contains the names of those who from 
the beginning have been associated 
with electrical discoveries and in- 
ventions. Where the frieze of the 
main order is carried around the re- 
cess of the hemicycle it contains 
Turgot's famous epigram on Frank- 
lin: "Eripuit ccelo fulmen scep- 
i 'r ■ unique tyrannise 

The main Corinthian order pro- 
jects in front of the east and west 
central pavilions, with detached col- 
umns and pilasters, so as to form a 
portico crowned with a balustrade. 
The four main entrances on the 
center of each front are the architect- 
ural expressions of the main feature 
of the plan, which consists of a longi- 
tudinal nave 115 feet wide and 114 
feet high, crossed by a central 
transept of the same width and 
height, the roofs being supported by 
a series of steel arched trusses, set 
twenty-three feet apart. The rest 



of the building is treated with flat 
roofs and is in two stories, the upper 
story having the character of a gal- 
lery. The flat roofs are furnished 
with frequent skylights, so that the 
whole interior is abundantly lighted. 

The conventional decoration of the 
exterior of this building is relieved by 
repetitions of the electro-magnet and 
lamp, and other more or less familiar 
devices suggestive of electrical func- 
tions. 

The south front of the lower story 
forms an open arcade, corresponding 
in use to those provided in all the 
other buildings around the Great 
Court. 

VAN BRUNT & HOWE. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Statuary and Decorations. — At the 

southern end of the building, in front 
of the hemicycle which forms the 
main entrance, stands the heroic 
statue of Benjamin Franklin, exe- 
cuted by the sculptor Carl Rohl- 
Smith, a Danish-American, who cer- 
tainly had for his inspiration one 
of the most dramatic subjects in 
American history — that of Franklin's 
discovery that electricity might be 
brought down, even with a child's 
plaything, from the angry heavens; 
thus laying the foundation for its sub- 
jugation as one of man's servants. , 
Grasping with one hand his kite, 
which rests upon the ground, the 
other holds aloft the key with which 
this greatest of all nature's mysteries 
was unlocked. His head is thrown 
back. Glorious in its triumph appears 
the face, as if still searching the 
heavens, and the whole pose is one of 
mastery and power. While some 
critics have pronounced the statue 
overdrawn, all agree that it is full of 
freedom and power, and, considered 
in regard to its heroic suroundings as 
well as to the requirements of the 
plastic art it is certainly one of the 
finest pieces of statuary on the 
grounds. 

Over the entrances of the build- 
ing are the names of great electri- 
cians and discoverers in electrical 
science. 

The following is the classification of 
exhibits in the Electricity Building: 



70 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



GROUP NO. 

122.— Apparatus illustrating the phe- 
nomena and laws of electricity 126. 
and magnetism. 

123. — Apparatus for electrical meas- 127. 
urements. ■ 12! 




chanical power; dynamical elec- 
tricity. 

Transmission and regulation of 
the electrical current. 
Electric motors. 
Application of electric motors. 



Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Co. 



A 2 "C. & C." Electric Motor Co. 

A 

B 1-2 

F 1 

HI 

A 4-5 Western Electric Co. 

A 7 Taylor, Goodhue & Ames. 

B 3 Eddy Electric Mfg. Co. 

B 41 

C 1 1 

H 2 I 

J 1 \ General Electric Co. 

M 4 I 

N 1 I 

3J 

B 5 Excelsior Electric Co. 

g 5 \ Germany. 

D 2 Electrical Forging Co. 

D 3 Schieren & Co., Chas. A. 

D 4 Munson Belting Co. 

D 5 Page Belting Co. 

E 2 Belknap Motor Co. 

E 3 Elwell-Parker Electric Const. Co. 

E 4 Arnold Mfg Co. 

E 5 Mather, A. C. 

E 7 Queen & Co., Jas. W. 

F 2 Zucker & Levett Chemical Co. 

F 3 Union Electric Co. 

F i Commercial Elect. Co. 

F 5 Chicago Belting Co. 

F 6 Jewell Belting Co. 

F 7 Curtis Elect. Mfg. Co. 

F 6 Greeley, E. S. & Co. 

G 1 American Bell Telephone Co. 

1 1 Phoenix Glass Co. 
J 2 "j 

p 3 I France. 

Q1-2J 

L 1 Crocker-Wheeler Electric Co. 

L 2 Jenney Electric Motor Co. 

L 4 Hansen & Van Winkle Co. 

L 5 Degenhardt, F. E. 

L 6-7 Brush Elect. Co., The 

M 1-2 Anthony Elect. Inst. Co. 

M 3 Fort Wayne Elect. Co., E. A. 

Barnes. 
O 2 Thompson Elect. Welding Co. 
O 4 Heisler Electric Co. 
O 5 England. 
O 6 Russia. 

P 1 Electrical Conduit Co. 
P 2 Standard Electric Co. 
P 4 Electron Mfg. Co. 
P 6 Canada. 
P 9 Elliott Elect. Co. 
P 10 Wing. L. J. & Co. 



MAIN FLOOR 

Ground Plan Electricity Building, 

124. — Electric batteries, primary and 129. — Lighting by electricity. 

secondary. 130. — Heating by electricity. 

125. — Machines and appliances for pro- 131. — Electro-metallurgy and electro- 

ducing electrical currents by me- chemistry. 



ELECTRICITY BUILDING. 



132 




-Electric forgi 
welding, stamp- 
ing, tempering, 
brazing, etc. 
133. — Electric telegraph 

signals. 
134. — The telephone and its appli- 
ances; phonographs. 
135. — Electricity in surgery, den- 
tistry, and therapeutics. 
136. — Application of electricity in 
various ways not hereinbe- 
fore specified. 
137. — History and statistics of 

electrical invention. 
138. — Progress and development 
in electrical science and 
construction, as illustrated by 
models and drawings of various 
countries. 
The Main Exhibits.— The limits of 
this guide forbid more than a mere 
mention of some of the most impor- 
tant attractions of the Electrical 
Building. As is well known, steam 
as a motive power occupies a very 
secondary place, except as a means 
of generating electricity, which is used 
in every conceivable way to make the 
" wheels go round," and that very 
smoothly. 

Entering at the south door, where 
stands the Statue of Franklin, the 
first exhibit seen is that of the Bell 
Telephone Co., Block 18. This com- 
pany makes a display that interests 
every one. A complete central sta- 
tion is one of its features. Models of 
the telephone from its inception to the 
present time are another feature; 
and lastly, a model theatorium, in 
which visitors may listen to orches- 



tras performing in New York or Bos- 
ton. The next block going down the 
center is 19, the Detroit Electrical 
Works exhibit, with a fine display. 
Passing this, the south half of Block 
8 is found, the General Electric Co. , 
which, as its name implies, does not 
confine itself to a single specialty. 

France occupies the two blocks in 
the center, both numbered 16; also 
one west and one northwest of the 
second or most northern block, be- 
sides displays in the northwestern 
bay. 

The French exhibit the latest forms 



72 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



of arc lights as used in the light-house 
service, one of them of 200,000 candle- 
power. 

Turning back along an alley facing 
Block 16 in this bay, on the right hand 
are found the exhibits of Belgium, 
Russia, Spain, and Mexico, Blocks 15, 
14, 13, 12, in the order named. Next 
on the left is England, Block 17, fol- 
lowed on the same side by the Heis- 
ler Electric Co., fractional Block 9, 
with a fine display; and again is seen 
a portion of the General Electric Co., 
fractional Block 8. On the right hand, 
opposite these displays, is the Thomp- 
son Welding Co., Block 10, also oc- 
cupying a space against the west 
wall. Its exhibit is sufficiently indi- 
cated by its name. On the left again 
are two blocks, numbered 8, occupied 
by the General Electric Co. On the 
same side, to the south, is the Fort 




Bell Telephone Co.'s Exhibit. 

Wayne Electric Co., Block 7, which 
shows electrical machinery and ap- 
paratus for electric lighting, power 
transmission, and, in fact, for all pur- 
poses for which electricity is used. 
Opposite, on the right-hand side, is 
the National Electric Co. , Block 6, also 
occupying a space next to the wall. 
The next two blocks, one on either 
side of the alley, are taken by the 
Brush Electric Co., Swan Lamp Co., 
and Short System of Railways. The 
small spaces against the western and 
southern walls, 4, 3, and 1, are held 
respectively by the Germania Electric 
Co., Hansen & Van Winkle, and the 
Crocker- Wheeler Electric Co. Block 
2, against the south wall, belongs to 
the Jenney Electric Motor Co., which 
also furnishes electric lighting and 
stationary motor machinery. Passing 



the door and going down to the alley 
next east of the right-hand main aisle, 
Block 21 is that of the " C. & C." 
Motor Co. , also engaging generally in 
electrical machinery, while Block 22, 
also next to the south wall, belongs to 
the Sperry Electric Machine Co. The 
alley entered passes between two 
blocks, each numbered 23, held by 
the Western Electric Co., engaged in 
furnishing lighting plants and other 
electric machinery. The next two 
blocks, one on each side, both num- 
bered 24, show the Westinghouse Co.'s 
exhibit, in connection with which is 
shown the Pelton water-wheel ; power 
generators, model cars, electric lights, 
etc., are displayed. On the left is 
a fractional block, No. 25, the Excel- 
sior Electric Co.; and next this on 
the left are a fractional and a 
whole block, No. 8, of the General 
Electric Co. Beyond these, still to 
the left, are two large blocks (29), both 
used by Germany for her display. 

From this country come three of 
the most perfect search-lights ever 
made — one of them the largest ever 
constructed, with a 73^-foot projector. 
This light, placed at a sufficient alti- 
tude, would furnish ample illumina- 
tion for a lawn-party or ball seven- 
ty-five miles away. As a matter of 
fact, a smaller light, by the same 
makers, exhibited at the Frankfort 
Exposition, did this identical feat for 
a German nobleman at a distance of 
forty-five miles. 

On the right, opposite Germany's 
first block, is Block 30, of the Electric 
Forging Co., another display whose 
name sufficiently indicates the ex- 
hibit; followed on the same side by 
Blocks 31, 32, 33, 34, belonging in the 
order named to the Belknap Motor 
Co., Arnold Motor Co., and A. C. 
Mather. Block 39, in the northeast- 
ern bay, is that of the New York 
Insulated Wire Co. Around the bay 
are Blocks 40, 41, 42, 43, 38, held by 
the Zucker-Leavitt Chemical Co., 
Riker Motor Co., Perkins Lamp Co., 
Akron Electric Co., and E. S. Greeley 
& Co. Going back along the east wall 
are found the following: No. 37, Page 
Belting Co.; 36, Munson Belting Co.; 
35, Schieven Belting Co.; 28, Eddy 
Electric Co.; 27, Hornell Iron Works; 



ELECTRICITY BUILDING. 



73 



26, La Roche Electric Co. Italy has over seven hundred American exhib- 
Block 11, on the west wall, near the its, and displays from Germany, 
northwestern bay. France, England, Canada, Italy, Bel- 

In the exact center of the 
building is Block 20, the Phoenix 
Glass Co.'s exhibit. The con- 
ventional fountain as a center- 
piece of an exposition here 
finds no place, and in its place 
is shown as an exhibit one that 
is perfectly dazzling. 

Foreign countries have been 
placed in the north end of the 
building, on both floors. France, 
in addition to a space in the 
northeast bay, has the two north 
center spaces, and Germany 
the two spaces immediately 
east. 

In some respects the elec- 
trical exhibit made by Germany 
is the most remarkable of all. 
Dr. Walter Lobach, a well- 
known electrician, is at the 
head of it. The firm of Siemens 
& Halske, Berlin, exhibit a dy- 
namo of 1,000 horse-power, one 
of the largest ever constructed, 
and with it furnish part of the 
lighting and motive power to 
the Exposition and to the Ger- 
man parts of it. 

Altogether this part of the 
German Department at the Fair 
is represented by thirty firms in 
the electro-technical field and 
forty-three in mechanics, optics, 
etc., and Berlin, Nuremberg, 
Cologne, Frankfort, and Ham- 
burg are the cities most strongly 
represented. 

The rest of the ground-floor 
has been assigned for the dis- 
play of heavy machinery, and 
the galleries for the display of 
specialties, light machinery, and 
testing instruments. As far 
as practicable, specialties have 
been grouped; all the wire men 
together, carbon manufacturers 
in one place, testing instruments 
in another, etc. 

Edison's kinetograph is found 
here in the American Phono- 
graph Co.'s exhibit, and is a most 
marvelous exhibition. Gray's telauto- 
graph, another electric marvel, is 
shown in the building. There are 




Statue of the Rep' 



gium, Austria, Spain, Sweden, Mex- 
ico, and Russia, in the order of their 
importance as named. 

In private displays there are some 



74 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



that are exceedingly fine ; notably those 
of the Westinghouse Co., the Bell 
Telephone Co., the Brush Co., the 
Heisler Co., the Sperry, the Thomson- 
Houston, and others. The Mackay- 
Bennett Cable Co. shows a complete 
working model of its Atlantic cable, 
with its terminal stations. Twenty- 
seven feet of water represent the 2,700 
miles of ocean between these stations. 

On the west side of the building, 
and among the display of the General 
Electric Company, is a room provided 
especially with lighting arrangements 
of a decorative kind, and so ar- 
ranged as to change the amount of 
lights carried by various meters, so 
as to show their accuracy. 

Then there is a railway and motor 
exhibit that will attract 'attention. 



Mammoth generators, such as are 
constantly used in street-railway serv- 
ice, are abundant. Three of the 
largest are of 450 horse-power, 300 
horse-power, and 150 horse-power, re- 
spectively. 

Another display of considerable 
proportions is the display of insulated 
lighting systems for hotels and large 
business houses. The most modern 
type of direct connected compound 
engines and dynamos are shown. 

Inventor Edison has his goods well 
represented. 

Professor Thomsen, the electrician 
of the General Electric Company, has 
specimens of his work on hand in the 
shape of all the specialties of alter- 
nating supplies and devices. 



CHAPTER V. 




MACHINERY HALL, ETC. 



.HE wonders of 

the electrical 

^W | world inspect- 

^If/SSili^^i-iS >r may well re- 
trace his steps 
to the southern 
end of the build- 
ing, and, re- 
crossing the 
Grand Court of Honor in front of the 
Administration Building, approach 
one of the most graceful structures 
of the whole Exposition, the classic 
Machinery Hall (P 19). It is from 
this direction it should be neared, for 
if approached from either the Stock 
exhibit or from the side toward Stony 
Island Avenue, its exterior presents 
no indication of the beauty of its 
other two faces, as owing to its sur- 
roundings in those directions its walls 
have been purposely left undecorated 
and of the plainest description; but 
where its facades face South Canal 
and the beautiful Administration 
Court it is extremely rich and pleas- 
ing, courting the strictest comparison 
with those palatial neighbors, and is 
not out of keeping with the stately 
colonnades, classic porticoes, and mar- 
ble statues and fountains upon which 
it looks. The architectural design is 
copied from the best types of the Span- 
ish Renaissance, and is thoroughly 
classic in all of its details. The cities 
of Seville and others of the land which 
sent Columbus upon his westward 
voyage have been selected and laid 
under tribute by the architects, Messrs. 
Peabody & Stearns of Boston, to 
furnish the motive of the architecture 
of this building in honor of the Co- 
lumbian anniversary. The covered 
loggia at the first story furnishes a 
promenade-way around the building, 
and the material used for coating 
these fronts is the same as that used 



in all of the principal structures — 
staff. This has been stained a beau- 
tiful ivory tint, and the contrast with 
the subdued color-tints and gold-finish 
of parts of the exterior, such as the 
portico ceiling, is very beautiful. 

Machinery Hall, over 850 feet long 
and 500 feet wide, with an annex 550 
feet in length and 490 feet in width, 
has a floor space of more than seven- 
teen acres, and was erected at a cost of 
$1,200,000. One of its features is 
that the vast arched trusses which 
support the roof of the main building 
are built separately of iron and steel 
in such a manner that they may be 
taken down and sold for use as rail- 



«s 



/ 




L. W. Robinson. 

road train-houses or State exposition 
buildings. The steam power is sup- 
plied from a large power-house, ad- 
joining this building on the south, 
in which every engine and every dy- 
namo is an exhibit. 

A 50-foot gallery surrounds the in- 
terior of the structure. In each of the 
three naves a monster elevated travel- 
ing crane runs from end to end. 

The annex, though of immense pro- 
portions, is simple in design, and is 
modeled after a mill, or foundry. 
It is annular in form , the diameter of 
the outer radius being Soo feet and of 
the inner radius 600 feet. Electrical 
power alone is used in the annex, 



(75) 




tits 



MA CHINES Y HALL. 



77 




-B.,3fcy. tCo. 



while in the main 
building steam is giv- 
en an equally exclu- 
sive privilege. In this 
building is exhibited 
the largest and most 
interesting display of 
electric power ever 
shown. 

The traveling crane 
was a necessity in 
Machinery Hall, for 
no other means could 
have sufficed to move 
the immense masses 
of machinery, the 
largest of which is 
the gigantic Allis en- 
gine, of 2,000 horse- 
power, which runs 
two dynamos, each 
lighting 10,000 incan- 
descent lights. This 
capacity can, if neces- 
sary, be increased 10,- 
000 lights. One of 
the cylinders of this 
monster machine 
weighs thirty tons, 
and its entire weight 
is 325 tons. 

The Statuary and 
Decorations.— On the 
northern exterior, over 
the main entrance, ap- 
pear the words 
" World's Columbian 
Exposition" in large 
gilt letters. Six large 
figures surmount this 
entrance (says Mr. M. 
A. Waagen, their able 
sculptor), each bearing 
a shield on which ap- 
pear the faces of a 
number of prominent 
inventors. Above 
these six figures, be- 
tween the two high 
towers, are placed 
five figures thirteen 
feet high. In the cen- 
ter is " Science," and 
on her sides are the 
four elements," Fire," 
"Water," "Air," and 
" Earth." Surmount- 
ing each of the towers 



7* 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



are two large figures representing 
" Victory" holding forth her emblem- 
atic laurel wreath. 

Over the eastern entrance appears 
the frontispiece pediment; " Co- 
lumbia," the central figure, seated on 
a throne, with a sword in her right 
hand and a palm of peace in her left. 

To her left is standing ■• Honor," 
with a laurel wreath ready for distri- 
bution. On one of the steps of the 
throne is seated " Wealth " (riches), 
throwing fruits and flowers out of a 
horn of plenty. To the right and left 
are grouped inventors of machinery 
and members of an examining jury. 
The corners of the pediment are filled 
by two groups of lions, representing 
brute force subdued by human genius, 
which is represented by two children. 
Above the pediment are repeated the 
five large figures seen over the north 
entrance. 

Twelve smaller and similar figures 
are placed at each end of the six 
large skylights. Each of the three 
domes in the center of the building 
is surmounted by figures. 

Most of the sculpture- work on this 
building was done by M. A. Waagen. 

Classification. — The arrangement 
of the Machinery Department takes 
the form of eighty-six classes, collect- 
ed in the following groups: 

GROUP NO. 

69. — Motors and apparatus for the 
generation and transmission of 
power; hydraulic and pneumatic 
apparatus. 

70. — Fire engines, apparatus and ap- 
pliances for extinguishing fire. 

71. — Machine tools and machines for 
working metals. 

72. — Machinery for the manufacture 
of textile fabrics and clothing. 

73. — Machines for working wood. 

74. — Machines and apparatus for 
type-setting, printing, stamping, 
embossing, and for making books 
and paper working. 

75. — Lithography, zincography, and 
color printing. 

76. — Photo-mechanical and other me- 
chanical processes of illustrating, 
etc. 

77. — Miscellaneous hand tools, ma- 
chines and apparatus used in 
various arts. 



78. — Machines for working stones, 

clay, and other minerals. 
79. — Machinery used in the prepa- 
ration of foods, etc. 

Main Exhibits. — The interior of 
the building is divided into squares 
and parallelograms, called blocks, 
or sections. If the visitor enter at 
the east end of the building, facing 
South Canal, he will find the corner on 
his right, consisting of four blocks, or 
sections, occupied by Great Britain 
with her exhibits. (Area, 29,496 feet.) 
These are very numerous, though far 
surpassed by the American display. 
Next upon the right, occupying six 
sections, comes the display of Ger- 
many. (Area, 32,730 feet.) This is 
an exceedingly fine and complete ex- 
hibit, and is probably surpassed only 
by that of the United States. Cir- 
cular rope transmission, a new sys- 
tem of motive power, is practically 
illustrated for the first time. Textile 
machinery from Gladbach-on-the- 
Rhine is seen in a complete assort- 
ment. From Augsburg, Bavaria, 
comes a choice display of rotary 
presses, and a Dusseldorf firm ex- 
hibits friction calenders with ten 
rollers. The huge Gruson Works, 
near Magdeburg, make an instructive 
exhibit of mining machinery and gas- 
power engines, while R.Wolf of Mag- 
deburg shows locomotives, some of 
them constructed according to new 
principles. 

The chief displays are gas-engines, 
water turbine wheels, knitting-ma- 
chines, circular saws for cutting iron, 
embroidering-machines, press for 
printing illustrations, rapid paper- 
printing presses, bookbinding-ma- 
chines, flour-mill machinery, saw- 
mill, turning-lathes, milling and min- 
ing machinery for ores, cements, etc., 
sausage-machines, textile machinery, 
wire-machines, and a complete watch 
factory. 

Next to Germany on the right, and 
occupying a portion of the space 
allotted to Group 69, is found the dis- 
play of Spain (area, 1,315 feet). 

North of Spain's exhibit, also oc- 
cupying a small portion of Group 6g's 
allotment, New South Wales has 
placed her display. 

Just west of New South Wales 



MACHINERY HALL. 



79 



of the oil to the furnaces is controlled 
by automatic pressure gauges, regu- 
lating the flow so that there can be 
no danger, such as might happen with 
careless firemen. The oil is pumped 
from Whiting, Ind. 

West of the batteries of boilers lie 
the machine-shops, blacksmith-shops, 
etc. 

Having examined the motive power 
controlling the exhibits, the visitor 
will find at the center of the build- 



Italy's exhibit is found (area, 2,500 
feet). This display presents a very 
novel and creditable appearance. 
Passing southward along the alley at 
the end of the Italian display, and 
continuing on across the main aisle, 
the splendid display of France is 
encountered (area, 21,227 feet). Turn- 
ing back toward the entrance, on the 
left of the aisle is the small Swedish 
exhibit (area, 500 feet). Russia's 
manufacturing industries, next on the 
right, will claim 
his attention, with 
a display covering 
an area of 3,000 
feet. After Rus- 
sia, Mexico, occu- 
pying a small, nar- 
row space in the 
side aisle back of 
the French and 
Russian exhibits, 
is next in order 
(area, 1,007 feet). 

Austria (area, 
8,097 feet) takes up 
a section, except- 
ing a small corner 
filled by Brazil, the 
latter having an 
area of 2,500 feet. 
Having examined 
Brazil's display, in 
conjunction with 
that of Austria, 
Belgium will be 
found occupying a 
full section (area, 
1,500 feet). Can- 
ada has a section 

next to the entrance, just south of ing an immense tank of water, 
England (area, 7,257 feet). South of in the center of which is a very 
the exhibits which have just been pretty waterfall, and at either end a 
examined are the power plants, fountain. Here the various pumps, 
occupying the blocks, or sections, water-elevators, etc., make their 
from A to O inclusive. tests as to superiority. This group 

The engines number forty-four, the (69) occupies nearly all the space of 
Allis, the largest of all, occupying the four blocks which center on the 
the space at the end of the main aisle, tank; also a portion of that taken up 

Still south of these gigantic en- by the exhibits of Italy, Spain, Swe- 
gines lies the boiler plant, consisting den, and New South Wales, and a 
of a continuous battery of huge steel part of Block 29, at the western end 
boilers of the latest type, 800 feet of the building. 

long. As crude oil from the fields of Immediately north of this group is 
Ohio is used for fuel, there is no Group 74, where are displayed ma- 
smoke, dust, or dirt, as there would chines for type-setting, printing, 
be were coal burned. The feeding stamping, and embossing. 




Andrews & Johnson Co.'s Exhibit. 



so 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Group 75, devoted to lithography, 
zincography, and color-printing, and 
Group 76, showing photo-mechanical 
and other processes of illustrating, 
occupy the small block north of the 
western part of Group 74, and next to 
the lavatories, which are in Block 33, 
north of the center of the main dis- 
play of Group 72. 

West of a portion of Groups 74 and 
69 (already examined) lies Group 72, 
devoted to machinery for the manu- 
facture of textile fabrics and clothing. 
A portion of this display will be 



69, taking up the larger part of that 
section. Group 77, miscellaneous 
hand tools, machines, and apparatus, 
and Group 78, machines for working 
stones, clay, and other minerals, oc- 
cupy Block 10, in the southwestern 
corner of the hall. Group 70, fire- 
engines, apparatus and appliances for 
extinguishing fires, fills the southern 
part of Block 8. 

At the northwestern end of Machin- 
ery Hall the Fair grounds' pumping- 
works is located, with a capacity of 
40,000,000 gallons of water every 







Switchboard and Big Dynamo. 



found in the northern part of Block 8, 
which lies next to the machine-shops. 

At the northwest corner of this 
group is found Group 79. Here are 
displayed machines used in the prep- 
aration of foods, etc. At the extreme 
southwest corner of Group 72 (already 
examined) is found a portion of the 
display belonging to Group 69, the 
larger part of which has been visited; 
while just south of 72 lies Group 71. 
This display consists of machine tools 
and machines for working metals. 

Group 73, machines for working 
wood, occupies the south half of 
Blocks 12 and 13, south of Group 71, 
and extends into Block 14 of Group 



twenty-four hours. The water is ob- 
tained from a well in the center of 
the building, which is connected by 
a tunnel with the main lagoon. 

In Machinery Hall every sort and 
size of dynamo is found; the biggest 
of them all is the team of dynamos 
hitched to the gigantic Allis engine. 
There are two 72-inch belts from this 
engine. Each of these belts drives a 
Westinghouse dynamo that was built 
to develop 10,000 lights, but which 
can easily give 15,000. 

On the south wall of Machinery 
Hall is a marble switchboard 2 stories 
high, 78 feet long. This controls the 
main dynamos. 



MACHINERY HALL. 



81 



Outside Exhibit of Machinery.— 

On the south side of Machinery Hall, 
between the machine-shop and boiler- 
house, is an extensive outside exhibit 
of machinery. Proceeding to the 
eastern or South Canal front of the 
Machinery Hall, the visitor may well 
pause for a moment to notice the 
Statuary encircling the Main Basin, 
and to spare a few seconds for the 
fine view of the water-ways and 
buildings obtainable from this point. 
In regard to the statuary, it consists 
of a characteristic series of native 
American wild animals, modeled by 
Edward Kemeys and A. Phimister 
Proctor, and a series of six rostral 
columns designed and executed by 
Johannes Gelert. 

Referring to these rostral columns, 
the sculptor, Mr. Johannes Gelert, 
states that the principal idea intended 
to be conveyed was one of a great 
naval triumph, as the discovery of 
America truly was. To serve this 
prime motive there is a six-fold repe- 
tition of the columns. On the ped- 
estals are graven the names of great 
discoverers, and the shafts are 
adorned with rostra, or prows of ships, 
and emblems of triumph. On the 
double capital stands the sailor's 
tutelary deity, the Neptune of the 
Latins, the Poseidon of the Greeks, 
resting in his divine power, full of 
proud triumph, well pleased with the 
grand results of his sailors' great dis- 
coveries. In addition to these 
triumphal columns is a display of stat- 
uary characteristically American, and 
it was -in a moment of happy inspira- 
tion that the sculptors decided not to 
confine themselves to representations 
of inanimate forms and beautiful re- 
productions of ancient ideas, that 
were elaborated to their utmost ex- 
tent by the ancient Grecian and Ro- 
man masters of this noblest and most 
imperishable of the arts. While mod- 
ern artists may hope to equal, it is 
utterly impossible for them ever to 
excel the ancient artists in the por- 
trayal of the human figure, or in the 
evolution of graceful ideas as applied 
to columns, arches, and architectural 
ornamentation. The determination, 
therefore, to depart from conventional 
forms and introduce into the land- 
6 



scape the figures of American animals 
was indeed a happy one, especially 
when it is considered that out of 
every hundred visitors to the Fair, 
fully ninety are entirely unacquaint- 
ed with such representatives of the 
wild beasts of our country as the 
grizzly bear, the buffalo, and the 
panther. These conceptions may 
likewise serve another purpose, viz., 
to aid in the perpetuation of the 
forms of these animals long after 
they themselves are extinct species. 
It is a fact well known to naturalists 
that many kinds of the marine and 
land animals of America are doomed, 
in a short time, to utter extinction; 
and prominent among them are those 
which are so ably represented here. 

Most lifelike and realistic are the 
animals surmounting the various 
bridges. Mr. Kemeys thus describes 
those for which he is responsible. "Old 
Ephraim," at the northeast corner of 
bridge opposite southwest corner of 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts Build- 
ing, is a male grizzly bear guarding 
the approach to his lair. He has 
been marching down the canon, when 
his quick ear catches some note at 
discord with nature's harmonies. 
This rivets his footsteps in their 
tracks, suppresses his breathing al- 
most, and so he stands with set ears, 
straining eyes, protruding lip, ex- 
panded nostrils, impressible to the 
next touch which shall rouse his na- 
ture into madness. 

As down the glen he strode along, 
Vanished the black-tail's branching prong, 
And even the finch's low, sweet song 
Stopped in the pine above him. 

A Grizzly Grave-digger, at the 
southeast corner of bridge opposite 
southwest corner of Manufactures and 
Liberal Arts Building, represents a 
female grizzly who has dug up the 
head of a wild sheep she had buried , 
and is pawing and playing with it, 
rolling it between her huge fore-paws, 
each garnished with claws curved like 
reaping-hooks set for some red har- 
vest. All the varied nature of the 
bear is called into life. Aroused by 
the proximity of the dead game, she 
gloats over it in anticipation of the 
feast. Suddenly a magpie utters its 



82 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, 



cry of alarm — her play ceases. A 
Prairie King, on the northwest cor- 
ner of bridge over lagoon between 
Machinery Hall and Agricultural 
Building, is represented by a bull 
buffalo walking round the outskirts 




The Still Hunt. Edward Kemeys 

of his herd on the outlook for some 
danger which threatens. An impos- 
ing figure with shaggy, grim frontlet 
and short, thick horns, the ponder- 
ous head low-swung to the rhythm 
of his walk, its sweeping beard al- 
most touching the grass at his feet; 
a warrior of his tribe, whose tower- 
ing front has stood guard when the 
savages of the desert have swarmed 
around. At Sound of the Whoop, 
on the southwest cor- 
ner of bridge over 
lagoon between Ma- 
chinery Hall and Ag- 
ricultural Building, 
is represented by a 
cow buffalo, who, 
hearing the whoop of 
the coming red men, 
stands with uncouth 
head high-lifted and 
shaggy fore-legs 
gathered beneath her. 
From her thin, nerv- 
ous hind-quarters to 
the tips of her sharp- 
curved horns all is 
tense as a bow-string, 
for there flashes in advance of 
those ringing screams a vision of the 
nude brown horsemen of the plains, 
whose blotched mustangs are bear- 
ing them onward, the old-time de- 



stroyers of her race. The Still Hunt, 
on the northwest corner of bridge 
over lagoon opposite west entrance 
to Manufactures and Liberal Arts 
Building, is formed of a figure of an 
American panther, which is placed 
as above, and 
signifies, as do 
all the animals 
for bridges exe- 
cuted by Kemeys, 
that they are in 
some way watch- 
ing the approach- 
es to the same. 
In fact, the 
gathering of the 
imm en se mus- 
cles, the limbs 
tremulous from 
restrained im- 
pulse, and con- 
centrated gaze all 
tell their story, 



Sculptor. 



and leave no doubt in the beholder's 
mind of the spring which will hurl 
the great cat upon "his prey. At Bay, 
on the southwest corner of bridge over 
lagoon opposite west entrance to 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts 
Building, consists of a female Amer- 
ican panther. Some one is approach- 
ing her fastness, and her first im- 
pulse is resistance. She has partly 
risen, and with planted fore-feet, 




straining quarters, and swaying tail 
displays her fangs, while her down- 
drawn ears, wrinkled face, and pas- 
sion-blinded eyes tell at a glance 
that she thirsts even now in her 



THE LIVE STOCK PA VILION. 



83 



savage feline breast for the wild 
grapple of the coming contest in all 
its fury, its blood, and its death. 

Describing the statuary so ably 
executed by him, Mr. A. Phimister 
Proctor says: 

"Two sullen moose, with shaggy 
manes, disproportionately long legs, 
short, thick necks, and ugly noses, 
stand one on each side of the bridge 
leading to the Agricultural Building. 
The animals' antlers are their only 
beauty, but the sculptor has given a 
faithful representation of them. 
Duplicates are on the colonnade. 

" With heads raised, and nervous 
alertness and attention expressed in 
every graceful line, four elks stand in 
front of the Administration Building, 
and others are placed at intervals 
along the lagoon in attitudes as watch- 
ful as though they gazed upon the pur- 
ple heights of their familiar mount- 
ains. 

" Two polar bears stand on the west 
end of the middle bridge fronting the 
Administration Building. They gaze 
across an imaginary field of ice, and 
sniff the air for indications of seals 
or unfortunate Arctic explorers." 

The treasures in the Fine Arts 
Building are guarded by kingly lions, 
the work of Mr. Proctor. The royal 
beast has been a favorite of archi- 
tectural sculpture since the pomp and 
glory of the Persian Empire, and is 
used to excellent advantage in the 
present case. 

Mr. Proctor's most important works 
are the equestrian statues decorating 
the landing in the lagoon, opposite 
the front of the Transportation Build- 
ing. The cowboy is not the idealized 
hero of Eastern novels, but a true 
representative of the manly Western 
ranger. The horse, a typical bucking 
bronco, vicious eyes, and. ready for a 
spring, is curbed in by the rider's 
muscular hand. One can feel the 
quivering rebellion shocking his blood 
and gleaming in his eyes. 

Grim-visaged and with tense listen- 
ing expressed in every muscle, the 
Indian gazes from under his shading 
hand out over the prairie. The 
sculptor of mountain-lions has caught 
the lithe sinuosity of the red man as 
well, and portrayed the subtle mental 



kinship between him and his horse. 
This statue also is in front of the 
Transportation Building. 

At the south end of South Canal, 
immediately in front of the great 
Stock Pavilion arch, stands an accu- 
rate reproduction of the famous Egyp- 
tian obelisk known as Cleopatra's 
Needle. The original obelisk, pre- 
sented to the United States by the 
Khedive of Egypt, now stands in Cen- 
tral Park, New York. Its fellow was 
removed to London, England, twenty 
years ago and set up on the Thames 
embankment. These monuments are 
covered with hieroglyphics represent- 
ing scenes in the ancient history of 
Egypt occurring long before the his- 
toric era. All of those upon the 
" Needle " in the New York park are 
faithfully reproduced in the obelisk 
here. As will be seen, the base of 
this obelisk is guarded by four im- 
mense lions, to which the sculptor, 
Mr. M. A. Waagen, has given a very 
lifelike appearance. 

Connecting the graceful Machinery 
Hall with the Agricultural Building is 
the classic Colonnade (P21), designed 
by Mr. C. B. Atwood, and which 
serves as a screen for the Intramural 
Railroad Station. 

THE LIVE STOCK PAVILION 

(P 20), a commodious structure de- 
signed by Messrs. Holabird & Roche, 
is surrounded with tiers of benches 
accommodating 15,000 spectators. A 
bureau of information for visiting 
farmers and agriculturists is located 
in this building. It is official, and in 
charge of the officers of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the World's 
Columbian Exposition. The pavilion 
is an oval building adjacent to 
Agricultural Hall. The exterior is of 
staff and stucco, the interior an open 
arena 400 feet in length, with ten tiers 
of seats and a broad balcony. Four 
main entrances lead to the arena, and 
eight smaller doors open to the seats. 
An iron roof protects the spectators. 
For the accommodation of live stock 
while the judges are in the arena, 
sixty-four stalls have been constructed 
under the seats on the north side of 
the pavilion. The rest of the space 



84 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



beneath the gallery is used for the 
offices of the Live Stock Commission 
and judges. 

The exhibition of live stock opens 
with the Kennel exhibit June 12, and 
closes October 28, 1S93. 

It comprises the following depart- 
ments: 

A.— Cattle. 

B. — Horses, jacks, jennets, and 
mules. 



— Swine. 



Dogs. 

Cats, ferrets, rabbits, etc. 

Poultry and birds. 

Insects and insect products. 

Wild animals. 
The Department of Agriculture also 
makes a model road exhibit. 

In rear or to the westward of the 
Live Stock Pavilion the visitor finds 
the offices of the Electrical Depart- 




Live Stock Pavilion. 



C. — Sheep. 

D. — Swine. 

E.— Dogs. 

F. — Poultry, pigeons, and pet stock. 

G.— Fat stock. 

The dates for exhibits of the va- 
rious divisions are as follows: 

Divisions A and B. — Monday, Au- 
gust 21, to Thursday, September 21, 
1893, inclusive. 

Divisions C and D. — Monday, Sep- 
tember 25, to Saturday, October 14, 
1893, inclusive. 

Division E. — Monday, June 12, to 
Saturday, June 17, 1893, inclusive. 

Division F. — Monday, October 16, 
to Saturday, October 28, 1893, in- 
clusive. 

Division G. — Monday, October 16, 
to Saturday, October 28, 1893, in- 
clusive. 

The classification of the Live Stock 
exhibit is as follows: 

GROUP NO. 

27. — Horses, asses, mules. 
28.— Cattle. 
29. — Sheep. 

30. — Goats, camels, and other do- 
mestic animals. 



ment (P 20) and a typical Loggers' 
Camp (P 20), 70 feet long and 20 feet 
wide. It is an exact reproduction of 
the camps Michigan lumbermen live 
in, and the daily bill of fare will be 
the same as they have in the woods. 

Near this a huge Sawmill (Q 19) is 
exhibited in working order and 
actual operation, occupying a space 
of 125 x 200 feet. 

The visitor now meets with an ex- 
hibit of Oil Industries (Q 19) as the 
next building to the westward, with 
an area of 150 x 250 feet. Crane & 
Co. have a store and supply-house for 
machinery fittings and tools (Q 19) in 
close proximity, while other portions 
of the outside exhibit of the Machin- 
ery Department are grouped around. 

Then proceeding in an easterly di- 
rection the visitor comes to the Out- 
side Exhibit of Germany (Q 21), which 
is situated south of the Live Stock 
Pavilion. This exhibit consists of a 
large display of German porcelain 
stoves and statuary. A figure of 
" Hercules Upholding Alsenshe," six- 
teen feet high, is placed some thirty 
feet west of the entrance to the pa- 



FRENCH COLONIES. 



85 



vilion wherein the stove exhibit is 
placed. Directly east of this pavilion 
is seen a large statue of ' ' Germania " 
made by another German cement 
firm. This is a model of the far-famed 
" Niederwald " monument, on the 
Rhine. 

Close by, and in the shadow of 
the Intramural road, is the White 
Horse Inn (Q 22), a reproduction of 
a famous English Inn at Ipswich, 
in Suffolk, celebrated by Dickens' 
descriptive power, in '* Pickwick," and 
which before the time of railroads was 
the stopping-place for all coaches 
leaving London. 

The^ entire building is set aside for 
restaurant, lunch-room, and club pur- 
poses. 

The horse over the entrance door 
is an exact model of the one which 
actually stood over the entrance of 
the old White Horse Inn. 

Across the roadway from the White 
Horse Inn is the French Bakery 
exhibit (P 23). This exhibit is south- 



Pond, just bacK -of the Agricultural 
Building. The quaint old Holland 
mill, built at the time of Washing- 
ton's first inauguration, is particularly 
interesting. The mill is the exhibit of 
Blooker's Dutch Cocoa Company 




A Loggmg-Camp. 

(Q 23), which has the privilege of sell- 
ing cocoa to Fair visitors. 

On the left of the roadway the vis- 
itor now encounters a collection of 
buildings of decidedly foreign appear- 
ance. They represent the French 
Colonies (Q 24), chief of which are 




French Bakery Exhibit. 



east of the Live Stock Pavilion, and 
consists of a complete plant of ma- 
chinery for baking bread, biscuits, 
cakes, etc. 

On the left of the roadway, near the 
French Bakery and almost opposite the 
White Horse Inn, is the Windmill ex- 
hibit (Q 22), on the west bank of South 



Tunis and Algeria in North Africa 
and Tonquin in China. The three most 
prominent structures are the govern- 
ment buildings of Tunis and Tonquin, 
and an Algerian cafe. The Tonquin 
building is the same one that was 
used at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. 
Every piece of it was made and fitted 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



ready to put together before it was 
taken to Paris. The building is con- 
structed in the form of a rectangle, 
and is covered with all sorts of tra- 
ditional Chinese hieroglyphics, some 
of which date back beyond the time 
of Confucius. The windows are of a 
beautiful blue stained glass. A por- 
tion of the interior is made of walnut, 
which is carved in picturesque style. 
The Pavilion de la Tunisie is the 
largest of the three buildings. It has 
several apartments. The rear room 
is for the exhibition of colonial fur- 
niture. In the center is a large 
square hall, which is furnished by the 
Bey of Tunis in exact representation 
of a like apartment in his palace. 
On either side of the pavilion the 



the costumes of India with their 
brilliant colors, the minerals of New 
Caledonia — nickel, chrome, cobalt, 
iron, and coal; and the rums and sugars 
of the West Indies. The Tunisian 
pavilion is of Moorish style. It has 
a very picturesque appearance with 
its four glittering domes, its mosque 
door, and its side galleries. Here the 
products of the hands of the African 
Mussulman are exhibited; also speci- 
mens of uniforms of the army. There 
are several little booths and stands 
and pavilions from which Tunisian, 
Algerian, and Chinese women and 
children sell oriental trinkets. 

Close by the French Colonies ex- 
hibit, on the right-hand side of the 
roadway, is the Model Working- 




Tunis an V.llage— French Colonies Exhibit. 



thirsty visitor finds a shed, called 
" soucks " by the Tunisians, where he 
can obtain cool drinks and tropical 
fruits. The Tonquin pavilion is a re- 
production of part of the palace of 
Cochin-China, which was so much 
admired at Paris in 1SS9. 

Sculptural columns, a framework 
of beautiful wood, and superb delf- 
wares of Cholon form the essential 
elements of its construction. In mak- 
ing pleasant promenades among the 
rich exhibits one sees the silks, the em- 
broidery, the sculptural marble, the in- 
crustations, and the bronze of Indo- 
China, the pit-coal of Tonquin, the 
rice of Cochin-China, the famous col- 
lections of the Emperor of Annam, 



man's Home (Q 23), erected by and 
under the supervision of the Pratt 
Institute of Brooklyn, N. Y. In close 
proximity is the Log Cabin (Q 23), 
which is situated opposite the French 
Colonies exhibit, and erected by Bern- 
heimBros., whisky dealers, Louisville, 
Ky. It is constructed of logs, tile, 
and stucco, and is surrounded by a 
rustic fence and flower-garden. This 
cabin is occupied by the firm as offices 
during the World's Fair. Samples of 
their goods and an old still are on 
exhibition. On the same side of the 
road as the Log Cabin is the Restau- 
rant " Forest King" (Q 24), also 
opposite the French Colonies exhibit. 
This building is 40 x 150 feet and one 



CLIFF-DWELLERS' EXHIBIT. 



87 



story high. The big ' ' Washington 
stick," in feet long, 4 feet square, 
weighing 90,000 pounds, and of yel- 
low fir, similar to Norway pine, serves 
as a lunch-counter and bar. 

The Cliff-Dwellers' Exhibit (R 
24). — A few feet farther on, and on the 
same side of the main road, rises a 
representation of Battle Rock Mount- 
ain, Colorado (Q 24). Here is faith- 
fully reproduced the most ancient 
civilization of the American continent. 
One enters a cavernous portal to find 
a representation (on a sjale of one- 



seen in the backwoods district of 
Kentucky. 

The visitor more than likely will 
be surprised to learn that this is a 
complete sour-mash distillery, such as 
is found in many of the glens and 
picturesque woods of the " Blue Grass 
State." 

This is the exhibit of the Old 
Times Distillery Co. (R 25), of 
Louisville, Ky. , who were justly and 
fortunately selected to show the pro- 
cess of distilling sour-mash whisky. 

The yellow pine logs of which the 




tenth the actual size) of the wondrous 
and long-deserted cliff-dwellings of 
the Mancos Canon, Colorado. The H. 
Jay Smith Exploring Co. has repro- 
duced the finest of the cliff-dwellings, 
and arranged a valuable collection of 
cliff relics for the inspection of the 
scientist, student, or curious. Admis- 
sion, 25 cents ; catalogue, 10 cents. 

After leaving the cliff-dwellers' 
mountain, the next exhibit attracting 
more than passing notice, and ad- 
joining the Anthropological Building, 
is a large and picturesque log cabin, 
such as many will remember having 



Old Times Distillery Co.'s Log Cabin. 

building is constructed still retain 



their bark, and the air of rusticity 
about the rude cabin is true to nature. 
Within, the process of hand-mash- 
ing the grain in small vessels, and 
running the mash through copper 
stills, will prove a great novelty to 
many — in fact to nearly every one — 
as there are few even of the old 
dealers, who are selling thousands of 
barrels yearly, who ever witnessed 
the process of mashing and distilling 
hand-made sour-mash whisky, and 
who have but a faint and crude con- 
ception of the same. 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



A bonded warehouse is also a 
feature of this exhibit. This ware- 
house has a storage capacity of more 
than one thousand barrels, and the 
working of the machinery of the Inter- 
nal Revenue Department, as regards 




Christine, a Girl of Madagascar. 

the manufacture of whisky, may be 
instructively studied here. 

The process above mentioned in 
mashing and running the grain is 
identical with that in vogue in the 
noted distilleries that have made Ken- 



of ioo bushels per day. In the dis- 
tillery is also an exhibit of moonshine 
stills, worms, and whisky captured 
by revenue officers in the mountains 
of Kentucky and Tennessee. 

On the right of the roadway and be- 
yond the structure of the Intramu- 
ral Railway Co. are the Dairy Barns 
(R 24) for the Jersey, Guernsey, and 
Shorthorn cattle. In these barns the 
cattle entered for the butter-making 
and dairy contests are housed. 

THE DAIRY BUILDING 

(Q 24), which is 200 feet long and 
100 feet wide, has been constructed 
at a cost of- $30,000, and is in close 
proximity to the Dairy Barns. In 
addition to the exhibits from all 
countries of the world, arrangements 
are completed for a dairy school last- 
ing through the six months, in con- 
nection with which a series of tests 
for determining the relative merits 
of different herds of cattle as milk 
and butter producers is also conduct- 
ed. On the first floor, in the most 
conspicuous place, are displayed the 
butter exhibits, and just in the rear, 
in a space 25 x 100 feet, the model 
dairy and dairy school are conducted. 
Four hundred spectators can be seated 
in the amphitheater which surrounds 







BattU Rock, C lorado— Cliff-Dwellers' Exhibit 



tucky so famous for magnificent 
whiskies. In fact, every employe 
was brought direct from the com- 
pany's original plant in the Fifth Dis- 
trict of the great Bourbon whisky dis- 
tilling State. This is the only distil- 
lery at the Fair, and has a capacity 



this room. The cheese exhibits are 
displayed on the second floor, and 
here, too, is found a cafe in which 
dairy products largely figure. 

A little to the east of the Dairy 
Barns are the Car Shops (R 25) of the 
Intramural Elevated Railway, and in 



DAIRY BUILDING. 



89 




the immediate southeast corner of the 
grounds are various offices of the dif- 
ferent departments of the Exposition, 
such as the Sewage Cleansing Works 
(S 25), consisting of four tanks, in 
which by means of sulphate of am- 
monia the solid matter is precipitated 
and the purified water discharged at 
the top of the tank. The solids are 
then burned in the crematory. Next 
are a Pumping House, and Oil Tank 
Vault (S 26), where oil used in 
the furnaces of the Exposition is 
stored, after being piped from Whit- 
ing, Ind. The last building nearest 
the lake is Engle Garbage Furnace 
(S 27), located in the extreme south- 
eastern corner of the World's Fair 
grounds. Constructed on the latest 
improved plan, it has capacity to burn 
100 tons of garbage daily. 

The visitor may then retrace his 
steps, and proceeding in a northeast- 
erly direction inspect the Power 
House (R 26), which furnishes the 
motive power for the operation of the 
Intramural Elevated Railway. 

The Power House has for its equip- 
ment some enormous pieces of elec- 
trical machinery. First there is a 
2,000 horse-power cross-compound 
E. P. Allis engine, directly connected 
to a General Electric Company gen- 
erator, the largest ever constructed. 
The shaft is of solid steel two feet 
thick, and weighs sixty tons. It is 
twenty-three feet long and with arm- 
ature weighs 190 tons. The entire 
weight of the engine and dynamos 
is 296 tons. 

This unit will seem small in this 
station filled with tremendous ma- 
chines. It is, however, as large as the 
largest generator at the Paris Expo- 
sition. The same ratio of comparison 
prevails throughout the entire Elec- 
tric exhibit as compared with the 
one at Paris. Where the plant at 
Paris was only between three and 
four thousand horse-power, the one 
at Jackson Park is 24,000. 

One feature of the road's equipment 
which is sure to attract attention is 
the compound engine and generator 
of 2,500 horse-power. Next to the 
Allis engine used by the Exposition 
Company at Machinery Hall, this en- 
gine is the largest on the grounds. 



CHAPTER VI. 




OTHER PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS. 



HM^ 



INTERESTING 
as are the ex- 
hibits described 
in the last chap- 
ter, to the hu- 
manitarian and 
to the student 
of human prog- 
ress, as well 
as to the scien- 
tist, the displays in the next building 
to be considered far surpass them, 
for they treat of man, considered 
morally, mentally, and with regard 
to his physical characteristics. The 
structure containing these displays, 
and known as the 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL 
BUILDING 

(Q 25), occupies an area 255 x 415 feet. 
Over the main entrance are the words 
"Anthropology; Man and His Works." 
It is 415 feet long and 225 feet wide. 
The ground-floor contains 105,430 
square feet for exhibits, aisles, offices, 
and lavatories, and the galleries 52,804 
square feet. In the southern part of 
the ground-floor 30,000 square feet are 
taken up by two sections of Liberal 
Arts — the Bureau of Charities and 
Corrections and the Bureau of Sani- 
tation and Hygiene. The rest of the 
ground-floor contains the general 
Archaeological and Ethnological ex- 
hibits. The north end of the gallery 
holds the laboratory of Physical 
Anthropology. Here are illustrated 
the sciences of Anthropometry, Psy- 
chology, and Neurology. The visitor 
may have his measurement taken and 
learn his place on the charts showing 
the physical characteristics of man. 
Along the sides and southern end of 
the gallery are specimens of the ani- 
mal kingdom as an exhibit in natural 
history. 



On the ground-floor one of the 
largest spaces is given to the ethno- 
logical exhibit from Spain, which 
includes the interesting collection 
shown at the recent Spanish Exposi- 
tion. Greece has a large space on 
the ground-floor in which are exhibited 
valuable specimens of Grecian art and 
archaeology. The latter include gods, 
goddesses, and many other idolatrous 
relics of the most ancient periods of 
Grecian history. 

Universal ethnology is illustrated in 
the exhibit from foreign countries. 
The principal foreign nations that 
have space are Brazil, Canada, Eng- 
land, France, Greece, Mexico, Peru, 
Russia, Spain,' Costa Rica, Paraguay, 
New South Wales, Argentine Repub- 
lic, and a special foreign exhibit from 
the Minister of Public Instruction in 
France. From the Vienna Museum 
comes one of the most valuable Eu- 
ropean collections. Canada is rep- 
resented in the, outdoor exhibit, also 
indoors by valuable specimens. Brit- 
ish Guiana sends a colony of the 
Arrawak tribe of Indians, who live in 
thatched huts in the outdoor exhibit. 
Norway sends a Viking ship, which 
will be one of the marine exhibits in 
the South Pond, affording an interest- 
ing comparison with modern sailing 
methods. 

The main American collections have 
been brought together as a special 
departmental exhibit under the per- 
sonal supervision of Professor Putnam. 
Besides the special department collec- 
tions there are valuable loans made 
to the department by State boards and 
historical societies and museums. 
Among the principal States sending 
exhibits are California, Maine, Penn- 
sylvania, New York, Missouri, In- 
diana, Kansas, Ohio, Utah, Wisconsin, 
Colorado, North Dakota, Louisiana, 
and Washington. 
(90) 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL BUILDING. 



91 



In the Anthropological Building 
the exhibits of the bureaus of hygiene 
and sanitation, and charities and cor- 
rections are well worth inspection. 

At the southeastern end of the 
Park, lying between the Dairy exhibit 
and the Agricultural exhibit of the 
French Colonies, the visitor sees the 
weird Ruins of Yucatan (Q 24). Here 
is shown a perfect fac-simile of the 
figure of Kukulkan, the great feathered 




Ancient Pottery. 

god, and other sculptures showing the 
artistic attainments of this vanished 
people. 

The central structure is from the 
ruined group of Labna, showing the 
Labna portal. The second section 
is the straight arch of Uxmal, repro- 
duced from the east facade of the 
so-called " House of the Governor." 
The third section includes the 
famous facade of 
the "Serpent- 
house," from the 
ruins of Uxm al . 
The fourth section 
is the north wing 
of the " House of 
the Nuns," from the 
ruins of Uxmal, and 
the fifth and sixth 
sections are other 
wings of the same fa- ^ 
mous ruins. There 
have also been re- 
produced two mono- 
liths and several 
loose specimens of 
sculpture. The casts 
for these Yucatan ruins were made of 
staff by means of papier-mache molds, 
and were taken from the original ruins 
by Edward H. Thompson, the United 
States consul to Yucatan, under Pro- 
fessor Putnam's instructions. The 



ruins stand like some temple of 
a forgotten age. There are six of 
these sections. Three of them show 
square, V-shaped, and arched door- 
ways. In every case, however, the 
keystone is lacking, and the original 
stonework was held in place by a fiat 
covering of stone secured by sheer 
weight of the stone above it. The 
bases of the walls are covered with 
vegetation as nearly natural as possi- 
ble, and among it are planted the 
stones that had toppled off of the origi- 
nal ruins. 

All around the visitor, along the 
banks of South Pond, is grouped in 
picturesque and savage life the 
Ethnographical exhibit (O 24) of the 
Department of Anthropology. With 
historic accuracy, in strict chronolog- 
ical sequence and with most interest- 
ing results, has Professor Putnam, 
the erudite chief of this important 
department, grouped his wards. In- 
dians of every kind are exhibited in 
this department, and he has arranged 
the tribes geographically. Beginning 
with the Esquimaux from the ex- 
treme North, the groups descend by 
latitudes somewhat as follows: The 
Cree family, from the Canadian North- 
west; Haida and Fort Rupert tribes, 
from British Columbia; Iroquois, from 
the Eastern States; Chippewas, Sioux, 




Ancient Pueblo Pottery. 

Menominees, and Winnebago tribes, 
from the Middle and Northwestern 
States; Choctaws, from Louisiana; 
Apaches and Navajos, from New 
Mexico and Arizona; Coahuilas, from 
Southern California, and the Papagos 



92 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



and Yakuis, from the extreme southern 
border of the United States and 
Mexico. 

South of the United States the 
ethnological specimens include valu- 
able mementos of the time of Cortez, 
which were collected in Europe by- 



long before the adoption of civiliza- 
tion. 

From Egypt, Palestine, and Africa 
there is an interesting collection. 

Moving toward the lake, and passing 
between the Anthropological Building 





Mrs. Zelia Nuttall. These objects 
were taken to Europe at the time of 
the Spanish conquest, and include a 
series of Mexican shields. From the 
South Sea Islands there is a unique 
collection, obtained from the natives 
by Otto Finsch of Germany, dur- 
ing several years' residence on the 
islands. This collection includes ob- 
jects showing the methods of life, cus- 
toms, and dress used by the natives 



F. W. Putnam. 

and the peculiar wooden structure 
which hides Lake Michigan from view, 
the tourist enters at the southern end 
one of the most attractive structures 
on the Exposition grounds. It is 

THE FORESTRY BUILDING 

(Q 25). For the purposes of the Expo- 
sition the Forestry exhibits are classed 
as part of the Department of Agri- 
culture, while for convenience the ex- 
hibits are installed in this, one of the 
most unique and interesting buildings 
on the Exposition grounds. It occu- 
pies an area of 208 x 528 feet, faces 
and is close to Lake Michigan, and 
was designed by Mr. C. B. Atwood. 

Built entirely of wood, and joined 
together with wooden pins, not a 
single nail or other piece of metal was 
used in its framing or construction. 
It is surrounded on both sides and 
each end by a roofed colonnade, up- 
held by pillars, each composed of a 
group of three tree-trunks lopped of 
their branches, but with the bark still 
on them as they stood in their native 
forests. Various States of the Union, 
Canada, and other foreign countries 
contributed these columns, and this 
is one of the most unique colonnades 
ever built. The walls of the building 
are of slabs of trees from which the 
bark has been removed, and the 
facings and other parts of the building 
are treated in a similar rustic man- 



FORESTRY BUILDING. 



Hii 



fifeuBK 1 



MB-M 



\ li pBI • 



mum 



l^jffiSr 



ner. The roof is thatched with tan 
and other barks. Around the eaves is 
a cornice composed of interlaced tim- 
bers of various sizes. The pillars of 
the colonnade are ninety in number, 
composed of 270 tree-trunks. Each of 
them bears a label giving its popular 
and botanical name, and the locality 
whence it came. Around the top of 
the building flagstaffs are arranged 
from which float the standards of the 
different countries represented within. 
At the east or lake front, and in its 
center, the visitor finds the main door- 
way, with a fine vestibule furnished 
and put in place by the Southern Lum- 
ber Manufacturers' Association. The 
vestibule is of cypress and yellow pine, 
polished to show the susceptibility of 
the woods of this section to use for 
interior decorations. The cost of this 
main vestibule was $10,000, and its 
grained woods are as beautiful as any 
on earth. 

Immediately to the left on enter- 
ing is found Missouri's exhibit. For 
outside columns she furnished nine 
logs, making three groups. The vari- 
eties are white oak, red oak, ash, cy- 
press, yellow pine, red gum, hickory, 
burr oak, and black walnut. For the 
interlaced outside work she sent thirty 
pieces of timbers of different varieties, 
and her inside display is a very fine 
one. On the right of the vestibule 
the first exhibit is that of Washington, 
her specialties being pines, firs, cedars, 
and other evergreen varieties. Next to 
Washington on the same side is Mich- 
igan's display. Here can be seen the 
largest load of logs ever piled upon 
a single vehicle. The load weighed 
300,000 pounds (150 tons), and was 
pulled by two horses weighing 1,700 
pounds each. The sleigh and load 
are shown just as they were in the 
forest. Across the aisle to the left, 
opposite Michigan's display, is that 
of West Virginia, which shows 250 
specimens of her forest products pol- 
ished and finished so as to show the 
grain, colors, and characteristics of 
the different varieties. The center 
of the building is now reached, and 
here each State and country has con- 
tributed one or more of her largest 
specimens to form an immense pyra- 
mid. North Carolina and Kansas 



94 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



send huge black walnut logs, Ken- 
tucky an immense white oak, Mis- 
souri a gigantic cottonwood, Cali- 
fornia and Washington their titanic 
redwoods and firs. Turning down 
the main north and south walk and 
going north on the left-hand side, 
in narrow sections facing Michigan 
are the displays of Australia and 
Mexico. The exhibit of the former 
is inclosed in a stockade of planks 
nine feet high, and many of them 
several feet wide. For six feet up from 
the floor these boards are all polished. 
In variety there are myrall, rosewood, 
redbean, bloodwood, woolly butt, 
onion wood, and many others not 
found elsewhere. The largest log is 
a red cedar 6 feet in diameter and 9 
feet long. Mexico shows manzanita, 
mountain ebony, violetwood, and 
many other curious and beautiful 
woods. Next to Mexico on the same 
side is Brazil, with a pavilion com- 
posed of trees whose interlocking 
branches form its walls. The entrance 
is through a beautiful rustic archway. 
Three hundred and twenty-one spec- 
imens of dye and ornamental woods 
are to be seen here. Across the road 
from this display is Ohio with a pa- 
vilion of Roman classic design, the 
columns being made of trunks of 
trees. These have been left in their 
natural state with the bark on them, 
and beech, sycamore, oaks, ash, 
hickory, and other species are repre- 
sented. Eighty varieties of wood, 160 
kinds of veneers, and 500 varieties of 
medicinal plants are also shown. 
Next to Ohio is Kentucky with a very 
fine display. The paneled inclosure 
is entirely of native woods finished 
to bring out the grains and burls. 
It has four entrances, that from the 
east being under an arch formed 
from a section of a sycamore log six- 
teen feet in diameter. On the right is 
a section of a 10-foot yellow poplar, 
while on the left is a section of a huge 
white-oak log. Thirty-four pyramids 
of six blocks each show the character, 
size, and varieties of her indigenous 
timbers. A relief map of the State, 
showing its lumber resources, val- 
ues, logging-streams, etc., completes 
the display. Opposite Kentucky 
across the aisle is the exhibit of the 



Argentine Republic with a grand col- 
lection of dye, building, and orna- 
mental wood's. On the same side of 




Ground Plan of Forestry 
Building. 

the main avenue, across an intersect- 
ing aisle, is Germany's exhibit. Their 
fine display is rendered more inter- 



FORESTRY BUILDING. 



95 



esting by the exposition of their tree- 
planting and preserving, and other 
scientific forestry displays. In these 
matters this practical and economical 
people probably surpass any other. 
East of Germany across the main aisle 
is the State of Minnesota, with a dis- 
play consisting chiefly of the ever- 
green varieties of woods; and next to 
her are the exhibits of Spain, Cuba, 
and the Philippine Islands, whose 
display of ornamental woods is 
unique and beautiful. Again cross- 
ing the aisle Paraguay is found, dis- 
playing in her pavilion 321 varieties 
of timber from twelve inches to four 
feet in diameter. Barks, dye-woods, 
and other forest products are also to 
be seen. Turning east, along the side 
aisle upon which the exhibit is located, 
at its end on the right is seen India's 
display, with many varieties of wood 
entirely strange to us. Turning back 
toward the east, the next display 
is that of Japan. The showing made 
by this empire is very creditable,. and 
it is especially curious from the fact 
that this is the first exhibit of native 
woods ever made outside of its own 
borders. Across the main north and 
south aisle, Pennsylvania is reached. 
Her exhibit is wonderful in the 
number of varieties shown. For a 
neighbor she has Virginia, taking up 
the northeast corner of the building 
with her display, which is a fine one. 
South of Virginia, across the side 
aisle, is Louisiana, opposite the rear 
of the Spanish exhibit. She has fine 
cypress and pine and quite a variety 
of deciduous woods; also Spanish 
moss for mattresses, etc. Going 
south along the north and south aisle 
upon which Louisiana faces, the next 
exhibit is that of Nebraska. Some 
of her display, notably that of forest 
trees planted by her farmers, is won- 
derful. Turning to the left around 
this exhibit, back of Kentucky is found 
Wisconsin, another of the great pine- 
producing States. Her pavilion has 
hollow six-sided columns tapering 
toward the tops, made of planks of va- 
rious woods, planed, and oiled in their 
natural colors. These columns are 
twelve feet high, with plain hardwood 
bases, and hand-carved capitals of 
native woods, polished but uncolored. 



North of the southern end of Wis- 
consin is the space allotted to North 
Dakota, The natural forests of this 
State are almost entirely composed of 
firs, cedars, and pines, with some as- 
pen trees; but her tree claims, planted 
artificially, show that any sort of tim- 
ber common to this zone may be 
grown. South of North Dakota is 
Michigan, and opposite is found 
Washington, a State whose chief pro- 
duction is lumber. She displays gi- 
gantic trees and the finest of build- 
ing woods, as well here as in the 
building which she has erected in the 
State group on the grounds. The 
eastern vestibule has again been 
reached, and passing between the dis- 
plays of Missouri and West Virginia 
(already inspected), next upon the 
left going south is New York. This 
State exhibits sections of every kind 
of timber indigenous to it, comprising 
forty-three species and eighty-five 
varieties. Across the aisle is North 
Carolina, making a display rich in 
varieties and the beauty and size of 
many of its woods. From Asheville 
comes a rustic settee made of rhodo- 
dendron limbs and knots, varnished, 
but otherwise entirely natural. It is 
one of the finest displays in the build- 
ing. Nearly every variety of ever- 
green and deciduous trees common to 
the United States is here shown. 
Occupying the southwestern corner 
of the large section assigned to North 
Carolina is Indiana's exhibit, with 
quite a creditable display. Her pa- 
vilion is very pretty. Its exterior is 
of planed, uncolored native woods, 
beautifully paneled, and with delicate 
columns and ornaments. Utah with 
her fine exhibit lies next south of 
New York, and joining her on the 
south is Massachusetts, with a col- 
lection of forty-seven varieties of 
trees native to that State. An aisle 
running west from the Utah exhibit 
has upon its left side the magnificent 
Morris K. Jessup collection of North 
American woods, embracing 428 spe- 
cies, collected at a cost of $100,000; 
and on its right the California exhibit. 
The redwoods, cedars, pines, etc., 
of this State must be seen to be prop- 
erly appreciated, as no description 
will do them justice. Opposite the 



06 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Jessup collection, across the north and 
south main aisle, is Idaho, with a fine 
display somewhat similar to that of 
Washington. North of Idaho is Siam, 
with a unique exhibit. Turning west 
along the south face Connecticut is 
next encountered, on the right of this 
cross aisle. Her display is chiefly re- 
markable for the singular growths of 
double trees, etc., that are to be seen. 
There is a hickory in the form of a 
perfect T, with upspringing arms. 
Maples, hornbeams, etc., that have 
grown together are quite numerous. 
Having inspected Connecticut's dis- 
play, Oregon, just west of it, may be 
visited. She has a pavilion 10 feet 
square and 20 feet high, surmounted 
with an open cupola. The body of the 
building is of yellow pine, its roof of 
cedar shingles, and its four Doric 
columns of maple richly carved. The 
cupola columns are of carved oak. 
The panel work shows manzanita, 
madrone, yew, laurel, myrtle, ash, 
maple, oak, spruce, balm, fir, sugar 
pine, cherry, and elder. Next north 
of Oregon is Colorado, with aspen, 
pine, juniper, spruce, pifion, cedar, 
hemlock, and other woods. Her 
timber claims present about every 
variety of deciduous trees and ever- 
greens. East of Colorado is the French 
display, rich, like that of Germany, in 
the scientific methods shown in forest 
culture, as well as in her fine exhibit 
of woods of various kinds. North of 
France, across an east and west aisle, 
is the exhibit of Canada, with the 
largest space granted to any foreign 
country. Every one of her provinces 
is represented, and her display is a 
most excellent one. West of Canada 
lies Russia, with a large and varied 
exhibit, comprising an immense num- 
ber of species and varieties. This is 
the last of the large exhibits, and the 
visitor walking back to the south end 
of the building will find the unique 
exhibit of the Indurated Fiber Ware 
Company and many others. A rare 
curiosity is a slab of a mulberry tree 
which was planted by Shakespeare. 
There is, in the miscellaneous section, 
a collection of tree fibers, seeds, gums, 
barks, resins, vegetable wax, etc. 
Every method of logging, with the 
tools and systems used, is displayed. 



Mann Bros.' big wash-tub, fifteen feet 
in diameter, is quite a curiosity. 

Next in order is the Leather exhibit 
(P 24), north of the Forestry Building. 
The building is a very handsome one, 
575 feet long by 150 feet wide, and two 
stories high. Nearly every nation , sav- 
age and civilized, is here represented 
by samples of its leather. To foreign 
exhibits the central space on the first 
floor has been allotted. At one end of 
this floor we find every variety of 
leather; at the other, every style of its 
manufactured product, no matter 
where or when produced. Here we 
may behold the riding-boots of that 
great warrior Napoleon, and the queer 
but magnificent ones of Russia's 
dreaded ruler, Ivan the Terrible. 
These matters are sure to interest be- 
holders whether "in the trade" or 
not. The second floor contains 180 
machines showing the processes of 
manufacturing. 

Leaving the Leather exhibit, and 
passing along the Elevated Railway 
toward the loop, upon the right 
is seen the Exhibit of Herr Krupp 
of Essen, in Germany (O 24), the 
greatest of all cannon manufact- 
urers. This exhibit is especially 
interesting, since here is found the 
largest cannon ever cast, as well as 
many other wonderful evidences of 
mechanical skill and ingenuity. First 
in interest is the monster 124-ton gun, 
which cost $50,000 to manufacture. 
Its length is eighty-seven feet, its 
bore twenty-five inches; the projectile 
used weighs 2,300 pounds, and the 
cost of a single discharge is $1,250. 
Herr Krupp intends to present his 
monster gun to the United States 
Government for the defense of the 
great port of Chicago. 

The Old Whaling Bark "Prog- 
ress " (P 24), exhibited by New Bed- 
ford, Mass., lies in the southeastern 
part of South Pond close to the 
Ethnographical exhibit. This old 
craft, which was built in 1841, has 
been re-rigged, sparred, and painted. 
In its saloon are shown the articles 
usually obtained by or used in the 
whaling industry, as polar bear-skins, 
seal-skins, blubber, whalebone, knives, 
harpoons, tackle, boats, etc. Here 
also are mementos of the terrible dis- 



CONVENT DE LA RABIDA. 



Ml 



aster of 1871, when thirty-three 
whaling-ships had to be abandoned 
in the ice, their crews being rescued 
by the "Old Progress" and other 
vessels. An admission fee of 25 cents 
is charged to enter this concession. 

Within the south loop formed by 
the Intramural Elevated Railway, just 
to the northwest of Krupp's exhibit, 
one finds the Indian School exhibit 
(O 23). The building is a plain 
structure erected by the United States 
Government, 185 x 80 feet, and two 
stories high. This is the chief exhib- 
it of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and 
here we catch a glimpse of the North 
American Indian in the character of a 



of trouble and ' ' begged a pittance 
for his child." Here he developed 
his theory of a western passage to the 
Indies. The building is more closely 
connected with Columbus and his 
great work than any other. It cost 
$50,000, contains priceless relics of 
the great discoverer, and is guarded 
night and day by United States troops." 
Hon. William Eleroy Curtis of the 
Bureau of American Republics, who 
traversed the whole of Europe search- 
ing for traces of the great Genoese 
admiral and procuring relics, maps, 
etc., for exhibition here, writes: 

A few miles north of Cadiz, on the 
Atlantic coast of Spa: n, about half-way 




Convent of Santa Maria de la Rabida. 



student, demonstrating the benefits 
of civilization. Between thirty and 
forty pupils will be kept here from the 
opening to the close of the Expo- 
sition. There will be relays of pupils 
from the different Indian schools, 
each detail remaining three or four 
weeks, to be succeeded by others. 
They live and do their own cooking 
in the building. 

There now rises before the visitor 
a steep rocky slope, at the summit 
of which stands an exact repro- 
duction of 

THE CONVENT OF 
SANTA MARIA DE LA RABIDA 

(Saint Mary of the Frontier) (N23), 
where Columbus found shelter in time 
7 



between the Straits of Gibraltar and 
the boundary of Portugal, on the 
summit of a low headland between 
the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which 
meet at its base, three miles from the 
sea, stands a picturesque and solitary 
monastery, called " Santa Maria de la 
Rabida," or St. Mary of the Frontier. 
Three miles above the La Rabida, 
on the Rio Tinto, lies the little vil- 
lage of Palos de Moguer, once a 
nourishing commercial city, but now 
a lonely hamlet of a few short streets, 
deserted by all but a few fishermen 
and farmers. At this port was organ- 
ized and equipped the expedition that 
discovered the New World, and from 
its docks on the 3d of August, 1492, 
Columbus set sail with his three ships. 
Above the altar of the Palos church 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



is the image of St. George and the 
dragon, just as Columbus saw it; and 
on the records of the parish are the 
names of the sailors who accompanied 
him and received communion the 
morning of their departure. 

It is not certain when Columbus 
first appeared at Palos and the Mon- 
astery of La Rabida. Some authori- 
ties assert that he came there direct 
from Portugal in 1484 on his way to 
Moguer, where he intended to leave 




William E. Curtis. 

little Diego, then nine years old, with 
his wife's relatives, and obtain from 
them means to pay his way to the 
court of Ferdinand and Isabella to 
submit his plans for a voyage across 
the western ocean to the strange lands 
that Marco Polo had described. 
Others insist that he did not visit 
Palos until two years later, after his 
propositions had been rejected by the 
sovereigns, and he was leaving Spain 
for Genoa or Venice. 

This building contains all the exist- 
ing relics of Columbus, including the 
original of the contract with the sover- 
eigns of Spain, under which the voy- 
age was made, the commission they 
gave him as " Admiral of the Ocean 
Seas " his correspondence with them, 
and many other priceless historical 
papers relating to the discovery and 
early settlement of America, which 
are loaned for exhibition by the gov- 
ernment of Spain and the descend- 
ants of Columbus. There are also 
original copies of the first publications 
concerning the New World, and a 
large number of equally interesting 
books, maps, and manuscripts bor- 
rowed from the archives of the Vat- 
ican, the national libraries of Eng- 



land, France, and Spain, and private 
collectors in Europe and America. 
One of the anchors and a cannon used 
by Columbus on his flagship the 
" Santa Maria" were secured, and all 
the ruins that remain of Isabella, the 
first town established in the New 
World, were brought from the Island 
of Santo Domingo by a United States 
man-of-war. There is also the orig- 
inal of the first church-bell that ever 
rang in America, which was presented 
to the people of Isabella by King 
Ferdinand, and many other interest- 
ing relics. 

To these has been added a collec- 
tion that includes the original, or a 
copy, of every portrait of Columbus 
that was ever painted or engraven — 
eighty in number — and a model or a 
photograph of every monument or 
statue that was ever erected to his 
memory. 

W. E. CURTIS. 

Washington, D. C. 

The following classification of the 
historical collection will give a general 
idea of the contents of La Rabida: 

Maps, charts, and globes anterior to 
Columbus; nautical and astronomical 
instruments; 
models of ves- 
sels; evidence 
of pre-Colum- 
bian discover- 
ies; arms, ar- 
mor, equip- 
ments, etc. 
Books known 
to Columbus, 
and portraits 
of their au- 
thors. The 
court of Ferdi- 
nand and Isa- 
b e 1 1 a . Por- 
traits, auto- 
graphs, and 
relics of per- 
sons identified 
with the career of Columbus. Youth 
and early life of Columbus. 

The first voyage of Columbus; fac- 
similes of charts, nautical instruments, 
books, costumes, arms, armor, etc., 
and model showing the course of the 
voyage; reception of Columbus on 




CONVENT DE LA RABID A. 



99 



his return to Spain, and fac-similes of 
relics brought home by the voyagers. 

The second voyage of Columbus; 
remains, views, and relics of Isabella, 
the first settlement in the New World, 
and return of Columbus. 

The third voyage of Columbus; 
the mutiny at Santo Domingo; the 
arrest and imprisonment of Columbus; 
the castle in which he was confined; 
the admiral in chains; reception by 
the sovereigns on his return to Spain. 

The fourth voyage of Columbus; 
the wreck at St. Christopher's Cove ; 
the mutiny of Porras; return of Colum- 
bus; last days of Columbus; his home 
at Seville; death and burial; his will; 
house in which he died; monuments 
to and portraits of Columbus; family 
and descendants. Relics of Colum- 
bus; autograph letters; the contract, 
commission, and instructions received 
by him from Ferdinand and Isabella. 
The publication of the discovery. 
Copies of the first books about Amer- 
ica; maps, manuscripts, fac-similes, 
and illustrations. 

Relics and portraits of Americus 
Vespucci and other explorers. Col- 
lections showing the condition of the 
natives; portraits and pictures, cos- 
tumes, canoes, weapons, etc. 

The conquest of Mexico; illustra- 
tions of the condition of the Aztecs; 
arms, armor, etc., of the conquista- 
dores; portraits, pictures, and relics 
of Cortez and those associated with 
him; maps, charts, etc., illustrating 
the conquest. 

The discovery and conquest of other 
portions of America; portraits and 
relics of other discoverers and early 
voyagers; maps, charts, and printed 
volumes showing the progress of civili- 
zation and the growth of geographical 
knowledge. 

In the convent the Lowdermilk con- 
cession sells reproductions of many 
relics, photographs, etc., and an ex- 
cellent Columbus encyclopedia, en- 
titled ' ' Christopher Columbus and His 
Monument, Columbia," from the press 
of the publishers of this guide. 

Near by are moored the Caravels 
of Columbus, as to which Mr. Curtis 
writes: 

' ' The three caravels which com- 
posed the fleet of Columbus, the 



' Santa Maria,' ' Pinta,' and ' Nina,' 
were reproduced in the navy-yards 
of Cadiz and Barcelona, Spain. The 
'Santa Maria' was built at the ex- 
pense of the Spanish government, and 
the 'Nina' and ' Pinta ' at the expense 
of the United States, an appropriation 
having been secured for that purpose 
by William E. Curtis. 

' ' The ships made their first public 
appearance at Huelva, Spain, during 
the Columbus festivities there from 
October 10 to October 14, 1892. On 
February 18, 1893, the little fleet 
started from Cadiz for America, 




Statue of Columbus on Barcelona Monument. 

arrived at Havana about the middle 
of March, were afterward taken to 
Chicago as a part of the Spanish ex- 
hibit, and toward the close of the 
Exposition will be presented to the 
Government of the United States to 
remain permanently in this country." 
In South Pond, near the whaler 
" Progress," is moored an exact copy 
of the famous Viking ship discovered 
in a burial-mound at Gokstad, in 
Norway, in 1880. It was in a vessel 
like this that Lief, the son of Erik 
the Red, discovered Vinland, Mark- 
land, and Helleland on the coast of 
Massachusetts, years before Colum- 
bus sailed. 



100 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



The vessel was reproduced under 
the direction of Capt. Magnus An- 
dersen (who sailed it from the coast 
of Norway), was brought through 
the lakes, and is exhibited in con- 
junction with the fleet of Columbus. 

The prow is adorned by a colossal 
superbly carved dragon's head, and 
the stern with an equally handsome 
dragon's tail. Both these ornaments 
are finished in burnished gold. 
Around the outside of the bulwarks 
are rows of embellished shields of 
great beauty, and almost amidships 
rises a roofing painted in red and 
white stripes. Astern stands a mass- 
ive "high seat" for the chief, or "jarl," 
covered with carved Runic inscrip- 
tions in old Norse style. The vessel 
is open, with the exception of a small 
deck fore and aft. There are two 
water-tight compartments. The rig- 
ging is very simple — one mast, which 
can be taken down, and one yard. 
On each side, below the shields, are 
sixteen holes for oars, and along the 
inside are benches for the rowers. 
The rudder is, after the custom of the 
old sea-kings, carried on the right side 
of the vessel. 

It is seventy-six feet long and is 
rather broad for its length. The nu- 
merous shields painted in yellow and 
black, and the magnificent dragon's 
head in burnished gold, form a most 
striking and artistic effect. 

The visitor can now take a trip 
around the system of the Intramural 
Elevated Railroad by ascending to a 
near-by station. The road is 6}^ miles 
long, and was built by the Columbian 
Intramural Railroad Company at a 
total cost of $700,000, including power- 
house, rolling-stock, and everything 
ready for operation. The fare is 10 
cents for the trip one way or any part 
of it, and 25 per cent of the gross 
receipts go to the Exposition. The 



trains on the Intramural Elevated 
consist of four cars each, are capable 
of a maximum speed of thirty miles 
an hour, and the entire trip from one 
end of the grounds to the other and 
back can be made in twenty-one 
minutes. 

The trip on the Intramural road af- 
fords an excellent opportunity to the 
visitor to obtain a rapid bird's-eye 
view of the greater part of the Expo- 
sition grounds. At the Forestry Build- 
ing the visitor reaches the Colonnade 
Station and obtains a view of the south 
and north canals, the mammoth build- 
ings, and the beauteous lagoon. He 
then passes on the south side of Ma- 
chinery Hall, and turning by its west- 
ern extremity traverses the numerous 
tracks of the Terminal Railroad Sta- 
tion, and continuing along the roof 
of the Transportation Annex reaches 
the western side of the Exposition 
grounds and proceeds in a northerly 
direction. On his right hand is the 
huge glass dome of the Horticultural 
Building; then the Children's, Puck's, 
and the White Star buildings meet his 
view to the right, with the Woman's 
Building on the same side a little 
farther on. To his left now appears 
the Midway Plaisance, stretching far 
away to the westward. Still going 
northward, and catching here and 
there a glimpse of the main and for- 
eign buildings, the huge dome of 
Illinois is seen near Fifty-ninth Street, 
and also the mission-like structure of 
California. A glimpse of the Art 
Gallery is seen between the nu- 
merous and encircling State struct- 
ures. Washington's huge log-house 
and lofty flagstaff is a feature on the 
route. Here is Fifty-seventh Street 
Station, from which the city can be 
reached by the Illinois Central Rail- 
road train from South Park Station, or 
the Cottage Grove Avenue cable-cars. 



CHAPTER VII. 



AGRICULTURAL BUILDING, ETC. 




Buren Street. 



EAUTIFUL weather and 
the rippling waters 
of Lake Michigan in- 
vitingly beckoning one 
to embark, there can 
be no more agreeable 
method for reaching 
the World's Fair than 
by the steamboats 
leaving the Lake Front 
at the foot of Van 
The route, fare, and 
all particulars have been fully de- 
scribed at page 28. Proceeding to the 
pier, which is approached by means 
of a lofty viaduct over the tracks 
of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
the visitor can purchase admission 
tickets to the Fair when buying his 
steamboat ticket. The views on the 
voyage are varied and pleasing. 
Arriving off the World's Columbian 
Exposition, the visitor lands at the 
Main Columbian Pier (L 26), which 
is one of the notable sights of the 
Exposition. Directly in front of the 
Casino, it reaches out 2,500 feet into 
Lake Michigan, and is 250 feet wide. 
The view to be obtained from the outer 
end of -this pier is something that will 
never be forgotten by those who 
take it. In the immediate foreground 
looms up in all its outlined immensity 
the mammoth Manufactures and Lib- 
eral Arts Building, flanked by the 
chaste Corinthian columns of the 
graceful Peristyle, the white Music 
Hall, the airy Casino, the marvelous 
Agricultural Hall, and the long, 
many-windowed Forestry Building. 
Through and above the columns and 
figures of the Peristyle is seen the 
glistening dome of the Administra- 
tion Building, hanging like a great 
ball against the sky. To the left, in 
martial ranks, stand the statues, 
steeples, and graceful proportions of 

(101 



Machinery Hall, apparently under 
command of Diana, who glistens in 
her golden array on the dome of the 
Agricultural Building. Stretching 
away to the north of the main struct- 
ures of the Exposition looms up a city 
of strange-looking palaces, decked out 
in colors that blend harmoniously and 
give a delightful contrast to the acres 
of pure white that prevail in the 
other direction. 

By the water's edge rests the man- 
of-war "Illinois," partly hiding from 
view England's quaint, substantial red 
structure. A little way beyond, rising 
to a peak, shine the roof and sentinel 
minarets of the German Building, 
flanked on the left and guarded in 
the rear by the domes and towers 
and gables of Uncle Sam's sub- 
stantial-looking edifice, the Illinois 
and Fisheries buildings, the Palace of 
Fine Arts, and a score of other struct- 
ures. 

Extending from one end of the pier 
to the other up and down its center 
is a movable sidewalk (L 52), on 
which 5,610 persons can stand or sit 
and be carried along at different 
rates of speed, one half of the walk 
moving at the rate of three miles an 
hour and the other half just twice as 
fast. This walk is built on flat-cars, 
315 in number, forms an endless train 
4,300 feet long, and is propelled 
by ten ordinary street-car motors. 
On the faster platform are seats 
capable of holding four persons each, 
and just as easily as the passenger 
stepped on from the stationary plat- 
form to the slower moving walk can 
he step from this to the swifter. The 
fare is 5 cents a ride. The pier is 
one of the longest in the world. 

The Exposition pier has an area of 
13)4 acres, and its general width is 
250 feet. It was commenced Septem- 
) 



102 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



ber i, 1S92, and finished by December 
15th in that year. The pier is twelve 
feet above the level of the lake, while 
the depth of water along it varies 
from eight to eighteen feet. It stands 
on 3 5 -foot piles, driven about twelve 
feet into the bed of the lake. 

The pier traversed on the movable 
sidewalk, the visitor now faces the 
Casino (M 23), at the southern -end of 
the classic Peristyle, one of the most 
beautiful architectural features of this 
"White City" of wondrous beauty. 
The Casino Building is three stories 
high, and is fitted up on a grand 
scale. Its ground-floor is in charge of 
the Bureau of Public Comfort, and 
contains baggage-rooms, checking- 
rooms, lavatories, parlors, and all con- 
veniences. The public dining-room 
on the second floor has a table and 
seating capacity of 1,500 people. 
From 4,000 to 8,000 persons can be 
fed here every day. A band dis- 
courses music during meals. The 
restaurant is operated by a conces- 
sionnaire. Deferring his inspection 
of the Peristyle for awhile, let the 
visitor enter the 

AGRICULTURAL BUILDING 

(O 22), immediately west of the Casino. 
The Agricultural Building is an at- 
tractive structure 800 feet long and 500 
feet wide, and has a floor space of 
nearly nineteen acres. It stands 
quite near the lake shore, and in form 
resembles the letter T, one portion 
being 500 feet long, and the other, 
200 feet. The building cost $6iS,- 
000, and is so planned in its details 
as to give all the accommodations 
desired by the farmers. It is a single- 
story structure, and of an order 
designated as the heroic by the archi- 
tects. The many groups of statuary 
that adorn the exterior of the building, 
combined with Corinthian pillars fifty 
feet high at the entrance, give the 
structure a striking appearance. The 
main entrance to the Agricultural 
Building is sixty -four feet wide, and 
the rotunda is 100 feet in diameter and 
surmounted by a glass dome that 
sheds a daylight clearness on all ex- 
hibits. On each corner and at the 
center of the building are attractive 



pavilions, the center one being 144 
feet square. A continuous arcade sur- 
rounds the building, and all through 
the main vestibule at the entrance of 
the structure is statuary illustrative 
of agriculture. The corner buildings 
are surmounted by domes nearly 100 
feet high, and above them tower 
groups of statuary. Waiting-rooms, 
committee-rooms, and the Bureau of 
Information are located on the first 
floor, and broad stairs lead from this 
floor into an assembly-room, having a 
capacity of 1,500, which is intended 
for the Congress of Farmers, Farmers' 
Mutual Benefit Associations, Farmers' 
Alliances, and kindred rural organ- 
izations. In the Agricultural Build- 
ing all products of the soil, and also 
agricultural implements and machin- 
ery of all kinds, are exhibited. An 
agricultural experiment station in 
operation is one of the most interest- 
ing features of the exhibit. The 
architects of the building were Messrs. 
McKim, Meade & White of New York. 
Statuary and Decorations. — A 
great deal of the decorative work on 
the Agricultural Building finds its 
motive, as it should, in subjects native 
to America — as, for instance, the 
maize, potato, tobacco, etc. The great 
frieze showing the turkey, which 
should have been the emblematic fowl 
of this country instead of the eagle, 
is especially a happy thought. The 
grand entrance (on the north) is sixty 
feet wide, the vestibule into which 
it leads being thirty feet deep. The 
columns at its entrance are five feet 
in diameter and forty-five feet high. 
The eight minor entrances are each 
twenty feet wide. The roof is com- 
posed largely of glass. There are 
many groups of statuary adorning 
the exterior of this building, each 
group representing some agricultural 
subject. Each of the four corner pa- 
vilions has its dome surmounted with 
statuary; four grand female figures, 
typical of the four principal races of 
men, supporting a mammoth globe. 
The sculptor, Philip Martiny of Phila- 
delphia, has contributed the following 
subjects: Twenty single " Signs of 
the Zodiac," twenty single figures of 
"Abundance," two groups of "Ceres," 
two groups of the " Four Seasons," 



104 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



four groups of the "Nations" — four 
figures in each group — and four 
pediments representing "Agricult- 
ure." Over the main entrance 
is a handsome pediment mod- 
eled by Larkin J. Mead of Flor- 
ence, Italy, representing Ceres, the 
goddess of agriculture. 

The painted decorations of the 
Agricultural Building are the work of 
George W. Maynard of New York, 
who has chosen the Pompeian style 
as most appropriate for the archi- 
tecture, which is classic, but not purely 
so. The main entrance has something 
of the appearance of a temple devoted 
to the worship of the deities under 
whose protection the ancients be- 
lieved agriculture to be. On the 
right, Cybele, the mother of Zeus and 
of Demeter, or Ceres, is presented in 
her chariot drawn by young lions, and 
on the left is her special protege, King 
Triptolemus, to whom she gave a 
chariot drawn by winged dragons, 
wnth which he was sent forth to teach 
the peoples of the earth the art of 
agriculture. Between these are figures 
representing "Abundance "and " Fer- 
tility." Each of the corner entrances 
is decorated with figures on either 
side symbolical of the seasons, and 
above are friezes in which beasts of 
burden and other bucolic animals 
figure. 

Classification. — The following is 
the official classification of this depart- 
ment: 

GROUP NO. 

i. — Cereals, 
plants. 

2. — Bread, biscuits, pastes, starch, 
gluten, etc. 

3. — Sugars, syrups, confectionery, etc. 

4. — Potatoes, tubers, and other root 
crops. 

5. — Productions of the farm not other- 
wise classed. 

6. — Preserved meats and food prepa- 
rations. 

7. — The dairy and dairy products. 

8. — Tea, coffee, spices, hops, and 
aromatic vegetable substances. 

9- — Animal and vegetable fibers. 
10. — Pure and mineral waters, natural 

and artificial. 
11. — Whiskies, cider, liqueurs, and 
alcohol. 



grasses, and forage 



12. — Malt liquors. 

13- — Machinery, processes and appli- 
ances of fermenting, distilling, 
bottling, and storing beverages. 
14. — Farms and farm buildings. 
15- — Literature and statistics of agri- 

■ culture. 
16. — Farming tools, implements, and 

machinery. 
17. — Miscellaneous animal products, 
fertilizers, and fertilizing com- 
pounds. 
18. — Fats, oils, soaps, candles, etc. 
19. — Forestry, forest products. (In 
the Forestry Building.) 
The Main Exhibits. — The visitor 
enters the Agricultural Building by the 
main portal, and finds himself at once 
confronted by the display of the foreign 
countries. Let him proceed systemat- 
ically and turn to the right hand 
directly he gets into the rotunda. On 
the right side of the alley-way is the 
exhibit of Spain and the Philippine 
Islands, occupying 3,684 square feet, 
filled with a characteristic display. 
Opposite this and on the same side is 
the exhibit of Chile, and crossing an 
intersecting aisle, on the right-hand 
side is found Cuba, her display char- 
acterized by magnificent tobaccos, in 
the leaf and manufactured. Next to 
Cuba is British Guiana, its exhibit 
consisting largely of stuffed beasts, 
birds, serpents, etc. There are ant- 
bears, monkeys of many kinds, alli- 
gators, cranes, Surinam toads (the 
ugliest on earth), wild hogs, and other 
animals, and also a display of rubber 
and curious valuable woods. Oppo- 
site, Brazil has an entire block, and 
makes a magnificent display, chiefly 
of coffees and woods. Proceeding to 
the right one finds Haiti, showing 
cane, woods, etc. Opposite is Ven- 
ezuela, with 1,512 square feet. Next 
to Haiti is Liberia, where are shown 
nuts of various kinds, small pottery- 
wares, war implements, palm-oil, and 
soaps, coffee, native jewelry, etc. Cu- 
racoa comes next, with 65 8 square feet, 
showing salt, fruits, jellies, sparge, 
coral, shells, Panama straw work, pot- 
tery, boats, models of native houses, 
nets, native furniture, leather, aloes, 
snuff, gums, musical instruments, pet- 
rified wood, native jewelry, women's 
work, woods, coffee, rice, salt, vanilla 



AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 



105 



| DAIRY 



IbiBMANYi ifrancI"^" DaTry^^ ^^ IMPLE^KI t 



LIGHT WELL 



LIGHT WELL 



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AGRICULTURAL BUILDING 



106 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



beans, the fine liqueur, made from the 
native orange peel, called " curacoa," 
and all of the ordinary cereals. Peru 
is in close proximity, occupying the 
corner, and has an area of 1,342 square 
feet. On the opposite side of the 
aisle is Mexico, with the large space of 
5,084 square feet, showing pulque, 
aguardiente, sugar-cane, coffee, tobac- 
co, cereals, etc. Through the aisle and 
down to the left, on the right-hand 
side, is found Japan, with 3,038 square 
feet, displaying fine teas, silks, etc. 
Its rustic pavilion is exceedingly 
unique, and shows some very pretty 
effects in bamboo, cane, fiber ropes 
and twines. Honduras comes next, 
displaying rare woods, etc., and has 
Siam for a vis-a-vis. 

Proceeding in an easterly direction, 
Brazil (already inspected) is on the 
left, and on the right is the Argentine 
Republic; and next is Austria, with 
4,461 square feet. Germany occupies 
both sides of the aisle, with a total 
area of 11,875 square feet. Her dis- 
play is magnificent in this as 111 the 
other departments. Her chief spe- 
cialty is beer, and from every brewing 
town in every part of the empire are 
samples of this malt liquor. The center 
aisle, running from north to south of 
the building, has now been reached, 
and bearing to the right from the 
center of the building, another aisle 
is taken to exhaust this section. 
Germany has been inspected, and 
next on the right-hand side is the 
State of Iowa, with a fine pavilion 
showing her grains, grasses, etc. She 
makes a specialty of corn in her pavil- 
ion decorations, and it is seen of all 
sizes and colors. The columns, arches, 
and pediments are artistically deco- 
rated with corn, the bases showing 
flat panels of this grain. The bases 
of some of the columns are of heads of 
millet and grasses. Stars, flowers, 
etc., and running garlands of floral 
designs are made of colored corn. 
There are also panels with margins of 
grains of corn and centers of heads of 
wheat, rye, etc. The central pagoda 
is similarly ornamented. 

Nebraska has a pavilion with a fine 
display of cereals, grasses, and other 
farm products. Next is the " Wolver- 
ine State," Michigan, making a cred- 



itable display, as does also Wisconsin, 
next on the left, with her fine pavilion. 
On the right is the already visited 
Argentine Republic, and on the left 
Minnesota, showing a fine flour pavil- 
ion. On the right-hand side of the 
aisle is the exhibit of Uruguay. 
Crossing an intersecting aisle, Para- 




" Abundance." Ph. Martiny, Sculptor. 

guay is found on the right. Japan 
(already inspected) occupies the ex- 
treme right, and on the left is the 
French governmental teaching ex- 
hibit. This is a perfect model of what 
an agricultural experiment station and 
agricultural school should be. Russia 
is France's neighbor, taking up, in 
three entire blocks, an area of 9,558 
square feet, with wheat as her leading 
exhibit. 



AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 



107 



Crossing over the aisle to the left, one 
again finds himself between States. 
Turning eastwardly is seen Massachu- 
setts on the left and the " Nutmeg 
State" on the right. Then the " Gran- 
ite State " stretches across the alley- 
way, with an area of 1,365 square feet. 
All of these have creditable exhibits. 
Proceeding, one finds Montana's ex- 
hibit. On the right is North Dakota, 
whose pavilion is beautifully deco- 
rated; the panels of its inclosure are 
filled with artistic designs worked out 
in corn, seeds, and grasses. Farther 
on the land of Poco tiempo (New Mex- 



by stuffed white pigs; the pagoda is 
crowned by a gilded star surmount- 
ing a circle, in which swings a bronze 
boar. Cudahy's exhibit, next in order, 
has a tower at each end, surmounted 
by a crowned hog sitting erect, and 
a central pyramid upon which is seen 
a partly nude man holding a long- 
horned bull. Armour has a pavilion of 
woodwork painted white. It has four 
corner towers and a larger central one, 
and makes a fine exhibit. Immedi- 
ately behind North Dakota New 
Hampshire, the "Switzerland of 
America," is seen. Next is the Ter- 




Group on Agricu 

ico) occupies 1,261 square feet on the 
left. Its exhibit is surprising to all. 
California is on the right, her space 
rich with honey, wines, fruits, bran- 
dies, grains, etc. Again the center 
aisle is reached, and bearing around 
to the right the "Sunflower State" 
(Kansas) is seen. 

The pavilions south of Kansas are 
occupied with packing company dis- 
plays. First is the Swift Refrigerator 
Co. , representing an elegant freight- 
car, its sides of plate-glass set in white 
wood, and its wheels and trucks gilded. 
Next is the North Packing & Provision 
Co. ,with two end towers and a central 
pagoda. The towers are surmounted 



Kural Building. 

ritory of Oklahoma, an infant in 
years, yet with a fair display of 
corn, oats, wheat, and cultivated 
and wild grasses. The western cor- 
ner shows American agricultural col- 
leges and experiment stations, which 
occupy a space of 8,599 square feet, 
with Italy as a neighbor, having an 
area of 6,236 square feet. Her ex- 
hibits are wines, liqueurs, oils, olives, 
fruits, etc. 

One-half of the building has now 
been visited, and the best plan is to 
walk back to the main door and take 
the first aisle to the left. The first 
exhibit on the left of this aisle is that 
of Ceylon, her exhibit consisting 



108 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



chiefly of teas, spices, etc. On the 
right is Great Britain, with a total 
area in this and the next aisle of 
10,776 square feet, her display being 
an exceedingly fine one, consisting 
of ales, beers, whiskies, gins, cheese, 
and other items too numerous to men- 
tion. Next is Australia, taking up 
both sides of the aisle, with a space 
of 8,587 square feet; her chief exhibit 
being wool, though she has other fine 
displays. On the left Ecuador is 
found, followed on the same side by 
Colombia. Opposite Colombia, on 
the right of the aisle, is the Cape of 
Good Hope Colon}', with ivory, 
diamonds, ostriches, etc. Next, on 
each side of the aisle are the exhibits 
of Algeria and the French Colonies, 
having an area of 6,405 square feet. 
Next on the left is Holland, and on 
the right is Sweden. 

Passing around Sweden's display, 
that of Denmark is reached, covering 
an area of 1,584 square feet. Passing 
the aisle upon which Denmark cor- 
ners, the next one is entered. France, 
with 7,006 square feet, is first upon 
the right. Her display is a very fine 
one, the chief exhibits being rare 
wines, brandies, fruits, oils, canned 
fruits, liqueurs, etc. To the left, 
opposite France, is North Carolina, 
with 1,886 square feet; and New York, 
with 2,845 square feet. This State has 
a splendid pavilion, the wood used 
being oil -polished oak. At each cor- 
ner is a four-square arch with massive 
columns of antique oak, and be- 
tween these corners run plate-glass 
show-cases with antique oak wood- 
work and bases. These cases are 
filled with grains of all kinds, as are 
also the central cases of the exhibit. 
Next on the right is Ontario, occu- 
pying two blocks, 7,760 square feet in 
area, with a very large display, among 
which is to be seen an 11 -ton cheese, 
the largest ever made. It comes from 
Lanark County. Ontario has a fine 
pavilion, the arches and columns of 
its outer walls festooned with gar- 
lands of grasses and grains in the 
stalk. The capitals of the columns 
are of the same materials. The in- 
ner temple, bearing the legend 
"Agricultural College of Ontario," is 
highly ornamented with seeds, grains, 



grasses, etc. , on a black velvet back- 
ground, making quite a striking ex- 
hibit. 

Next to New York on the left is 
Indiana, with a pavilion containing 
a fine display of her agricultural prod- 
ucts. Next to Indiana on the same 
side is Kentucky. In her pavilion, 
waiving her claims to the finest 
horses, the best whiskies, and the 
prettiest women, she challenges the 
world to compete with her in tobaccos, 
of which she has the finest display ever 
exhibited. Kentucky's next neighbor 
on the same side of the aisle is Ohio. 
In her handsome pavilion she shows 
many varieties of corn, wheat, and 
other grains and grasses, and her 
tobacco exhibit is very fine. Her 
pavilion represents a Grecian temple 
with a square front, two small wings, 
and a curved rear portico. All of the 
fronts are pillared. On the square 
front facing the main aisle are 
twenty-six pillars of medium size, on 
the wings twelve smaller ones, and 
on the curved portico ten very large 
ones. These are all made of glass 
cylinders, tapering toward the top, 
and filled with peas, beans, grains, 
and grass-seeds of every kind. The 
effect is very beautiful. The bases 
and capitals of these columns are of 
gilded wood. 

The beautiful pavilion of Illinois is 
next on the left, and her grasses, ce- 
reals, and other products are as fine 
as any in the building. Pennsylvania 
is next on the same side of the aisle. 
Her pavilion is a very artistic one, 
its ornamentation being a handsome 
combination of fruits, flowers, and 
geometrical designs, worked out in 
mosses, seeds, grains, etc. In the 
central pagoda is a representation 
of the liberty bell in these materials. 
The coat-of-arms of the State, over 
four feet high, is produced in seeds 
and grains, only the natural colors 
being used. Vases and ornamental 
arches abound, and a keystone of glass 
jars filled with seeds is very fine. Two 
large round panels have centers of 
grains, representing the sun. Oppo- 
site this Great Britain has a block 
with an area of 6,025 square feet, 
already noticed. 

Turning to the left and walking 



A GRIC UL TURA L B UILDING. 



109 



to the second aisle, Arizona is first on 
the left, and opposite is Wyoming. 
Passing on down the aisle, Utah occu- 
pies the next block on the left, and 
Idaho the block on the right. Next 
to Utah on the left is Washington, and 
opposite is New Jersey, famed for her 
peaches and small fruits and vege- 




Sign of the Zodiac. Ph. Martiny, Sculptor. 

tables. Missouri is next, and occu- 
pies both sides of the aisle with a 
larger allotment of space and a more 
varied display than any of the States. 
She shows peaches, apples, and all 
sorts of fruits; all of the cereals and 
tame grasses and vegetables, and, 
next to Kentucky, the finest tobaccos. 
Her decorated pavilion is one of the 
finest in the building, and will repay 
a visit. She displays fruits from the 



largest orchard in the world, the 
Olden fruit farm, in Howell County. 
Her pavilion is a beautiful one, show- 
ing the Eads bridge at St. Louis, 
worked out in cane and decorated 
with cereals. She also displays a life- 
size horse made of grains, and a 
silken globe, upon whose surface is 
shown, in seeds of different kinds and 
colors, a map of the world, with its 
oceans, continents, bays, rivers, etc. 
The coats-of-arms of the State and 
of the United States are also worked 
in grains of many colors. 

Adjoining Missouri on the left is 
West Virginia. Florida, filled with 
golden oranges and sub-tropical fruits, 
joins her on the right of the aisle. 
Turning to the right at the end of 
Florida's display, and entering the 
second aisle beyond, Virginia is first 
upon the right. Her specialty is fine 
tobacco, though her other exhibits are 
excellent. To the left are Greece and 
the Orange Free State. Next on the 
left is Louisiana. Her specialty is 
rice; she also displays cotton and 
sugar, and her perrique tobacco is 
excellent. To the right of and adjoin- 
ing Virginia is Oregon. This is a 
great wheat-producing State, though 
she has other specialties. To the left 
now comes a line of individual ex- 
hibits worth visiting. Next to 
Oregon, on the right, is Delaware, 
and Maryland follows. Among her 
exhibits are many curios. Next is 
Colorado, the " Centennial State." 
Her grains, grasses, and fruits are 
especially fine. South Dakota is the 
last of the States, spring wheat being 
her specialty. The Duluth Mill Com- 
pany shows an old-fashioned hewed- 
log water-mill in operation. It is in the 
gallery near the northwestern stair- 
way, and is quite unique. A plow, 
formerly the property of Gen. Israel 
Putnam, of Revolutionary fame, and 
possibly the one he left standing in 
the furrow when called to arms, is 
shown by Connecticut. An English 
Cheddar cheese, forty-six years old, is 
to be seen among the English exhibits. 
Scotch, Irish, Welsh, and American 
whiskies are plentiful; and American 
and German beers, English ales, and 
Irish porters and stouts abound. An- 
heuser-Busch, the St. Louis brewing 



110 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



company, has in the west gallery a 
miniature reproduction of its plant. 
Maillard of New York has also in the 
gallery a chocolate statue of Colum- 
bus, weighing 1,700 pounds; also a 
copy of the Venus of Milo and 
Minerva, each weighing 1,500 pounds. 
Memphis shows 1,350 samples of cot- 
ton of all varieties. Vermont makes 
the finest maple-sugar display ever 
seen. The Pabst Brewing Company 
of Milwaukee shows a model of its 
plant made of pure gold, true to scale. 
The Hydraulic Press Manufacturing 
Company has a cider-press in opera- 
tion with a capacity of 125 barrels per 
day. O'Connell's tower at Cork is 
duplicated in a structure built of 
whisky-bottles. Minnesota's honey 
pyramid is eight feet high and weighs 
three tons. Colorado makes a big 
display of Manitou mineral water. 
Germany's display, in a splendidly 
decorated staff pavilion on the main 
floor, is, in this line, exceedingly fine. 

The first mowing-machine, made by 
Jeremiah Bailey of Pennsylvania in 
1822, is exhibited by Samuel Worth 
of Marshalltown, Pa. 

In the gallery are also the following 
exhibits worthy of notice: 

Knox's Gelatine Company has a 
lovely little pagoda. It has delicate 
pillars, and a domed roof colored deep 
blue. The East India Spice Company 
has a fine booth, tiled and ornamented 
in vivid reds, blues, and yellows, and 
surmounted by the figure of an ele- 
phant. Near it is the Nebraska 
Starch Company's pagoda, quite an 
ornamental structure. The Barnett 
Produce Company has a rustic booth, 
in strange contrast to its elegant 
neighbors. Near it is the pagoda of 
the Humbert Soup & Jelly Company; 
also Swift's butterine pagoda. Dur- 
kee & Co. of New York display 
their spices, etc., in a fine pavilion of 
hand-carved wood. Huckin's soups 
are shown in a lovely little pagoda 
decorated in white and gold. Its cen- 
tral figure is a pedestal upon which 
rests a handsomely carved and deco- 
rated soup-bowl with a ladle resting 
in it. 

The Price Baking Powder Company 
has a fine large pavilion of birch 
stained to represent mahogany. It 



makes a very effective display. The 
pavilion of the Oswego Starch Com- 
pany is a gem. Its decorations are 
in white wood, with gilded ornamen- 
tation, and with panels of brass lattice- 
work. The central case has pillars 
made of hand-carved wood in high 
relief representing growing Indian 
corn, and showing the stalks, blades, 
and a small portion of the ear with its 
grains disclosed through the parted 
shuck. Gillette displays flavoring ex- 
tracts in a chaste, small pavilion 
painted a pure white. The H. J. 
Heinz Company of Pittsburg, Pa., has 
a magnificent pavilion of antique oak, 
hand-carved and oil-polished. At 
each of the four corners is a small 
pagoda. These are tenanted by 
beautiful girls — one French, one Eng- 
lish, one German, and one Spanish. 
The T. A. Snyder Preserve Company 
has a very pretty pavilion. The 
American Cereal Company has a 
pavilion of graceful build and finish. 
It is of antique oak, with a stained- 
glass cornice upon which appears the 
name of the company and representa- 
tions of American cereals. The Wise 
Axle Grease Company has a novel ex- 
hibit of lubricating oils and greases. 

The booth of the Lorillard Tobacco 
Company is very fine. Its tone is a 
deep rich red, decorated with tracery 
of gold. The small pagoda of Lozano 
Pandas & Co. , erected to display their 
cigars, is very unique. Upon its 
crest is placed a model of the ' ' Santa 
Maria," and all around its central 
room are beautiful onyx columns. Its 
base, which is triangular in shape, is 
supported by three gilded eagles. 
The Schlitz Brewing Company has a 
display consisting of a huge cask, with 
an opening on the main front like a 
railway ticket-window. Above the 
cask, in its center, is a globe of staff, 
seventeen feet in diameter, upheld by 
four female figures of gigantic size. 
The equator of the globe is marked 
by a double line of colored lights. 
Bergner & Engel of Philadelphia 
have a fine pagoda of antique oak. 
Brinker's cotton-bale exhibit con- 
sists of miniature bales made from 
cotton produced by slave labor in 1863. 
A special feature of this exhibit is the 
old slave who assisted in the growing 



AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 



Ill 



of this crop of cotton. The booth is 
built of these small bales. There are 
many other exhibits on the floor and 
in the galleries well worthy of a visit, 
but for which there is not room for 
even a mere mention. With the hints 
here given, however, it is not proba- 
ble that any of the more important 
ones will be overlooked by the visitor. 
Retracing his steps from the Agri- 
cultural Building and wending his 
way along the south front of the 
Main Basin, the visitor pauses to 



symbol of liberty — the Phrygian cap 
— and the other a globe surmounted 
by an eagle. The bird of freedom 
spreads its protecting wings over the 
nations of the earth. The little 
finger of "The Republic" measures 
just 2 feet 3 inches from knuckle to 
nail. A better idea of the dimensions 
of the work will be had when it is 
stated that the distance between the 
chin and the top of the head is 15 
feet; the arms are 30 feet long; the 
nose is 30 inches long; the wedding- 




The Quadriga Group on the Peristyle. French & Potter, Sculptors. 



inspect the heroic Statue of the 
Republic (L 22), by Daniel Chester 
French. 

The form of the statue is clothed 
in a Grecian robe, but the head and 
features are distinctly modern and 
American. It is a keen type of face, 
thoughtful, almost severe, but with 
great elements of beauty. Upon the 
head is a wreath of laurel leaves— 
the common emblem of victory — and 
around it a halo of electric lamps, 
forming a semicircle of light, which 
will both illuminate and ennoble the 
figure when night falls. The arms 
are lifted, but not imploringly, for 
one hand holds a staff carrying the 



ring finger is \o% inches around; the 
length of the forefinger is 45 inches. 
There is room on the hand to hold 
four men of ordinary size. Inside 
the statue is a stairway for the ac- 
commodation of the attendant who 
will see to the lighting of the diadem. 
Without the plinth the statue 
measures sixty-five feet. The total 
weight is thirty-five tons. The 
head alone weighs \\ tons. With 
characteristic and becoming modesty 
the able sculptor thus describes his 
grand creation: " My colossal ' Statue 
of the Republic ' stands at the east- 
erly end of the great lagoon facing the 
Administration "Building. The statue 



112 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



is 65 feet in height to the top of the 
head and rests upon a pedestal 35 feet 
in height. On account of the almost 
perfectly symmetrical arrangement of 
the architecture about it, I have 
treated the statue in a formal and 
almost archaic manner. The figure 
stands firmly upon both feet; both 
arms are raised; in one hand she 
holds a staff with liberty cap and 




Spanish Guitarist. 

streamers, in the other a globe sur- 
mounted by an eagle. On her head 
is a laurel crown, and a halo of 
thirteen stars, operated by electric 
light, encircles it. Her heavy robe, 
which suggests a lawyer's gown, is 
open in front, and reveals a breast- 
plate of scale armor and a sword 
half-hidden by the drapery. The 
statue is made of plaster and gilded." 
Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer says 
that "its bulk impresses one much 
less than its beauty, for it is in scale 
with its surroundings and in harmony 
with their form and spirit. It is not 
an independent work of art; it is a 
piece of architectural scitlpture as 
truly as though it had been desig- 
nated for attachment to some building. 
It is an integral part of the splendid 
architectural panorama amid which 
it stands. In this place a statue of 
the more usual kind — a realistic fig- 
ure in a natural attitude of repose 
or in vigorous action, or a graceful 
ideal figure with flowing outlines, 
contrasted gestures, and varied 
masses, lights, and shadows — would 
have been distinctly inharmonious. 
This figure, with its almost rigid 



outlines, the parallel gesture of the 
two uplifted hands, and its majestic 
movement, so dignified as to be al- 
most hieratic repose, is exactly what 
is wanted." 

In the rear of the ' ' Statue of the Re- 
public," connecting with its classic 
columns the Casino and Music Hall, 
is the artistic Peristyle (K 23), de- 
signed by Mr. C. B. Atwood, resem- 
bling in the center portion the Arc 
de Trio7)iphe of the Place du Carrou- 
sel in Paris. The Peristyle is com- 
posed of forty-eight columns — twenty- 
four on either side. These symbolize 
the States and Territories. On each 
column is a figure fourteen feet high. 
Below are the names of the different 
States. This colonnade reaches 234 
feet from each corner building to the 
Columbus portico. Over the water- 
gate and surrounding the Columbian 
Arch in the Peristyle, immediately be- 
hind the "Statue of the Republic," is 
the Quadriga representing " The Tri- 
umph of Columbus." Columbus 
stands in a chariot drawn by four 
horses, which are led by two women. 
At either side of the chariot is a 
mounted herald bearing a banner. 

Writing of this Columbus Quadriga, 
Mrs. Van Rensselaer described it 
as embodying 
"an idea 
which seemed 
radically nov- 
el. No one 
remembers to 
have seen a 
quadriga de- 
signed as this 
one is. The 
four horses do 
not stan d 
simply abreast 
and by them- 
selves, guided 
only by the 
victory erect 
in her chariot. 
Between each 
pair advances 
Music Hail Decoration. afemale figure 
holding them to right and left by their 
bits. Thus those who face the Quad- 
riga see at each end a horse, then a 
woman's figure, and in the center two 
horses. Even from words the interest 




AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 



113 



of such a composition appears. We 
see one of the most original and one 
of the most delightful sculptured con- 
ceptions of modern times." 

Heroic figures, fifteen feet in height, 
by the sculptor Theodore Baur, rep- 
resenting " Eloquence," " Music," 
"Fisher Boy," "Navigation," and 
" Indian Chief," many times dupli- 
cated, appear on the Casino, Music 
Hall, and Peristyle. The conception 
of these figures is strong and the 
sculptor's inspiration carefully carried 
out in their modeling. 

On either side of the arch are groups 
representing the genius of navigation 
and discovery, with supporting figures 
for each on the projecting prow of a 
vessel. These are the work of Bela L. 
Pratt of New York. 

The Music Hall (K 22), 200 feet 
long and 140 feet wide, is at the north 
end of the Peristyle, and contains 
an auditorium capable of seating 
2,000 people, with room for an 
orchestra of seventy - five pieces 
and a chorus of 300 people. The 
structure is three stories high, and 
is an architectural gem both as to 
interior and exterior. The style is 
Roman Renaissance. The main en- 
trance is between lofty Corinthian 
columns, through a broad loggia, and 
under arched doorways. On the main 
floor is the auditorium, oval in form, 
with the stage overlooking the lake at 
the east end. In front of the stage is 
a level space with capacity for more 
than a thousand seats, while back of 
that rise tiers of seats. An orches- 
tra of 300 can find seats on the stage, 
while the hall will seat 2,500 people. 
On the second floor, back of the 
terraced seats in the west end of the 
building, is a recital hall, which may 
be made part of the main building 
by raising the curtained intervening 
wall. This makes a balcony-room 
in which a large orchestra can be 
distinctly heard. Recital Hall will 
be used for performances such as its 
name indicates, and as a jury-room 
where ambitious musicians will play 
before critics for awards. A flattened 



glass dome furnishes light for the 
main auditorium. The galleries on 
third floor, running nearly the length 
of the building directly under the 
roof , can also be used to increase the 
seating capacity of the house. Below 
the cornices of the Casino and Music 
Hall are inscribed the names of the 
world's great musicians, composers, 
and singers. 

In the northeastern angle of the 
landward side of the Peristyle is 
located the Lowney Pavilion (L 22), 
designed by Charles B. Atwood, 
which stands close to Music Hall. 
The design for the pavilion comes 
from the Roman Temple of Vesta, 
and is quite artistically carried out. 
The ground-floor is a bazaar devoted 
to the sale of chocolate bonbons. 
Near by is Baker's Cocoa and 
Chocolate Pavilion (K 22), a small 
but carefully planned and beautiful 
structure, with two main entrances 
leading to a central hall used as a 
cafti, where the celebrated breakfast 
cocoa is served by young maidens 
dressed in the costume of Liotard's 
' ' La Belle Chocolatiere. " Small tables 
and chairs are placed about the room 
and everything is very dainty. 

A Rolling Chair Around the 
Grounds is to be had by the invalid 
or sybarite, the indolent, the halt, or 
the lame. At twenty-one pavilions, 
or more, in the grounds are stationed 
some 2,500 Columbia rolling chairs, 
with neatly uniformed guides and at- 
tendants in charge. This feature is 
provided for by a concession granted 
to the Columbia Rolling Chair Co. 
Scale of charges for use of chairs, 
with attendant as chair-propeller and 
guide — single chair (one person), 75 
cents per hour, 40 cents per half-hour, 
$6 per day of ten hours; double chair 
(two persons), %\ per hour, 50 cents 
per half hour, $8 per day of ten hours. 
Without attendant— single chair (one 
person), 40 cents per hour, 20 cents 
per half -hour, $3.50 per day of ten 
hours; double chair (two persons), 50 
cents per hour, 25 cents per half-hour, 
%\ per day of ten hours. 



chapter viii. 
Manufactures and liberal arts building. 




'MONG the wonders 
that await the visitor 
at every turn there are 
none which will more 
excite his admiration 
or surprise than the 
building which forms 
the chief subject of con- 
sideration of this chapter. 
Whether considered on 
account of its gigantic 
size, for the severely simple 
yet chaste and beautiful lines 
of its architecture, or for the 
great talent which made 
such a structure a possibility, we can 
not but give way to mingled feelings 
of wonder and delight. 

THE MANUFACTURES AND 
LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING 

(K 20). This edifice is rectangular 
in form, i,6S7 x 7S7 feet, with aground 
area of nearly thirty-one acres, and 
a floor and gallery space of forty-four 
acres. It is the largest building in 
the world, is the largest roofed build- 
ing that was ever erected, and is the 
world's architectural wonder. In its 
construction 17,000,000 feet of lumber, 
12,000,000 pounds of steel, and 2,000,- 
000 pounds of iron were used, and it 
cost $ 1 , 700,000. Its central chamber is 
380 x 1,280 feet, surrounded by a nave 
107 feet wide, and both hall and nave 
are circled by a gallery fifty feet wide. 
Any church in Chicago could be 
placed in the vestibule of St. Peter's 
Church at Rome, but this building is 
three times as large as St. Peter's. 
The old Roman Coliseum seated 
80,000 people, but this building is 
four times larger than the Coliseum. 
In the central hall, a single room with- 
out a supporting pillar under its roof, 



75,000 people could be seated and each 
one given six square feet of space. 
The entire building would thus seat 
300,000 persons. There are 7,000,000 
feet of lumber in the floors, and it 
required five car-loads of nails to 
fasten this 215 car-loads of lumber to 
the joists. Twenty such buildings as 
the Auditorium, the largest in Chi- 
cago, could be placed on this floor. 
To grow the amount of lumber re- 
quired in its construction would take 
1,100 acres of Michigan pine land. 
The iron and steel in the roof would 
build two Brooklyn bridges, and there 
are 1,400 tons more of metal in it 
than in the great St. Louis bridge. In 
the skylights are eleven acres of glass 
— forty car-loads. Its aisles are laid 
off as streets and lighted with orna- 
mental lamp-posts bearing arc lights. 
The roof of the central hall is 212 
feet 9 inches high; the truss span, 
354 feet. The weight of the truss with 
purlines is 400,000 pounds. In the 




James Allison. 

central hall the Vendome Column at 
Paris could be mounted on a seventy- 
four-foot pedestal without touching 
the roof, which is only eleven feet 
lower than the Bunker Hill monument 
at Boston. It is but six feet lower 
11) 



116 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



than the top of the 
spire of Grace 
Church, New York, 
and ten feet lower 
than the great 
chimney of the New 
York Steam Heat- 
ing Co. Its ground 
plan is more than 
twice the size of the 
great pyramid of 
Cheops. Six games 
of base-ball might 
be played at one 
time on this floor 
without crowding 
any of the players. 
The French Expo- 
sition of 1889 had 
one tremendous 
building — its Palace 
of Mechanic Arts; 
but that structure 
might be placed in 
this building and the 
Eiffel Tower laid flat 
upon its roof with- 
out touching the en- 
veloping structure 
except on the floor. 
The standing army 
of Russia could be 
mobilized under its 
roof. The building 
is nearly two and a 
half times as long 
and more than two 
and a half times as 
wide as the Capitol 
at Washington. Its 
architect is Mr. 
George B. Post of 
New York. In de- 
sign it is severely 
simple, yet massive 
and beautiful. O f 
course such a build- 
ing could not be 
treated as ornament- 
ally as the smaller 
ones, as this would 
detract from its im- 
mense size. The 
motive in its archi- 
tectural inspiration 
was undoubtedly to 
impress the beholder 
with its solidity and 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN OF MANUFACTURES 
AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING. 



MANUFACTURES BUILDING. 

NORTH 



117 




CALLERY PLAN OF MANUFACTURES 
AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING, 



grandeur, and not 
to subordinate these 
to considerations of 
mere beauty. Were 
the sight broken and 
the senses distracted 
by carved balconies, 
columned porches, 
and arabesques, the 
building would be 
seen in parts and not 
as one gigantic 
whole, and its im- 
mensity would be 
thus frittered away 
and lost to the spec- 
tator. As it is, the 
eye takes in at a 
glance its chaste, 
plain exterior, and 
the mind is thrilled 
by the idea of its 
stupendous size, so- 
lidity, and strength. 

When one sees the 
myriad exhibits in- 
stalled in this vast 
building alone, it is 
< easy to comprehend 
the enormous nature 
of the task which 
has been so success- 
fully performed by 
Mr. Joseph Hirst— 
the Secretary of In- 
stallation—in satis- 
factorily installing 
thousands of exhib- 
its in the various 
buildings in their 
proper and appro- 
priate places. 

It was in this vast 
building that on Fri- 
day, October 21, 
1892, the Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, the Hon. 
Levi P. Morton 
(President Harrison 
being at his dying 
wife's bedside), dedi- 
cated the vast 
" White City " to the 
use of humanity, in 
the presence of a 
multitude estimated 
at 150,000, represen- 



118 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



tative of every nation of the universe. 
One of the most notable features of 
the dedication ceremonies was a 
recital of portions of the inspiring ode 
written by Miss Harriet Monroe. 
Selections were also rendered, to a 
musical setting, by a choir of 4,000 
voices. 

The paintings in the domes of the 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts Build- 
ing are as follows: North entrance, 
Beckwith and Shirlaw. By Beck- 
with — ' ' Electricity as applied to Com- 
merce," four females. By Shirlaw — 
" The Abundance of Land and Sea," 
four figures on nuggets of gold and 
silver, a branch of coral, and a huge 
pearl. East entrance, by Simmons 
and Cox. By Simmons — four nude 
men, a blacksmith for iron, a sculptor 
for stone, a man holding a coil of rope 
for hemp, and so on. By Cox — a 
woman bending a sword, represent- 
ing the metal-worker's art; weaving, 
by a woman holding a distaff; pot- 
tery, by a woman decorating a vase; 
building, by a woman holding a car- 
penter's square, with a partly finished 
brick wall at her back. South en- 
trance, by Reid and Weir. By Reid — 
three seated figures of women against 
the sky, representing the art of de- 
sign; and one seated man, a metal- 
worker. By Weir — female figures 
representing pottery, sculpture, deco- 
ration, and textile arts. West entrance, 




Joseph Hirst. 

by Blashfield and Reinhart. By Blash- 
field — sitting figures winged, allegor- 
ical of the arts of the armorer, the 
brass-worker, the iron-worker, the 
stone-worker. By Reinhart — seated 
figures representing the goldsmith's 
and decorative arts, with vases of 



plants in the arches overhead. The 
subjects of Mr. Gari Melcher's panels 
over the southwest entrance are " The 
Arts of War" and "The Arts of 
Peace." Two panels by Mr. F. D. 
Millet are located over the entrance 







at the northwest corner; they repre- 
sent the weaving trades, the subjects 
being " Penelope at the Loom " and 
14 The Return of Ulysses." Two 
panels by Mr. Lawrence C. Earle 
are placed over the northeast entrance, 
representing "Glass-blowing" and 
"Pottery." Mr. McEwen's panels, 
placed over the entrance at the south- 
east corner, typify "Music" and 
' ' Textiles. " The subjects in all of the 
decorations in this building are treated 
in classical style, and are very fine. 
Around the sides in a frieze appear 
the names of the States, with their 
coats-of-arms, and gigantic eagles, 
with uplifted wings, are poised on the 
pediments over the entrances. 

In the Manufactures and Liberal 
Arts Building the classification is as 
follows: 

GROUP NO. 

147. — Physical development, training 
and conditions, hygiene. 

14S. — Instruments and apparatus of 
medicine, surgery, and pros- 
thesis. 

149. — Primary, secondary, and su- 
perior education. 

150. — Literature, books, libraries, 
journalism. 

151. — Instruments of experiment, re- 
search, photographs. 

152. — Civil engineering, public works, 
constructive architecture. 



MANUFACTURES BUILDING. 



119 



153. — Government and law. 

154. — Commerce, trade, and banking. 

155. — Institutions for the increase and 

diffusion of knowledge. 
156. — Social, industrial, and cooper- 
ative associations. 
157. — Religious organizations, statis- 
tics, and publications. 
158. — Music and musical instruments. 
The groupings in the Manufact- 
ures and Liberal Arts Building — 
Department H — (Manufactures), 
James Allison, chief, are officially as 
follows: 

GROUP NO. 

87. — Chemical and pharmaceutical 

products, druggists' supplies. 
8S. — Paints, colors, dyes, and var- 
nishes. 
89. — Typewriters, paper, blank 

books, stationery. 
90. — Furniture of interiors, uphol- 
stery, and artistic decorations. 
91. — Ceramics and mosaics (see 

Group 46). 
92. — Monuments, mausoleums, man- 
tels, undertakers' goods. 
93. — Art metal work, enamels, etc. 
94. — Glass and glassware. 
95. — Stained glass in decorations. 
96. — Carvings in various materials. 
97. — Gold and silver, plate, etc. 
98. — Jewelry and ornaments. 
99. — Horology, watches, clocks, etc. 
100. — Silk and silk fabrics. 
1 01.— Fabrics of jute, ramie, and other 

vegetable and mineral fibers. 
102. — Yarns, woven goods, linen, and 

other vegetable fibers. 
103. — Woven and felted goods of wool, 

, and mixtures of wool. 
104. — Clothing and costumes. 
105. — Fur and fur clothing. 
106. — Laces, embroideries, trimmings, 

artificial flowers, fans, etc. 
107. — Hair work, coiffures, and acces- 
sories of the toilet. 
10S. — Traveling equipments, valises, 

trunks, canes, umbrellas. 
109. — Rubber goods, caoutchouc, gutta 
percha, celluloid, and zylonite. 
no. — Toys and fancy articles, 
in. — Leather, and manufactures of 

leather. 
112. — Scales, weights, and measures 

(see also Group 151). 
113. — Materials of war, apparatus for 
hunting, sporting arms, 



114. — Lighting apparatus and appli- 
ances. 
115. — Heating and cooking apparatus 

and appliances. 
116. — Refrigerators, hollow metal 

ware, tinware, enameled ware. 
117. — Wire goods and screens, perfor- 
ated sheetsjattice work, fencing. 
1 1 S.— Wrought iron and thin metal 

exhibits. 
119. — Vaults, safes, hardware, edged 

tools, cutlery. 
120. — Plumbing and sanitary mate- 
rials. > 
121. — Miscellaneous articles of manu- 
facture not heretofore classed. 
Entrances. — The Manufactures and 
Liberal Arts Building has four grand 
portals, one in the middle of each 
facade, surmounted at its center with 
a casting of a gigantic eagle. These 
entrances are 80 feet high and 40 feet 
wide, and between two of them — the 
north and south doors — runs Columbia 
Avenue, fifty feet wide, and studded 
at the corners of each intersecting 
aisle with ornamental lamp-posts bear- 
ing electric lights. Across this street, 
at its middle, runs another, also fifty 
feet wide, from the eastern to the 
western door, thus dividing the inte- 
rior of the building into four immense 
rectangular spaces, which are each 
further divided by other intersecting 
aisles, some running north and south 
and others east and west. In the 
center of the building, at the inter- 
section of the two main streets, stands 
an imposing clock-tower, which will 
be described further on. At each 
corner are swung elevators in pairs, 
which ascend to the roof, carrying 
passengers for a promenade upon the 
walk extending around it. For the 
round trip, up and down, the elevator 
company charges a fee of 25 cents. 

The Main Exhibits. — Along the 
streets, for such they may well be 
called, are gilded domes and glitter- 
ing minarets, mosques, palaces, 
kiosks, and brilliant pavilions, minia- 
ture indeed, yet producing the effect 
of a beautiful city inclosed by 
marble walls and roofed in with a 
dome of glass. At a height of 140 
feet above the floor are suspended 
five enormous chandeliers, the largest 
ever conceived by man. These elec- 



120 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



trie chandeliers, or electroliers as 
they are technically called, are 
seventy-five feet in diameter, possess 
a candle-power of 828,000, and 
are securely fastened so that 
there is no danger of a fall 
or breakage of the wires. The best 
plan is to enter the building by the 
main southern entrance and proceed 
systematically with an examination of 
its contents. The interior having 
been gained, the visitor will naturally 
be anxious to reach the grand exhibits 
of France, England, Germany, and 
the United States as soon as possible. 




Lundborg's Pavilion 



To do this it is best to start straight 
north along the central street, Colum- 
bia Avenue. First on the left is seen 
the exhibit of Italy, which is very 
beautiful, being arranged in an im- 
mense show-case which is made in 
the shape of a pavilion and is ninety 
feet high. Bronzes, marbles, tapes- 
tries, silken fabrics, Venetian glass- 
wares, inlaid woodwork and cabinet- 
ware are features of this display; 
and of Venetian laces, both ancient 
and modern, the collection is mag- 



nificent. The Netherlands exhibit 
comes next, on the same side of the 
avenue, and its pavilion presents a 
characteristic and beautiful display. 
Immediately following the Nether- 
lands is the exhibit of Switzerland — 
a rarely beautiful one. The wooden 
paneling which surrounds this display 
on three sides is ornamented by 
views of lake and mountain scenery 
of artistic excellence. The Castle 
of Chillon, immortalized by Byron; 
a view of the city of Geneva, and 
several fine Alpine views are pre- 
sented. The exhibit consists chiefly 
of watches, watch -movements, wood- 
carvings, music-boxes, etc. The dis- 
play of wall and wood carvings is 
the largest and finest ever made. 
Across the avenue, opposite Switzer- 
land, the display of Norway is seen. 
The panels which surround this pavil- 
ion have also been adorned with large 
canvas surfaces upon which are 
painted beautiful bits of Norwegian 
scenery. The tourist exhibit, consist- 
ing of hunting-articles and the con- 
veyances peculiar to Norway, is cal- 
culated to excite interest, as are also 
the exhibits proper — silverware, gilt, 
enameled and plain, for table and 
personal ornament; marble, granite, 
wood-carvings, hand-woven rugs, 
portieres, embroideries, wood-pulp, 
school-instruction material, etc. Next 
to Norway on the north is the Russian 
exhibit, contained in a magnificent 
pavilion seventy feet high. The 
workmanship on this building is won- 
derful when the crudeness of the 
tools of the Russian workmen is taken 
into consideration. The space covered 
is almost one acre. The display con- 
sists largely of fine silks, furniture, 
jewelry, precious stones, etc. Across 
the aisle from Russia's exhibit is that 
of Denmark, which adjoins those of 
Switzerland and Brazil . This pavilion 
has outer portals on three sides, and 
from its fourth side the spaces of 
Switzerland and Brazil may be 
entered. The main facade and en- 
trance face Columbia Avenue, and 
represent the coat-of-arms of the city 
of Copenhagen, consisting of three 
towers; the central ninety feet high, 
the others sixty feet high. Each of 
the side towers has a clock— one show- 



MANUFACTURES BUILDING. 



121 



ing Chicago time, the other Copen- 
hagen time. Over each of the two 
minor entrances is shown the coat-of- 
arms of Denmark, six feet high. The 
north facade has an entrance twenty 
feet high. The pavilion is decorated 
with beautiful landscapes from differ- 
ent parts of Denmark, Iceland, and 
Greenland, and its West India colo- 
nies; also with plaster reproductions 
of the famous sculptures of Thor- 
waldsen. The pavilion is divided into 
three parts— the first devoted to a 
display of fine gold and silverware 
and jewelry, the second to the display 
of porcelain, ceramics, and terra cotta 
decorative articles, and the third to 
woman's work, such as embroideries, 
laces, etc. A treat for the children 
is the faithful reproduction of the 
room in which Hans Christian Ander- 
sen, the child's author par excellence, 
lived and worked. A life-size statue 
of the author and many relics of him 
are shown. The great sculptor Thor- 
waldsen also has a room devoted to 
his relics and works. Across an inter- 
secting aisle from Denmark, but on 
the same side of Columbia Avenue, is 
the exhibit of Canada, adjoining that 
of England. The display is a large 
and creditable one, and exhibits the 
progress and material advantages of 
this province in a striking manner. 
Opposite Canada, across the avenue, 
is the pavilion of Belgium, which was 
designed and framed by Belgian work- 
men and sent to Chicago, and here 
set up. The facade fronting on the 
avenue is of the same height as that 
of France, which it joins, and is com- 
posed of a high central arch and two 
lower side arches. Its frontage is 140 
feet. Among many other magnificent 
exhibits, the collection of bronzes and 
mammoth plate-glass is noticeable. 
A paint manufacturer exhibits a huge 
female figure in porcelain, holding 
aloft a zinc tube of artists' colors. 
Samples of the iron houses the Bel- 
gians are sending to the Congo coun- 
try are shown, as are exhibits of 
faience, finely carved furniture, etc. 
Next to Belgium comes the French 
pavilion, the grouping and arrange- 
ment of the exhibits in which are 
probably more harmonious and sym- 
metrical than those in any of the other 



displays. There are rooms devoted 
to ceramics, others to bronzes, and 
others again to silk fabrics, pottery 
from Limoges and Sevres, etc. There 
is no confusion or jumbling together 
of dissimilar wares, individual com- 
petition being thus subordinated to 
the production of a grand national 
display, every part properly balanced, 
a combination of exquisite taste and 




Entrance to Belgian Exhibit. 

most perfect harmony. A handsome 
group of statuary, ordered by the 
French government, adorns the center 
of the French pavilion. The group 
represents a heroic statue of " La 
France" seated. On the body is 
the cuirass of the French cavalry. 
The right arm is majestically held on 
high, while the left arm rests upon 
the table of the rights of man, against 
which the hand presses a naked sword. 
A large scarf encircles the waist and 
is knotted at one side. Above the 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



erect and noble head, resting on the 
bands of hair, is a diadem. This is 
formed of three figures symbolic of 
liberty, equality, and fraternity. The 




ductions of salons of the time of Louis 
XIV. and Louis XV. The ceilings 
are of staff, with marble pillars, 
crowned with bronze capitals. A 
broad frieze, just below the ceiling, is 
composed of floral garlands, and 
along its border run the names of the 
cities which have exhibits, as Lyons, 
Beauvais, Arras, Lille, Saint-Etienne, 
and others. Perfumes; rich sets of 
furniture; stained glass; the most 
curious specimens of photography, 
plain and in colors; a bridal group 
in wax, costumed in the latest Paris 
fashions; jewelry; ceramics; the ruins 
of Persepolis, reproduced in glass, 
and hundreds of other beautiful and 
interesting exhibits abound. In the 
gallery the French stationery trades, 
library and school systems are dis- 



Belgian Paint Exhibit. 

figure of "La France" is supple- 
mented by that of a French chanti- 
cleer, triumphantly crowing. Upon 
the pedestal are carved historic scenes, 
and incidents taken from the French 
Revolution. Gobelin tapestries, silk, 
cotton, and woolen goods and kindred 




■5311 IJfflggjlJlfife 

Statue of Limoges. 

fabrics have three rooms planned for 
them. These chambers are repro- 




Engine made of Silk Thread. 

played. Across the avenue from 
France is the exhibit of another of the 
world's great powers, England. Her 
pavilion is not so beautiful as are 
those of some of the other countries, 
but her exhibit in some lines, not- 
ably those of textile fabrics and pot- 
tery, may truly be called magnificent. 
The most striking architectural feat- 
ure is the reproduction, by Messrs. 
Hampton & Sons (the great English 
furniture manufacturing firm), of the 
historic banqueting-hall of Hatfield 
House, the seat of the Cecil family and 
home of the Marquis of Salisbury. 

Daniels of London and Doulton 
& Co. of Lambeth also have pavil- 
ions; the former exhibiting collect- 
ions of fine china, the latter their mag- 
nificent pottery-wares. The Doultons 
have also erected a fine fountain, of 



MANUFACTURES BUILDING. 



123 



pottery- ware, in front of Victoria 
House, and a terra cotta reproduction 
of the group, "America," from the 
Albert Memorial in Hyde Park, Lon- 
don. A collection of the famous 
" Coalport china" is rich and beauti- 
ful. The "Columbus Vase" is a 
splendid piece of work, but the gem 
of these exhibits is the " Shakespeare 
Centerpiece." This is of porcelain, 
fifty inches high, and richly decorated 
in warm, high coloring. Four fig- 
ures by Schenk, representing History, 
Poetry, Tragedy, and Comedy, orna- 
ment the corners and support a vase 
with eight panels, whereon are 
painted, by Bouillemier, Shake- 
speare's heroines: Juliet, Lady Mac- 
beth, Cleopatra, Desdemona, Portia, 
"Sweet Anne Page," Beatrice, and 
Cordelia. His peregrinations have 
now brought the visitor face to face 
with the building's centerpiece, the 
great clock-tower. 

It is 1 20 feet high with a base of 20 
feet diameter, formed of four square 
towers rising to a height of 40 feet, 
and each terminating in a dome. The 
archways of these lower towers culmi- 
nate in a groined dome, over which is 
the first floor of the main tower. An 
ornamental balcony surrounds this 
story, its pi-incipal decorations being 
the shields of the States of the Union 
and the coat-of-arms of the South 
American States. The tower at this 
point narrows to a diameter of twenty- 
four feet, and upon the next floor is 
placed the mechanism of the great 
clock, whose dials, seventy feet above 
the floor, mark the hours day and 
night. These dials are in the fourth 
story, and are seven feet in diameter. 
The fifth story is a round tower, whose 
arches support a dome twenty feet in 
diameter. In this story is placed the 
melodious chime of bells. The lower 
balconies are used as music-stands. 
The clock is self-winding, and is fur- 
nished by the Self-Winding Clock 
Co. of New York. The bells of the 
chime were put in by the Clinton H. 
Mencely Co., Troy, N. Y. Having 
examined the clock-tower, the visitor 
crosses the central east and west 
street, and on the left-hand side of 
Columbia Avenue enters the exhibit 
of Germany. This pavilion is the 



creation of Gabriel Seidel of Munich, 
the most famous of German fresco 
painters and decorators. Its ground- 
plan is in the shape of three cir- 
cles, touching each other, as if 
three gigantic hoops had been 
placed together. The exterior archi- 
tecture is in the style of the sixteenth 
century Renaissance. In front is a 
German garden inclosed by an orna- 
mental fence, passing which, the main 
entrance is reached through a grand 
arch, with ornamental columns on 
either side. In the interior sections 
both decorations and exhibits are very 
fine. In the rear of the Nuremberg 
display is an immense canvas covered 
with a fine painting, showing its 
market-place. Jewelry and silver- 
ware, among the latter, plate pre- 




German Dolls. 

sented to the emperors William I. 
and II., Von Moltke, and Bismarck, 
and generally commemorative of some 
battle or other great event; royal 
wares from various potteries; tapes- 
tries, porcelains, etc., make a grand 
display. The Bismarck collection of 
cups, medals, vases, and decorations, 
alone represents a value of $60,000. 
Ancient and modern wares, an un- 
equaled school exhibit, and the great 
statue " Germania" — a special loan by 
the emperor — show how heartily 
Germany has entered into the spirit 
of this greatest of all international 
expositions. Next to Germany, on 
the same side of the avenue, Austria 
has placed her pavilion, and a right 
royal one it is, though hardly equal 
to those of France and Germany. 
Her building has a facade fronting 
the avenue, 65 feet high and 120 feet 



124 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



long. On the topmost central pedi- 
ment stands the double eagle, em- 
blematic of this empire. The plan of 
the exhibit is a central edifice flanked 
by smaller ones on either side, all of 
them thirty feet deep. Thirty -four 
expert wood-carvers from Vienna ex- 
hibit their artistic work in all its 
branches. There is a splendid display 
of the delicate and graceful wares of 
this artistic people, in gold and silver, 
porcelain, pottery, textile fabrics, 
vases, statuettes, etc., making this one 
of the most attractive exhibits in the 
building. Across an intersecting aisle 
from Austria, but still on the same 
side of Columbia Avenue, is a unique 
pavilion, the work of the patient 




Cooper Union Woman's Art School. 

and artistic people of Japan. In this 
building may be seen ancient and 
modern pottery, porcelain, and china- 
wares, from the most delicate cups 
and saucers, not thicker than the 
shell of a pigeon's egg, to the massive 
serpent and dragon vases and garden- 
seats, almost as strong as steel. A 
fine educational exhibit, tinctured 
strongly with modern progress; silks 
and other textile fabrics; wonderful 
paper building materials, decorations, 
and utensils; lacquered wares, dam- 
ascened swords, cutlery, and other im- 
plements, and many other exhibits, 
displaying rare scientific and artistic 
attainments, are shown here. Op- 
posite this curious exhibit, and those 



of Germany and Austria also, and 
taking up the entire space in the north- 
east corner of the building, are the dis- 
plays of the United States exhibitors, 
more numerous and more wonderful 
than those of any other nation. The 
most striking exhibit here is the pavil- 
ion erected by Tiffany, the jeweler, 
and Gorham, the silversmith, both of 
New York. It faces on the central 
space, where France, Germany, and 
England hold the other corners, and 
in its central front springs up a tall 
fluted shaft, with a plain yet noble 
base and a grand Doric capital, sur- 
mounted by a globe, upon which is 
poised, at an elevation of ioo feet, a 
golden eagle, America's symbolic bird. 
On the front of the base is the simple 
inscription: " Exhibit of the United 
States of America." At either side of 
the main entrance, in the corner, are 
groups of columns, bearing aloft single 
tall shafts, terminating in globes. 
Arches, surmounted with carved and 
sculptured pediments, and a roof with 
low, flattened domes, make up the rest 
of this palatial edifice, which cost its 
builders $100,000. The display in the 
pavilion represents a value of "$2,000, - 
000, and is truly regal; gold and silver 
wares, precious stones, rings, brace- 
lets, chains, watches — in short, every- 
thing rare and beautiful in the jew- 
eler's and silversmith's lines is exhib- 
ited. The collection of American 
pearls will prove very interesting. In 
this section the Pairpoint Manufactur- 
ing Co. has erected a miniature 
Grecian temple. The Meriden Britan- 
nia Co.'s pavilion is of rosewood, and 
circular in shape. Mermod, Jaccard 
& Co., St. Louis jewelers, and Edward 
Janssen, toy-maker, have fine displays 
in the adjoining galleries. It is im- 
possible to name all of the meritorious 
exhibits. The Remington Typewriter 
Co. exhibits the 50-cent coin for which 
was paid $10,000. The Chesapeake 
Pottery Co. displays 1,000 pieces, 
including its famous Lord Calvert 
vase. There are a vast number of 
other fine and curious displays. The 
best plan is now to cross the avenue 
to the west and complete the displays 
made by the United States exhib- 
itors, then take the aisle back of 
the Japanese section and follow it 



MANUFACTURES BUILDING. 



125 



South, looking at the rear of the 
displays of Japan, Austria, Ger- 
many, England, and Canada, just 
west of which last lie the exhibits 
of New South Wales, India, Ceylon, 
and Jamaica. New South Wales 
makes a strong display in all lines, 
and shows stuffed birds and beasts, 
rare coins, educational systems, and 
an immense collection of large and 
fine photographs. Over the entrance 
to her pavilion is a photograph of 
Sidney harbor, thirty-two feet long. 
There is also a beautiful collection of 
oil-paintings and water-colors. Four 
specimens of the duck-billed platypus, 
that strange animal, half bird, half 
beast, are displayed. Ceylon has an 
octagonal building with two wings, 
facing north and south. The style of 




III 



1 1 1 ' ! I 




Paints and Varnishes Exhib 



architecture is Dravidian and the 
material used is of the rare woods of 
that country, many of them worth 
$200 to $300 a ton. Carved stairways 
lead to the entrances, which are 
guarded by cobra-hooded figures. 
Other carvings, taken from designs 
found in the ruined temples with 
which the island is so plentifully 
sprinkled, are found on the balus- 
trades, lintels, and architraves. The 
frescoes, representing scenes in the 
life of Buddha, are exact copies of 
those in the ancient temples, which 
are of the tenth and thirteenth cent- 
uries. In the screen-panels are fig- 
ures of Buddha. The floors are of 
inlaid woods. The exhibit of Jamaica 
is a characteristic one, as is that of 
India, which, in addition to its other 
specialties, displays some beautiful 



Cashmere shawls, probably the finest 
of all fabrics that emanate from the 
hand of man. Next to these British 
dependencies, and back of Denmark 
and Brazil, are several minor exhibits, 
each of them possessing sufficient 
interest to repay a visit and a careful 
investigation of their contents. Next 
come Spain and the Spanish-American 
countries, with their distinctive ex- 
hibits. Looms and fabrics, ham- 
mocks, saddles, silverware, and ex- 
quisite wood-carvings are among the 
displays. Siam, Portugal, and Mexico 
occupy space in the southwest corner 
of the building, and all have excellent 
exhibits, particularly our neighboring 
republic. Having now reached the 
extreme southern cross-aisle, the 
visitor will walk along it to the most 
eastern aisle running north and south. 
On the left-hand side of this, going 
north, he will find the Turkish and 
Hungarian displays, the former es- 
pecially fine; and on the right hand, 
opposite these, is China, with silks, 
china-wares, porcelains, lacquer and 
metal work; some of them of rare 
beauty and value. This section ex- 
hausts the floor displays, and the 
visitor will next find, in the galleries, 
the various educational and liberal 
arts exhibits. Several of the largest 
publishing-houses are represented, 
notably The Century Co., D. Apple- 
ton & Co., and Charles Scribner's 
Sons. These show manuscripts of 
various distinguished authors, draw- 
ings for illustrations, prepared wood 
blocks (engraved), zinc etchings, pho- 
to-engravings, etc. New York shows 
the immigration statistics for forty- 
five years. The College Fraternities' 
exhibit is a reproduction, 10 feet 
square at the base and 30 feet high, 
of the most famous specimen of 
Greek architecture, the Choragic 
Monument of Lysicrates. The Cath- 
olics of the United States have an 
exceptionally fine educational exhibit. 
London publishers contribute engrav- 
ings, fine art publications, and a 
collection of newspapers illustrating 
the growth of English journalism. 
The great philanthropic societies of 
the world, charitable organizations, 
prison reform societies, societies for 
the prevention of cruelty, cookery 



126 THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 

schools, etc., all have their exhibits of the great corona of arc lights which 
in the galleries. The manual training illuminates the north end of the build- 
and art schools have fine displays, ing. In the tower are four elevators 
Societies for physical culture, as well for carrying passengers to a bridge 
as gymnastic apparatus, also have extending to the roof promenade, 
their homes in the galleries. The which is an outside walk extending 
American Bible Society has a rare entirely around the highest point of 
exhibit of ancient and modern the building, and from which can be 
Bibles — cheap and costly editions — had a series of views of the entire 
and Bibles printed in 300 different Exposition grounds, the lake clear to 
languages. This collection is ex- its Michigan shore, with the fleet of 
tremely interesting and should be white-winged yachts gliding to and 
seen by all. The Bureau of Hygiene fro, and the steamers arriving and 
and Sanitation is likewise situated departing, all affording a panorama 
in the galleries. The big Yerkes which can not be equaled elsewhere 
Telescope, incomplete, is in the south in the world. No one can do justice 
galleries. Morris Steinert's collection to the Exposition, or get an adequate 
of ancient musical instruments, upon idea of the great Liberal Arts Build- 
all of which he plays, is very curious, ing, unless he takes a trip in these 
He has a harpsichord of as early a elevators. From the moment the ele- 
date as 1679. vators leave the ground, the passen- 

The Continental Stained Glass gers are treated to a constantly 

Works of Boston show, in a stained- expanding picture of the interior of 

glass window, a beautiful repro- the immense building, until at their 

duction of Hoffman's " Christ Disput- highest point the whole magnificent 

ing with the Doctors in the Temple." exhibit lies at their feet. Passing 

Spinning-jacks and looms for weav- out of the elevators over a bridge 

ing all sorts of fabrics are in opera- spanning the space to the exit on the 

tion in the building. Harvard Uni- roof, the passengers can survey the 

versity has a display of physiology, spectacle inside the building at their 

otology, bacteriology, etc., very inter- leisure, and then going out onto the 

esting to scientists. An extensive roof can stroll as the mood suggests, 

area in the gallery is occupied by or (resting in the comfortable seats 

Rand, McNally & Co. with an interest- provided) drink in a panorama such 

ing and valuable exhibit of educa- as never before has been accorded to 

tional maps, etc. The American mortals. A dream of beauty indeed; 

Bronze Co. has among its other a picture outrivaling the most soaring 

exhibits the life-mask from which was conception of artist or of poet, 

modeled the statue of Lincoln tin- In the artistic Isabella Booth (J 21), 

veiled at Rochester, N. Y., Decora- midway between the main eastern 

tion Day, 1892. and southeastern entrances of the 

The Munson Typewriter Co., with Manufactures Building, Mrs \V. R. 

headquarters at 162 La Salle Street, Robeson sells reproductions of Colum- 

Chicago, has space for its machines bus' coat-of-arms, tastefully worked 

among others in the same class of on useful and ornamental articles, and 

exhibits. for the deserving and charitable 

The Liberal Arts Building's Grand object of building a home for super- 
View Tower and Roof Promenade is annuated women teachers. North of 
one of the most attractive features this the visitor notices an old sixteenth 
of the greatest building of the Expo- century Dutch house, 40 feet square 
sition. A graceful open iron-work and 28 feet high, which stands at the 
tower rises perpendicularly from the northeastern corner of the Manufact- 
center of the main aisle (Columbia ures Building. It is the display 
Avenue) to a height of 220 feet, of Van Houten & Zoon's Cocoas 
passing directly through the center (H 20). 



CHAPTER IX. 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS. 




'\ HE Government of 
I — y of the United 
States, from the 
very inception of 
the Exposition, 
determined that 
in all of its de- 
partments the dis- 
plays which it in- 
tended making 
should be above 
criticism, and this determination has 
been effectively carried out in the 
buildings which will prove the next 
objects of our investigation. Even in 
in matters pertaining to war — though 
in times of peace we have the smallest 
standing army ever kept up by a 
grand power — the exhibits would do 
credit to any of the European great 
powers. 

Immediately north of the Manu- 
factures and Liberal Arts Building 
which was considerd in the last chap- 
ter, the visitor finds the United States 
Model Army Hospital (H 19), an 
exhibit of the War Department, show- 
ing an army hospital in full shape 
and ready for operation in the field. 

North of the Model Hospital, the 
visitor reaches the 

UNITED STATES GOVERN- 
MENT BUILDING 

(H 19), which is thus described by 
Mr. W. J. Edbrooke, the supervising 
architect of the Treasury Department, 
under whose supervision the building 
was erected. 

The structure is of " modern Renais- 
sance" architecture, the main feature 
being a handsome dome 120 feet in 
diameter and 275 feet high to top of 
flagpole, while the building itself 
covers an area of 350 feet by 420 feet, 

(1ST, 



with projecting central bays on each 
front. This building is occupied 
solely by United States Government 
exhibits, sent to the Fair by the 
Treasury, State, Navy, War, Interior, 
and .Post Office departments, the 
Departments of Justice and Agricult- 
ure, and the Fish Commission. The 
Fish Commission also has an exhibit 
on the grounds outside the building. 

The elegant stairways leading from 
the east and west entrances to the 
galleries, where the offices occupied 
by the Government officials in charge 
of the various exhibits are located, 
are noteworthy; although, of course, 
the imposing central dome, with its 
elaborate artistic decorations, repre- 
sents the main feature of the building. 
This dome is constructed of steel and 
is supported on sixteen columns. It is 
deservedly ranked as a creditable and 
unique work of engineering. 

Special attention is called to the 
perfect architectural proportions and 
lines of the interior of the dome, and 
a personal examination of all its 
details will reward any critic or 
student. From the dome galleries, 
to which the public is admitted, a 
very desirable view may be had of 
the general exposition halls below and 
around the dome. 

The entire cost of the United States 
Government Building was $325,000, 
or $2.07 per square foot of its floor 
area, or 3 cents per cubic foot of its 
contents. The building was paid for 
out of the United States Treasury, 
according to special act of Congress 
authorizing and limiting the cost of 
this structure to $400,000. From the 
balance of the appropriation four dis- 
tinct and separate buildings were 
erected on the ground, and assigned 
for the special use of the United States 
) 






■P 
§11. 




GO VERNMENT B UILDING. 



129 



Naval Observatory, United States 
Army Hospital Service, and for the 
Weather and Indian bureaus respect- 
ively. Of the total of main floor and 
galleries, 175,500 square feet are 
designed for exhibition purposes, leav- 
ing 16,000 square feet of floor space 
for offices, corridors, etc. 

Around the interior of the dome 
runs a frieze composed of Gupids 
bearing grain, fruits, flowers, etc., 
emblematic of the productions of the 
country. On the ground-floor are 
panels adorned with national trophies, 
and on the gallery-floor are eight 
panels representing the leading 
industries of the North, South, East, 
and West, and the various industries 
of each section. The North is repre- 
sented by " Commerce," the West by 
"Agriculture," the South by "Cot- 
ton and Fruits," and the East by 
"Art and Science." Of the other 
four panels, one represents tapestry- 
work, one wood and stone work, one 
ceramic-work, and one metal -work. 
Over the south door is a painting 
representing the cave-dwellers; over 
the north, one typifying the triumphs 
of liberty; over the east, a bird's-eye 
view of Chicago in 1893, and over the 
west, Chicago in 1492. 

Over the east and west entrances 
are " liberty groups," by A. Waagen, 
and huge bronze eagles surmount the 
pediments of all the entrances. 

The floor space in the rotunda under 
the dome has but a single exhibit, 
occupying a space in the center 
twenty-three feet in diameter, which 
will be described when the interior 
is inspected. This building is a very 
substantial one, being constructed of 
brick, iron, and glass. Adjacent to 
it, and a part of the Government ex- 
hibit, are field-hospitals, light-houses, 
life-saving stations, etc. Upon one of 
the building's fronts is a plaza where 
troops are occasionally drilled. The 
entire amount expended in this work 
was $400,000, but the cost of the 
buildings and exhibits together 
amounts to over a million and a 
quarter. 

The Main Exhibits. — Let the vis- 
itor select the north door for his initial 
point. Entering at this doorway, he 
should walk a few steps toward 



the rotunda and turn, facing the 
door. Looking toward the gallery 
he sees suspended at its central 
point an Alaskan war-canoe, hollowed 
out of a solid tree-trunk, and painted 
with barbaric designs in red, black, 
and white. The model is a fine one, 
bespeaking for the constructors a 
high degree of skill in marine mat- 
ters, and its decorations, while they 
evidence the savage, yet show con- 
siderable artistic taste. At the prow, 
looking inward, is a carved figure, 
probably of some god of fishing or 
navigation, and at its rear, looking 
outward over the stern, is another; 
this has a frog's body with a head 
that is a cross between that of a wild 
boar and a wolf, and its looks are quite 
fiendish. At various other points 
around this portion of the gallery are 
swung canoes, all differing in type, 
from a rather common wooden one 
to one of walrus-hide stretched on a 
wooden frame, and presenting a curi- 
ous similarity to a structure of thin 
bone. Rising from the highest cen- 
tral point of the gallery is a repre- 
sentation of a ship's top-mast, with 
a lookout holding a spy-glass and 
standing in the rigging. To the right 
of this central figure a bowsprit pro- 
jects from the gallery, and at its 
extreme end stands a sailor ready to 
cast a harpoon. To the left the bow 
of a whaleboat seems starting from 
the gallery, another dummy dressed 
as a harpooneer, aiming his lance for 
a death-thrust. 

Turning toward the west the Fish- 
eries exhibit is entered, and here one 
is greeted at the outset with a neat 
little bit of comedy. First he comes 
to a fancifully equipped angler, armed 
with an elegant split bamboo rod and 
a landing-net, who is wading along in 
a trout-stream. A little farther on is 
a barefooted negro resting against the 
stump of a tree, a common willow 
pole in his hands, from which depends 
a cotton fishing-line with a pin-hook 
on it. The darky's head is thrown 
back and he is sound asleep, evidently 
enjoying the heat of a broiling sum- 
mer sun. This dummy, like the casts 
of the fish to be mentioned presently, 
is made of a composition of glue, 
glycerine, and some secret ingredient. 



130 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



and very nearly resembles the texture 
of the human flesh, not only in looks, 
but in feeling and elasticity, and is 
much more lifelike than wax or plas- 
ter. On every side are rods, reels, 
boats, oars, lines, and hooks. Every 



hooks of the Alaskans, each hook 
bearing the image of a fetich, are the 
most curious. The colored plates of 
every variety of our food fishes are 
exceedingly fine and true to life. 
There are photographs of fish, rivers, 



PATENT OFFICE 



FISHING 






appLianEes 




DIVISION 
OF 

PCUOIOGY 




|*|| MINT 1 




§ j= j O internaX 
3 5 2 f- REVENUE/ 


* — '1 ill 

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O 

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a. 
to 
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in L 2- 




SMITHS! 


dni; 



AND 



NATIOtsAL MUSEUM 




Bana. McTJally & Co 



Ground Plan United States Government Building. 



species of artificial bait is represented, 
from the mother-of-pearl and walrus- 
ivory minnows of the Alaskan and 
Pacific Coast Indians to those made 
of feathers, gum, and metals by their 
more civilized brothers. In the line 
of hooks the carved-wood halibut- 



and fishing-scenes, and along the cor- 
nice to the south of this display are 
representations of seal rookeries, show- 
ing the seals on the beach being driven 
inland, their killing, and finally their 
skinning. There are photographs 
of stranded whales, of the cleaning, 



GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 



131 



washing, and drying of sardines, 
stuffed water-fowl of all kinds, a fully 
equipped whale-boat that has been 
in actual service, and casts, made of 
the same composition as the dummy 
negro, of all kinds and sizes of fish — 
herrings, mackerel, halibut, flounders, 
narwhals, sharks, porpoises, etc. 
These are perfect reproductions, even 




models of numerous inventions, chiefly 
interesting from the comparative ex- 
hibit of the first crude invention and 
every intervening link between it and 
the latest improved model. Thus the 
old-fashioned spinning-wheel, with its 
single spindle, is shown at one end of 
a line, at the other end of which is 
the power spinning-jenny with its 
1,000 spindles in motion at one time. 
Along the south wall of this display 
is the most interesting part of the 




From the Patent Otfice. 

the opalescent hues of the original 
live fish being faithfully copied. One 
exhibit seems at first glance some- 
what out of place here. It is an 
Alaskan bear-trap, composed of a 
piece of whalebone about sixteen 
inches long, sharpened at each end, 
folded four times, 
and tied together 
with sinew. These 
are wrapped in fat 
and placed where 
the bear will find 
them. They are 
eaten greedily, the 
gastric juice of the 
bear's stomach dis- 
solves the sinew, 
the whalebone 
straightens out, 
piercing the bear's 
viscera and killing 
him. In one sec- 
tion is a row of glass cases showing 
the different kinds of rigs of every 
fishing-boat used; also boats with wax 
dummies showing the various meth- 
ods of fishing. 

Next west of the Fisheries exhibit 
is that of the Patent Office, showing 



W. J. Edbrooke. 

exhibit, consisting of cases of fire- 
arms, from the old flint-lock muzzle- 
loader to the latest patented repeating 
rifles. The next display, on the left, 
is devoted to relief maps, showing 
sections of the country with rivers, 
lakes, elevation of mountains, etc., 
true to scale. On the right, going 
southwardly, is the exhibit of geo- 
logical specimens and surveys. Its 




B'eech-loading Mortars. 

centerpiece is a connected and mount- 
ed skeleton of the Dinoceras, a pre- 
historic animal, whose frame seems 
to indicate that it partook of the nat- 
ure of the mammoth and hippopot- 
amus combined. There are framed 
glass transparencies upon which are 



132 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



colored pictures of the mountain and 
canon scenery of the Far West ; these 
are magnificent. The geological spec- 
imens are especially beautiful. 

All of these exhibits belong to the 
Interior Department, next south of 
which is the display of the Post Office 
Department, with oil-paintings of 
mailing scenes, models of river, lake, 
and ocean steamers, and postal cars; 
every method of mail-carrying, illus- 
trated by dummy models; a full-size 
late-style postal car and a model post 
office. Among the dummies — all very 
lifelike — are represented a city carrier, 
a railway mail-service man, a dog- 
sledge and team, a horseback carrier 
in Western costume, and a mountain 
carrier equipped with snow-shoes, etc. 

The next point of interest is the col- 
lection of the Smithsonian Institution, 
which proves a delight to all lovers of 
birds and beasts. Every species of 
quail and owl, gorgeous golden 
pheasants, funny woodpeckers, dainty 




Trophy from Yorktown. 

pink flamingos, elk, deer, and cari- 
bou, seals, sea-lions, and walrus, man- 
atees, sea-cows, and other species 
(extinct or nearly so), Rocky Mountain 
sheep and goats, and hundreds of 
others. All sorts of ducks, rare lyre 
birds, eagles, hawks, etc., form 
a part of the exhibit. Life-sized 
dummies of Indians of various 
tribes, clothed in their peculiar 
costumes, and bearing pipes with 
carved wooden stems, etc., are an at- 
tractive feature. The most interesting 
are those of the Navajos, wrapped in 
their hand-woven blankets, the most 
artistic and durable fabrics woven by 
any savage race. 

The next exhibit, turning toward 
the east, is that of the War Depart- 
ment, in which, of course, the most 
interesting displays are the weapons 
of every kind. The big breech-loading 
mortars and huge rifled cannon, 33 l £ 
feet in length, attract immense crowds. 

One of the mortars is 10 feet 9 inches 
in length, 42^ inches in diameter, and 
has a 12-inch bore. Its projectile 



weighs 630 pounds, and is thrown 
seven miles. Its explosive charge is 
thirty pounds of powder. The largest 
of the cannons weighs 116,000 pounds. 
Its projectile weighs 1,000 pounds, 
and requires a charge of 460 pounds 
of powder to fire it. Its effective 
range is ten miles, and every time it 
is fired it costs the Government %i ,000. 
The smaller arms, as rifles, revolvers, 
sabers, etc., make an interesting dis- 
play, and the old discarded patterns 
are quite unique. Some of the mortar 
carriages are gigantic, being fully 
fourteen feet in diameter; while the 
coast defense and naval guns are sur- 
prising from their immense length, 
weight, and size. The dummies 
dressed to display the uniforms of the 
army from its first organization to 
the present time are vastly interest- 
ing. There are also shown litho- 
graphs in colors of all uniforms, 
and in a glass case are displayed 
the chevrons, shoulder-straps, etc., 
of the various grades of rank, from 
corporal to general of the army. 
Figures of mules and horses harnessed 
to wagons, ambulances, field-pieces, 
etc. , can be seen ; but the chief display 
in this line is the group composed 
of Major-General Schofield and staff 
in gorgeous uniforms. Historic battle- 
flags and a complete outfit of every 
species of standard used by the Gov- 
ernment are exhibited, as well as 
camp and garrison equipage and fur- 
niture, tools, band instruments, etc. 
An old forage wagon, originally with 
the Army of the Potomac, and which 
traveled over 45,000 miles, is quite 
a striking feature of this exhibit. 
Among curios, the "long Tom" of 
the privateer "General Armstrong," 
which repulsed the attack of a British 
squadron in the harbor of Fayal, in 
the Azores, attracts much attention 
and comment. There is also shown 
here a beautiful old bronze cannon, 
carved and ornamented with fancy 
trunnions, etc. , bearing the royal arms 
of Great Britain. Upon it appear the 
inscriptions: "Made in 1759" and 
" Capitulation at Yorktown, 19 Octo- 
ber, 17S1." 

Turning northward, the State De- 
partment and Department of Justice 
are reached. Here may be seen the 



GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 



133 



portrait of our grandest jurist and 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
Marshall, with Ellsworth on his right 
and Taney on his left. The other chief 
justices and all of the attorney-gen- 
erals also appear, as do the reporters 
Howard, Peters. Black, etc. There is 
a large chart showing in different 
colors all of the United States judicial 
districts, so plainly laid out that any 
one may locate his district at once. 

Next, and occupying the northeast 
corner of the building, is the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, showing first on 
the right a beautiful collection of 
tree-stumps and edible and poisonous 
fungi. On the left are predatory 
animals, stuffed. These are very life- 
like. Next to them are wax repro- 
ductions of plants, berries, harmful 
and useful insects, etc. An inner 
room in the extreme northeast corner 
contains cases and portfolios of botan- 
ical specimens, and photographs and 
other illustrations. Having com- 
pleted the inspection of these displays 
the central exhibit should be visited. 

Standing directly under the great 
dome is a section (in three parts) 30 
feet long of one of California's giant 
redwoods, the diameter of which is 
23 feet. Two of the sections are 14 
feet long each; the other is only 2 
feet long. The two long sections have 
been hollowed out, and a spiral stair- 
way runs up from the lower to the 
upper long section, the two being 
separated by the short section, which 
acts as a floor between them. Before 
being cut the tree from which these 
sections were taken stood about four 
hundred feet high. This exhibit is 
surmounted by a glass dome. The 
rotunda in which the tree stands is a 
beautiful creation of the architect's 
and painter's arts. There are eight 
entrances to it through as many high 
arches, upheld by groups of two 
pillars on either side. These pillars 
are of steel, but are colored to repre- 
sent bases of chocolate marble 
streaked with white, from which rise 
tall fluted shafts of malachite marble, 
capped with gilded capitals. Each 
arch entrance, looking inward from 
the second floor, is balustraded with 
ornamental iron-work. The dome is 
colored a pale blue, and upon panels 



ornamenting its sides are beautiful 
figures representing the arts and 
sciences. These are the work of a 
master hand, and possess rare merit 
and beauty. The general tone of the 
interior of the dome is light brown, 
with a tracing of gold arabesques 
and other figures. The effect is very 
beautiful. 

The Weather Bureau (F 19) is 
located northeast of the Government 
Building, near the Life-saving Station 
and the Battle-ship, in a building of 
its own. The regular observations 




/ / / / '/ 

Big Tree of California. 

incident to a weather station are here 
made twice a day. The bureau ex- 
hibits Peary's flag, just back from 
Greenland, with a record of his obser- 
vations there. 

In close proximity the visitor finds 
a neat frame building which is the 
United States Life-saving Station 
(F 19). The building is 35 x 67 feet, 
two stories high, and has a lookout 
above. The station is in charge of 
Lieutenant McLellan, United States 
Revenue Marine, and is manned with 
the usual complement of men, surf- 
boats, apparatus, etc. During the 
World's Fair period, public exhi- 
bitions of boat-drills, including the 
use of the life-saving apparatus, are 
given daily for the benefit of visitors. 
Connected with the station are 
boats and other apparatus, such as 
guns for firing life-lines, life-pre- 
servers, netting, lanterns, colored 
fire, etc. On the ground-floor, at 
the west end of the building, is a 
large boat-room, connected with a 
broad launch-way, 120 feet in length. 



134 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 



From a lofty lookout situated on the 
top of the building a view of the lake 
can be had. The cost of the building 
at Jackson Park is about $10,000, 
which does not include the boats and 
apparatus. 

The light-house is one of the modern 
steel pattern, 100 feet high, and braced 
with guy-rods in four directions. 



Observatory (F 20) stands. It con- 
sists of three small buildings, an 
equatorial telescope, a transit tele- 
scope, and a heliostat house. Daily, 
at noon, Professor Gardiner causes a 
time-ball to drop from the top to the 
bottom of a post placed on the dome 
of the Government Building. 

To the eastward of the light-house a 




United States Battle-ship "Illinois.' 



Four men are detailed to take charge 
of it during the Exposition, after 
which it will be taken down and sent 
to the mouth of the Columbia River, 
on the Pacific Coast. It is a revolving 
light of the first magnitude, showing 
red and white, with the most power- 
ful reflectors made. 

East of the Government Building, 
and close to the light-house, a low 
wooden structure marks the place 
where the United States Naval 



curved pier extends into the lake, and 
seemingly moored to it, as if just 
returned from a protracted cruise, is 
the United States Naval exhiDit, the 
line-of-battle ship " Illinois " (F 21), 
whicn is thus ably described by its 
constructor and designer, Mr. Frank 
W. Grogan: 

The idea of having a battle-ship 
(emblematic of power) for the Navy 
Department exhibit originated with 
Commodore R. W. Meade, U. S. N. 



GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 



135 



The result of this conception is the 
" Illinois," which lies in Lake Mich- 
igan, at the foot of Fifty-ninth Street, 
apparently afloat, but in reality rest- 
ing upon a substantial foundation 
of piling and heavy timbers. 




This exhibit serves the double pur- 
pose of being: First, a full-sized 
model, above water-line, of the latest 
type 10,300-ton coast-line battle-ships, 
"Massachusetts," "Indiana," and 
" Oregon," of the United States Navy, 
with proper facilities for showing the 
discipline, manner of living of officers 
and men, and for the display of the 
gun, torpedo, boat, and other drills, 
such as are customary on a man-of- 
war; and second, of serving as a 
building for the illustration of the 
various bureau exhibits, the greater 
portion of the berth-deck having been 
reserved for this purpose. The sides 
of the hull from berth to main deck are 
made of brick laid to the contour of 
the vessel, and finished with Portland 
cement. Below the berth-deck the 
ship is finished with steel plates 



extending well into the water. The 
sides of superstructure, turrets, re- 
doubts, 13-inch and 8-inch guns are 
of wood framing, also covered with 
cement laid on metal lathing. The 
other parts of the ship and'fittings 
are made of materials similar to those 
used in the construction of a real 
vessel, such as the decks and their 
framing, military tower, chimneys, 
hatches, bridge, skylights, etc. 

The exhibits from the different 
bureaus of the Navy Department are 
placed in their respective positions on 
board the ship, as far as practicable. 
Most of them were made especially 
for this purpose, but will be trans- 
ferred for use upon genuine vessels of 
the navy at the close of the Exposition. 

The " Illinois" has the same num- 
ber of guns as her originals, and most 
of them are real. "The magazines 
and shell-rooms are shown, also the 
manner of working the guns and torpe- 
does, and the handling of ammunition. 

There is an electric-light plant with 
dynamos, search-lights, motors for 
working the guns, turrets, etc., and 
for illuminating purposes. The 
length of the "Illinois" is 248 feet on 
load water-line, and 65 feet 3 inches 
extreme breadth. 

F. W. GROGAN, 
Architect Navy Depart- 
ment Exhibit. 

The Return from the Exposition.— 

Unless a night fete allures the visitor 
to prolong his stay in the grounds, he 
will now in all probability seek a pas- 
sage on one of the fleet of steamboats 
to his home in the city. 



CHAPTER X. 




HORTICULTURAL BUILDING, ETC. 



OTHING," says an old 
writer, "can be more 
a* beautiful than a 
* child or a rosebud, 
1 and nothing more 
P- interesting than to 
watch either burst- 
ing into full bloom 
and development." 
To such a person a 
satiety of enjoyment 
is offered by the ex- 
hibits described in 
this chapter. 

Prepared for a n 
early start, the vis- 
itor will take the cars at one 
of the stations of the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad and enter the grounds 
at Sixtieth Street (G 12). As the trains 
stop at this station for the Plaisance 
entrance at Fifty-ninth Street (F 12), 
as well as for this (Sixtieth Street) 
entrance, it will be well for the visitor, 
if unaccompanied by a guide, to make 
sure, by inquiry, of reaching the 
correct entrance (a policeman, World's 
Fair guard or guide, or the railway 
conductor will indicate the proper 
direction to be followed to reach the 
Sixtieth Street gate). After entering 
the grounds, one sees to his right 
a building erected by the Ducker 
Portable House Company of New 
York, and known as the Ducker 
Hospital (G 14) 



play-room as possible for the little 
ones; and to still further increase its 
capacity in this direction there is a 
play-ground on the roof, fifty feet 
above the ground, with flowers, 
plants, and trailing vines in profu- 
sion, and made thoroughly safe by a 
strong wire netting which incloses it. 
It is a veritable child's world; its 
kindergarten has all kinds of minia- 
ture furniture, and the children are 
taught to set the table, make beds, etc. 
In the room for the older boys, model- 
ing in clay, carving, carpentry, etc., 
are taught, while in the gymnasium 
physical-culture methods are dis- 
played. For the babies and little tod- 
dlers there is a well-appointed creche, 
or day nursery, where they may be 
taken care of by competent nurses, 
who will feed and tend them while 
their mothers visit the exhibits. The 
children's exhibits also are here. In 
the library are found all manner of 
children's books, papers, and maga- 
zines, in all of the languages; in the 
play-rooms every species of games, 
dolls, and toys may be seen. This 
building is beautifully and appro- 
priately decorated inside and out. 
The outer frieze is chiefly in tints of 
blue and gold, with sixteen shields, 
four on each wall, bearing each a 
child's figure clad in some national 
costume, and with the national flower 
or emblem. The library ceiling shows 



From this building to that set apart a design of the starry heavens, the 
for the little ones the route is straight Pleiades represented by soft, roseate 
toward the east. The Children's Cupids playing on a field of light, 
Building (G 15) at the Fair is located fleecy clouds. The assembly-room is 
between the Woman's and Horticult- full of quaint and beautiful pictures, 
ural buildings, and near the pretty and has a frieze whose treatment is 
little Puck Building. It is a light, light, airy, and graceful in the ex- 
airy, graceful edifice, two stories high, treme.with panels representing scenes 
an 1 150 feet long by 90 feet wide. It from "Grimm's Fairy Tales." Be- 
is built around a court, so as to give tween the windows, medallions bear- 
as much light, air, and out-of-door ing the signs of the zodiac.represented 

(136) 



HOR TIC UL TURA L B UILDING. 



137 



by cherubs, alternate with others 
showing the occupations and amuse- 
ments of children. There are also 
scenes appropriate to the different sea- 
sons of the year. In the slojd room 
there is a representation of wood-carv- 
ing, from the felling of the tree to its 
final adornment. In the deaf-mutes' 
room the pictures show the methods of 
amusing and instructing these un- 
fortunates. Japan, France, Paraguay, 
and Guatemala have been liberal in 



Building (G 15), which, as has been 
truly remarked, needs no sign. It 
was designed by Mr. Henry Baerer. 

Adjoining the home of this merry 
little sprite, on the east, is found the 
exhibit of the White Star Steamship 
Company (G 15), consisting of a pa- 
vilion with a neat little portico, its 
pillars wrapped with rope, with a 
plaited rope capital. 

From this pavilion, turning south- 
ward along the shore of the beautiful 




The Puck Building. 



their contributions of toys, etc., for 
this exhibit. 

In th3 assembly-room George Schrei- 
ber has painted six panels, 4x10 feet 
each, of such subjects as "Cinderella," 
"Briar Rose," "The Sleeping Beauty," 
" Red Riding Hood," " Babes in the 
Wood," * Silver Hair and the Three 
Bears," etc. There is also a beautiful 
wall-paper frieze designed by Miss 
Blanche McManus. Between the eight 
windows of this room are eight 
medallions representing child-life at 
different times and seasons; and on 
the opposite side are decorated panels. 
In each corner of the room are large 
landscapes representing the four sea- 
sons. 

Just beyond and east of this building 
is a lovely little pavilion, the Puck 



lagoon, one comes to the entrance of 
the 



HORTICULTURAL BUILDING 

(H 15), just about opposite the center 
of the Wooded Island. 

The Horticultural Building— W. L. 
B. Jenney and W. B. Mundie, archi- 
tects — is 1,000x240 feet in dimen- 
sions, and lies on the west side of 
the park, facing the lagoon. The 
broad space in front, between the 
building and the lagoon, is devoted to 
ornamental gardens and parterres, 
and forms a part of the exhibit of 
the Floral Department. The varied 
nature of the exhibitions assigned to 
the Horticultural Department gave 
variety to the design. In the center 



138 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



is a glazed dome 180 feet in diameter 
and 114 feet high, for the accommoda- 
tion of the largest palms, tree ferns, 
bamboos, bananas, and other tall- 
growing tropical trees and plants 
that can be procured and transported. 
To accommodate the great quantity 
of plants of moderate dimensions 
there are four galleries, or curtains, 
as they are technically termed, each 
about 270 feet long, connecting the 
dome and central pavilion with the 
two end pavilions. There are two of 
these galleries, with glazed roofs, on 
each side of the dome, leaving a court 
90 feet wide and 270 feet long 




W. L. B. Jenney. 

between them. The great pavilions, 
one on either side of the building, 
are two stories high. The front end 
of the second story in either pavilion 
is a restaurant; the other parts of 
the pavilions are for the exhibition of 
wines, fruits, cut flowers, horticult- 
ural seeds, and implements, etc. In 
the building may be seen some of the 
finest specimens of tropical vegeta- 
tion; the largest specimens and the 
greatest number of tree ferns, bird's- 
nest ferns, elkhorn ferns, palms, etc., 
ever exhibited. A horticultural build- 
ing, more than any other on the 
grounds, must indicate its purpose; 
it must be adapted to tho preserva- 
tion of growing plants, shrubs, and 
trees, and in consequence requires 
long, low galleries, not only with 
glazed roofs, but also with the maxi- 
mum of light in the walls consistent 
with architectural effects. At the 
same time the building must harmon- 
ize, as far as practicable, with the sur- 
roundings. The style is the Venetian 



Renaissance, the order Ionic, with a 
broad frieze decorated with Cupids 
and garlands. The treatment is gay 
and joyous, to conform to the light- 
ness of the structure and the character 
of the exhibits. At either end, and 
nearest to the other and much higher 
buildings of the Fair with which it 
must stand comparison, are the two 
great pavilions. The central feature 
is a large pavilion crowned by a 
glazed wide-spreading dome, the most 
imposing portion of the building. In 
front of this pavilion is a highly orna- 
mental pylon, forming the main en- 
trance, with a recessed vestibule deco- 
rated with statuary. On the face of 
the pylon are groups, one on either 
side, representing the "Awakening" 
and the " Sleep of the Flowers." 

Thus does Mr. Lorado Taft de- 
scribe the sculptures and statuary: 

The sculptural decorations of the 
Horticultural Building, aside from 
the frieze, consist of six single figures 
and two large groups. 

On the eastern front of each pa- 
vilion, at the ends of the building, 
are two figures placed on the level 
of the second story. The one on the 
south is called " The Painting of the 
Lily " — a process which the poet tells 
us is not necessary. The figure of a 
nymph is represented holding the lily 
and regarding 
it intently, with 
her brush 
poised in the 
air. The an- 
cients attrib- 
uted to these 
spirits of wood 
and field the 

care of plant- 
Cider-Press, life. 

The next figure is symbolic of the 
cultivation and use of the grape, and 
represents a faun, a joyous, soulless 
creature, holding in one hand a 
brimming beaker and in the other a 
bunch of grapes. The drapery of 
this figure is the tiger-skin, a favorite 
costume of Bacchus, the god of wine. 

On the north pavilion is the draped 
figure of a woman, intended to per- 
sonify the study of botany. In her 
hand she holds a scroll on which is 
inscribed the lore of that science, 




140 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



The last figure, at the ex- 
treme north of the build- 
ing, represents a gar- 
dener of the ancient type 
examining the bursting 
buds of a vine. 

Just inside the vestibule 
stand two figures, each ten 
feet in height. The one on 
the right is a light, airy- 
personification of Flora. 
She is poised on tip-toe 
and with outstretched 
arms holds aloft a flower- 
ing branch, to which she 




f 



CJ 



■n 






J. M. Samuels. 

turns her smiling face. 
Around her feet are plants 
and blossoms profusely 
decking the earth in re- 
sponse to her glad pres- 
ence. The motive of this 
figure was suggested by 
the well-known statue of 
" Hope," by Bodenhausen. 

On the opposite side is 
the figure of Pomona. Her 
form is a full, matronly 
one; her smiling face sug- 
gesting amused disap- 
pointment as she struggles 
with the overflowing 
basket of fruit, which in 
spite of her development 
she is unable to lift. 

The principal sculptural 
decoration of the building 
consists of two large 
groups just outside the 
main entrance. 

On the south side is the 
artist's idea of autumn. 
The composition has been 
called the "Sleep of the 



fa 




P I I | FRANCE | 



HOR TIC UL TURAL B UILDING. 



141 



Flowers." The sculptor endeav- 
ored to suggest here the quiet, al- 
most melancholy, spirit of autumn, 
and with this object in view has 
kept all lines as harmonious and 
graceful as possible. The faces of 
the two sitting figures suggest sleep, 
and even the standing figure looks 
mournfully down upon them, as 
though she too would soon join 
them in their slumbers. The only 
touch of animation is the single 



broken and angular lines, making the 
composition as great a contrast as 
possible to the autumn group. In 
this we have the figures of the three 
nymphs, a faun, and two Cupids, all 
laughing heartily as they pelt each 
other with buds and blossoms. The 
faun is engaged in binding a garland 
around the waist of the central figure, 
while she in turn has her arms full 
of flowers which she uses in the mimic 
warfare. 




Senator Leland Stanford's Wine Exhib t. 



belated Cupid, who sits contentedly 
absorbing a bunch of grapes. This 
fruit is shown hanging in abundant 
clusters from the rocks on either 
side. At the feet of the figures is 
placed a branch of withered oak. 
The figures are entirely draped. 

On the other hand is the springtime 
group, sometimes called the " Battle 
of Flowers." In this the artist has 
tried to express the vigor and push of 
awakening vegetation by means of 



The figures in these groups are 
about eight feet in height. The work 
required several months. The artist's 
principal assistant in the execution of 
this statuary was his pupil, Miss Julia 
Bracken. 

LORADO TAFT. 

In the frieze around the inside of 
the dome — painted by C. C. Coleman 
— are festoons and wreaths of the 
passion-vine; in the wreaths the 



142 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 



names of men famous in horticulture 
and kindred arts. 

Classification. — The following is 
the official classification of this de- 
partment (J. M.Samuels, chief): 

GROUP NO. 

20. — Viticulture — manufactured prod- 
ucts, methods, and appliances. 
21. — Pomology — manufactured prod- 
ucts, methods, and appliances. 
22. — Floriculture. 
23. — Culinary vegetables. 
24. — Seeds, seed-raising, testing, and 

distribution. 
2 5 . — Arboriculture. 
26. — Appliances, methods, etc. 

Under the dome in the central 
pavilion is a miniature mountain, 
surmounted with the rarest palms, 
ferns, trailing vines, and blooming 
flowers. This mountain artistically 
conceals the heating apparatus, and 
beneath it is a brilliant reproduction 
of one of the chambers of the Mam- 
moth Crystal Cave in the Black Hills, 
South Dakota. Entrance fee, 25 cents. 

Just west of this building, in its 
rear, are found the Greenhouses 
(I 14). These are not open to visitors 
usually, though there are times when 
special circumstances cause them to 
be thrown open to the public. As a 
general thing they are used only for 
the propagation and forcing of plants 
and flowers, which are afterward 
removed to the exhibit-rooms, or set 
out in the parterres in front of the 
building, where are also the exhibits 
of a number of private florists. 

Back of this building, to the west, 
is the Official Photographer's Build- 
ing (J 14), with an able corps of opera- 
tives, and Mr. C. D. Arnold as chief. 
They alone are authorized to make 
and sell views of the grounds and 
buildings, and their work is first-class 
in every respect. 

The new Public Service Building 
(J 14) is southwest of the Horticultural 
Building and west of the Choral 
Building. It provides offices for 
Chief of Construction Burnham and 
his assistants, and also for the engi- 
neers and others connected with the 
management of the grounds and 
buildings. Opposite the lower or 
southern end of the Wooded Island 
is the Choral Building, or, as it is 



also known, the Festival Hall (J 15). 
Among the group of buildings at the 
Exposition probably none have been 
assigned a more beautiful location 
than Festival Hall. 

The style of the building, which is 
Doric, makes it simple and severe in 
treatment; its form, which resembles 
an amphitheater surmounted by a 
dome, gives the building, both exter- 
nally and internally, a rounded form, 
from which project, on the four sides, 
porticoes, the one facing the lagoon 
being the principal entrance, and 
enriched by fluted Doric columns b]/ z 
feet in diameter. From the portico 
leads a flight of spacious steps, at the 
foot of which stand two statues, being 
reproductions of celebrated marbles 
of Handel and Bach. 

On either side of the portico are 
panels in relief work representing the 
Progress of Music, and in the panels 
over the doors are relief portraits of 
Gliick, Berlioz, Wagner, Schumann, 
Schubert, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Bach, 
Handel, and Beethoven. 

The interior has the form of a Greek 
theater, except that the chorus of 
2,500 voices occupies the part assigned 
by the Greeks to the stage, and thus 
it becomes amphitheatrical in form. 
There are no galleries of any kind to 
obstruct the view or sound. The 
building seats 6,500 persons. The 
decoration of the interior is in the 
same order as the exterior, in relief 
work and color. A large foyer ex- 
tends around the building, giving 
ample room for promenades. 

FRANCIS M. WHITEHOUSE. 

By means of the bridge at the 
south end of this building, the visitor 
crosses to the east and steps upon 
the Wooded Island (J 17). Turning 
off to his right he finds a pathway 
leading to another bridge, crossing 
to another and smaller island known 
as Hunter's Island (K 17). To the 
right of the bridge he will notice a 
very primitive structure built of logs 
Avith the bark still^i them, just such a 
cabin as the backwoods of Kentucky 
or Tennessee can show to-day in 
their secluded districts. This is a 
reproduction of the cabin of one 
of America's quaintest characters, 



FISHERIES BUILDING. 



143 



David Crocket, who as hunter, states- 
man, jester, and patriot was unsur- 
passed. The fittings of the cabin are 
in harmony with its exterior — deer- 
horns, flint-lock rifles, wooden 
benches, etc. 

But a short distance to the east is 
seen the Australian Squatter's Hut 
(K 17), a true copy of those antipodean 
structures. It is located on the east 
end of Hunter's Island, to the right 
of its neighbor, Davy Crocket's cabin. 

Turning back from this homely 
edifice and recrossing the rustic 
bridge, the tourist walks first east 
then northward along a pathway and 
finds upon his left hand, near the 
southeastern bank of the larger isl- 
and, the Rose Garden (J 17). This 
garden consists of about i}( acres of 
ground, and there are about 2,000 
varieties of roses shown here. The 
ground is surrounded by a wire fence 
six feet high, having four entrances. 
South of the garden are seen all 
kinds of plants. Proceeding farther 
north are found groups of ornamental 
leaf trees, of various kinds, and pop- 
ular shrubs, natural to this country 
and latitude. North of this is the 
German exhibit, consisting of a large 
show of standard roses and herba- 
ceous plants, a specialty being made 
of dwarf roses. 

At the northern end of the island 
are the quaint but beautifully deco- 
rated edifices erected by our Japanese 
guests. These structures represent 
the Hoo-den, or Phoenix Palace (G 
16), and are fine reproductions of 
the original Hoo-den Temple, Nji, 
near Kioto, Japan. It is one of the 
groups of the Bidodins. It is built 
with tiled roof. The cross-trees are 
logs, the ends beautifully carved with 
heads of lions. The temple is intended 
to represent the Japanese fabulous 
bird, the Hoo. The central part is 
two-storied — this is the body of the 
bird; the colonnades right and left 
are the wings; the corridor at the 
back forms the tail. The two bronze 
phoenixes on the top are 3^ feet high. 
They are made so flexible that the 
wings and heads are moved by the 
wind. The temple dates back to 
1502, but it was begun over twelve 
hundred years ago. The decorations 



of the temple are all by famous 
artists. The paintings represent 
twenty-five festivals. All the gods 
and goddesses, the Buddhists believe, 
have the power of either bestowing 
blessings or inflicting curses, and 
deal out to mortals their degree of 
merit, which entitles them after death, 
if worthy, to a place in the pure 
lands of the West, where the saints 
dw T ell. The altar is covered with gold 
lacquer; the bronze and wood carv- 
ings are very fine. A large figure of 
Amedia is said to have been carved 
by a prince imperial who was a devout 
Buddhist. The ceiling of the room is 
inlaid with mother-of-pearl, lacquer, 
and bronze. 

In front of the temple is a beautiful 
lotus-pond. The lotus is the sacred 
flower of the Buddhists. 

The Hoo-den built on the Wooded 
Island for the Fair is after this plan, 
with a few changes. The interior 
decorations are more beautiful and 
magnificent. The center hall is a fac- 
simile of a room in the Nijo Castle, 
Kioto, built by Tokugawa Iyeyasu, 
a shogun, in 1*601. Everything used 
in the building of the temple has 
been chosen with the greatest care, 
and no expense spared. All the 
paintings, bronze, wood-carving, and 
lacquer for the interior decorations 
have been the work of picked artists, 
at the Fine Art School, Niyemo Park, 
Tokyo, under the supervision of Mr. 
K. Okakura, the director of the school. 
Mr. Okakura superintended the com- 
pletion of the temple. The building 
is a gift to Chicago from his highness 
the emperor — a magnificent present. 

At the northeast end of the island a 
graceful bridge leads the visitor again 
to the mainland, where he finds him- 
self confronted by the light and 
graceful structure 

THE FISHERIES BUILDING 

(F 18). It embraces a large central 
structure, w T ith two smaller polygonal 
buildings connected with it on either 
end by arcades. The extreme length 
of the building is 1,100 feet and the 
width 200 feet. It is located to the 
northward of the United States Gov- 
ernment Building. 



144 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



In the central portion is the 
general fisheries exhibit. In 
one of the polygonal buildings 
is the angling exhibit and in 
the other the aquaria. The 
exterior of the building _ is 
Spanish-Romanesque, which 
contrasts agreeably in appear- 
ance with that of the other 
buildings. 

To the close observer the 
exterior of the building can not 
fail to be exceedingly interest- 
ing, for the architect, Henry 
Ives Cobb, exerted all his in- 
genuity in arranging innumer- 
able forms of capitals, modill- 
ions, brackets, cornices, and 
other ornamental details, using 
only fish and other sea forms 
for his motive of design. The 
roof of the building is of old 
Spanish tile, and the side walls 
of pleasing color. The cost is 
about $200,000. 

In the center of the polygonal 
building is a rotunda sixty feet 
in diameter, in the middle of 
which is a basin, or pool, 
twenty-six feet wide, from 
which, rises a towering mass of 
rocks, covered with moss and 
lichens. From clefts and crev- 
ices in the rocks crystal streams 
of water gush and drop to the 
masses of reeds, rushes, and 
ornamental semi-aquatic plants 
in the basin below. In this 
pool gorgeous gold-fishes, 
golden ides, golden tench, and 
other fishes disport. From the 
rotunda one side of the larger 
series of aquaria may be 
viewed. These are ten in 
number, and have a capacity 
of 7,000 to 27,000 gallons of 
water each. 
s Passing out of the rotunda 
a great corridor, or arcade, is 
reached, where on one hand 
can be viewed the opposite side 
of the series of great tanks, 
and on the other a line of tanks 
somewhat smaller, ranging 
from 750 to 1,500 gallons each 
in capacity. The corridor, or 
arcade, is about fifteen feet 
wide; the glass fronts of the 




GROUND PLAN 
OF FISHERIES 
BUILDING 



mm 



wi 








10 



146 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



aquaria are in length about 575 feet, 
and have 3,000 square feet of surface. 
The total water capacity of the aqua- 
ria, exclusive of reservoirs, is 18,725 
feet, or 140,000 gallons. This weighs 
1,192,425 pounds, or almost 600 tons. 
Of this amount about 40,000 gallons 
is devoted to the marine exhibit. In 
the entire salt-water circulation, in- 




Detail of Fisheries Building. 

eluding the reservoirs, there are about 
80,000 gallons. The pumping and dis- 
tributing plants for the marine 
aquaria are constructed of vulcanite. 
The pumps are in duplicate, and each 
has a capacity of 3,000 gallons per 
hour. The supply of sea-water was 
secured by evaporating the necessary 
quantity at the Wood's Holl station 
of the United States Fish Commission 
to about one-fifth its bulk, thus reduc- 
ing both quantity and weight for 
transportation about 80 per cent. 
The fresh water required to restore 
it to its proper density was supplied 
from Lake Michigan. J. B. Mora 
was selected by the United States Fish 
Commission to decorate the aquaria, 
which constitute one of the chief 
attractions of the Fisheries Building. 
These aquaria, while seemingly all 



alike, are of two kinds — those for 
fresh-water and those for salt-water 
fish. The sweet-water aquaria rep- 
resent the rivers and lakes of the 
United States, such as the Mississippi, 
Hudson, Colorado; Lakes Michigan, 
Superior, etc. As nearly as possible 
the scenery and conditions of the beds 
of these waters have been reproduced. 
The salt-water aquaria give 
different views of tide-water 
rivers, estuaries, etc., filled 
with salt water, and repre- 
senting the rocks, gravel, 
sand, etc., peculiar to their 
beds. 

Classification. — The follow- 
ing is the official classification 
of this department (Capt. J. 
W. Collins, chief) : 

. GROUP NO. 

/I 37. — Fish and other forms of 
aquatic life. 
38. — Sea fishing and angling. 
39. — Fresh-water fishing and 

angling. 
40. — Product of the fisheries, 

and their manipulation. 
41. — Fish culture. 

The greatest interest of the 
average visitor to this build- 
ing centers in the room where 
the live fish are to be seen, 
and indeed this is one of the 
most interesting of all the 
Exposition displays. The 
gaudy fishes, whose pool is 
the central basin, charm the eye 
by their bright colors, while the 
rush and lightning-like turnings of 




Whale's Flipper. 



the pike, pickerel, gar, and other pirat- 
ical denizens of the aquaria amaze 
by their swiftness and dexterity. 
Beautiful speckled trout from the 



FISHERIES BUILDING. 



147 



streams of the Atlantic and Pacific 
water-sheds and curious sun-fishes are 
seen on every hand. To offset the 
beauty of these specimens there are 
hideous crawling sea-lizards, and 
clumsy looking turtles by the dozen. 

The tank containing specimens 
from the Mississippi and Missouri 
rivers is the largest of all, being 70 
feet long, 12 feet wide, and 9 feet 
deep. Dog-fish, bass of several kinds, 
croppie, drum, pike, pickerel, gizzard 
shad, all kinds of cat-fish, buffalo, 
sturgeon, shovel-fish — armored on the 
outside but boneless within — gar, 
spoon-bill cat-fish — which are not cat- 
fish at all, but a species of sturgeon — 
and many others may be seen. This 
tank takes up the eastern half of 
the first series of aquaria immedi- 
ately surrounding the crystal pool. 

There are white-fish and grayling 
from the Great Lakes; muscallonge 
from Northern New York; pompa- 
nos, red snappers, and croakers from 
the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston 
Bay. Lake cat-fish, suckers, rock, 
white, and black bass, blob, pike, 
perch, eel-pouts, and curious water- 
dogs are plentiful. The Wisconsin 
lakes and streams furnish many 
varieties, and Pennsylvania, North 
Dakota, and Missouri have supplied 
collections of every species of their 
fishes. Minnesota and New York 
also show their many varieties. 
Rhode Island has a fine display, as 
has also North Carolina. The Govern- 
ment displays from the hatcheries, 
and also from their sea and fresh- 
water catch, are magnificent. They 
consist of almost every variety of fish 
from the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, 
as well as from the interior lakes 
and streams. Illinois exhibits her 
fishes in ornamental open pools 
formed by a beautiful fountain con- 
structed for this purpose. The idea is 
quite a unique one. The fish display 
also has specimens preserved in al- 
cohol, casts of others, fish packed in 
tin and wood, and even destructive 
fish, snakes, turtles, predatory birds, 
and other enemies of the fish tribes. 
In fishing appliances the exhibit is 
on a comparative basis, showing the 
crude implements of savage tribes 
and the latest improved apparatus of 



the present day. Along with this ex- 
hibit is presented a history and sta- 
tistics of the conditions of fishing 
industries for the last 400 years. Fish 
culture has not been neglected, nor 
has the sport of angling, as contra- 
distinguished from commercial fish- 
ing. Split bamboo rods, genuine 
" Old Kentucky " reels, silk lines, gut 
and sinew snoods, etc., of every 
grade and design, may be noted. To 
return to the commercial aspects of 
the subject, the machinery and ap- 
pliances used in curing, salting, pack- 
ing, and tinning fish are shown, and 



=4b 




Porcupine Fish. 

also the oils, leather, etc., obtained 
from marine animals. Sponges, cor- 
als, pearl shells (rough and manu- 
factured), form one branch of the 
display. To specify the plan of the 
exhibit it is only necessary to say 
that in the most western of the three 
buildings is the display of angling 
apparatus of all kinds, American and 
foreign, entered for competition. 
Books, engravings, paintings, speci- 
mens, in short everything that has a 
bearing upon the subject of angling, 
may be seen. Upon the adjacent 
waters of the lagoon opportunity is 
offered for tournaments in the various 
methods used in fishing, as fly-casting, 
bait-fishing, trolling, skittering, etc. 
Fishing-camps and small fishing-craft 
are displayed along the banks of the 
lagoon. The main building contains 
the other exhibits mentioned, as the 
cured products, boats used in the 
fisheries, etc. An. object of unusual 
interest is the complete skeleton of a 



148 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



humpback whale of moderate dimen- 
sions. While not a very large speci- 
men, and of a species far inferior in 
size to either the sperm (or white) 
whale or the " right " whale of our old 
Arctic and Pacific whalers, yet it 
serves to give one at least a fair idea 
of the proportions attained by some 
species of the class of animals of 
which it was a humble member. It 
is suspended over the Washington 
exhibit. Of the foreign nations, Nor- 
way is more largely represented in 
this building than any of the others, 
and her display is exceedingly fine. 



reels, lines, etc. Entering by the west- 
ern door, the first exhibit to the right 
is that of Great Britain, consisting 
principally of fishing-tackle, nets, 
seines, linen lines, etc., and a model 
Irish fishing-school. The next exhibit 
is that of France, east of which is the 
large display of New South Wales, 
opposite which is the Norwegian ex- 
hibit, already noticed, and adjoining, 
on the right, the collection of Canada, 
a very complete one, among which is 
a stuffed white whale, sixteen feet 
long, and a model schooner, such as 
is used by the fishermen of New- 




Merchant Tailors' Building. 



Walrus and seal fishing are dis- 
played, and a number of boats, in- 
cluding the famous Lister boat (a new 
model of a fishing-boat). A Nor- 
wegian fisherman's hut is shown; also 
stuffed birds, etc. 

In the west wing of the building 
are the displays of Ohio, Missouri, 
Brazil, and the fresh-fish exhibits of 
the Pennsylvania and Wisconsin fish 
commissions; also that of Forest and 
Stream and the American Angler, 
consisting of angling and hunting tro- 
phies, and a large collection of paint- 
ings and engravings. Here too are 
displays by manufacturers of rods, 



foundland and Nova Scotia. East of 
Norway are the exhibits of Russia, 
Maine, and Massachusetts. Of the 
latter, Gloucester occupies a promi- 
nent place, with models of a succes- 
sion of schooners and their rigs, dating 
from 1623 down to 1893. East of the 
central aisle are some private exhibits, 
also those of Oregon, Washington, 
and North Carolina. The Oregon 
exhibit contains the skeleton of an 
immense whale. Japan is next north 
of these displays, with a very large 
exhibit, consisting of models of the 
different kinds of boats used in that 
country, as well as every species of 



FISHERIES BUILDING. 



149 



fin and shell fish, bait, hooks, etc. 
The collection of photographs illus- 
trating the fishing industries of the 
" Flowery Kingdom "is very complete 
and interesting. East of Japan is 
the exhibit of Holland, the leading 
feature of which is a full-rigged her- 
ring lugger. Minnesota is next east, 
showing preserved and dried fish, 
stuffed aquatic birds, etc. The pri- 
vate display of the San Diego (Cal.) 
high school is interesting, and the 
display of reels shown by Milan of 
Frankfort, Ky. , and others will inter- 
est all anglers. Of course every one 
will go to see the large live alligators 
penned in the lagoon near this build- 
ing. They can be found in the water 
near the bridge which crosses the 
lagoon from this to the Government 
Building. 

Leaving this building by its north 
front, and turning to the left, the vis- 
itor finds a roadway leading to a 
bridge which crosses the lagoon 
toward the Illinois Building. On the 
near shore upon his right hand one 
sees a fine building used as a res- 
taurant, and known as the Cafe de 
Marine (F 17). This building is 100 x 
130 feet, three stories high. It is to 
be run as a fish restaurant. 

Crossing the bridge above men- 
tioned, whence a beautiful view to- 
ward the southwest and southeast is 
obtained, the visitor finds on his right 
hand the Merchant Tailors' World's 
Fair Building (E 16). This structure 
is 55 feet 9 inches square, inside meas- 
urement, with porticoes front and 
rear, which are alike. The building 
is 94 feet each way, over all. The 
walls are finished in cream and gold, 
and beautifully decorated with mu- 
ral paintings in oil, on canvas, rep- 
resenting the eight great historical 
periods of dress. First, Adam and 
Eve making aprons of leaves; sec- 
ond, a barbarian; third, Egyptian; 
fourth, classical Greek; fifth, medie- 



val; sixth, Renaissance; seventh, 
Louis the XIV. to XVI.; eighth, 
modern. There are also six frescoes 
emblematic of the trade. The tailors 
of the United States may well be 
proud of it. S. S. Beman was the 
architect of the building. 

The roadway winds gently north 
and then east, and another bridge is 
reached, between the lagoon and the 
North Pond. Crossing this, to the 
right stands a little building easily 
recognizable as belonging to the 
Japanese. This is the Japanese Tea 
"House (E 17), composed of tw T o dif- 
ferent buildings, constructed in true 
Japanese style of kinoti and other 
Japanese woods, and bamboo. The 
floors are covered with heavy mat- 
tings, and thick cushions, with carved 
arm-rests, covered in Nishijin fabrics, 
are provided for guests, who can 
thus enjoy their tea in the Japanese 
mode. The people employed about 
the building are artists in drawing 
and serving teas. 

From these buildings to the next 
point of interest is but a short dis- 
tance. It is the Swedish Restau- 
rant (E 17), and lies north of the 
west wing of the Fisheries Building. 
Its architecture represents a tavern in 
Southern Sweden, and the structure, 
cooking, and bill of fare are thor- 
oughly Swedish. 

Next in order in this queer agglom- 
eration of eating-houses is the Polish 
Cafe (E 18), situated at the northeast 
corner of the Fisheries Building, a 
fine edifice, whose cuisine is devoted 
to the national dishes of the Polish 
people, though other edibles are also 
served here. 

From this cafe the way next leads 
to the Home of Izaak Walton (D 18) 
which has been faithfully reproduced, 
and stands on a site on the northeast 
shore of the North Pond, between 
the Art Galleries and the Costa Rica 
Building. 




CHAPTER XI. 

THE ART BUILDING. 

N no occasion in the square pediments, terminating at the 
world's history has such corners in slightly advanced towers, 
a collection of works of showing the gable style of pedi- 
high art— bronzes, stat- ment. At the east and west ends 
ues, paintings, archi- the slightly advanced entrance-ways 
tectural sculptures, etc. run up into high, sharp gables, with 
— ever been brought to- the receding sides similarly orna- 
gether as that now mented. The grace and beauty of 
gathered in its appro- the facades of the building — espe- 
priate building at Jack- cially that toward the south when 
son Park, Chicago. The viewed across the waters of the 
intellectual treat await- lagoon — can not be described by mere 
ing the visitor of these exhibits is words. A pillared promenade forty 
beyond the power of words to feet wide surrounds the entire build- 
describe. Walking along the shores ing, and between this promenade 
of the North Pond one finds, about and the nave are small rooms de- 
the center of the north shore of the voted to special collections of pict- 
pond, the south door of the main ures and statuary. On either side 
building of the Art Galleries. of the main building are annexes 

to accommodate the overflow from 

THE ART BUILDING the l ar g er structure. In dimensions 

they are 120 x 200 feet each, one story 
(C 17), designed by C. B. Atwood high. The walls of the colonnaded 
of Chicago, is in the chastest and facades are decorated with extremely 
finest style of Grecian architecture, fine mural paintings, which typify 
the Ionic. In dimensions it is 500 x the rise and progress of the arts. 
300 feet, with an intersecting nave About the principal entrances and 
and transept crossing the building upon the exterior frieze are portraits 
north and south, east and west. At of the old masters and sculptured 
the point of intersection rises a flat bas-relief decorations. In color the 
dome, springing from a gabled pedi- general tone of the exterior is a cool 
ment above the roof of the building, gray. This building will be made a 
the diameter of the dome being 60 feet permanent feature of the park, and 
and its height 125 feet. Surmounting has, in consequence, been built in a 
the dome is a colossal statue of the more substantial manner than any 
famous figure, the "Winged Victory." of the others. The principal walls 
The building has four grand are of brick — covered, of course, with 
entrances, richly ornamented with staff — and the galleries, floors, and 
sculptures and other decorations, and roof are of iron. On account of the 
approached by broad flights of steps, immense value and perishable nature 
Columned porches with gabled pedi- of its contents, it had to be so con- 
ments lead from the steps to the structed as to be fireproof, and from 
doorways, and are flanked with shal- this fact arose the idea of making 
low square towers, lower than the it a permanent structure. It is 
porch, their fronts bearing gabled lighted from the roof with glass sky- 
ornaments. Along the facades run lights, enhancing greatly its value for 
colonnades with graceful pillars and the display of pictures. Statuary is 

(150) 



152 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



exhibited on the 
ground-floor, and 
the walls of this 
floor as well as 
those of the gal- 
leries are hung 
with paintings. 

In addition to 
Martiny's winged 
figure of " Fame," 
poised upon a 
globe over the 
dome of the build- 
ing, upon its frieze 
he has placed 
others; here is 
" Architecture," a 
chaste figure with 
a stern yet not 
unpleasing face, 
denoting intel- 
lectuality and 
study. The lines 
of h e r drapery- 
are simple, and 
altogether differ- 
ent from the flow- 
ing robes of the 
voluptuous figure 
rep rese n t ing 
"Painting, "every 
curve and line of 
whose face and 
figure speak of 
gaiety and sensu- 
ousness. " Mu- 
sic " is pensive 
and poetic, her 
beauty somewhat 
overshadowed by 
the melancholy 
cast of her feat- 
ures and the 
drooping lines of 
her figure. 
"Sculpture" is 
more vigorous 
and robust than 
any of the sisters, 
and her face and 
figure are char- 
acterized by a 
strength and firm- 
ness superior to 
those of the oth- 
ers. On each side 
of these figures 
are two large 




a 'So 



ART BUILDING. 



153 



winged female figures holding gar- 
lands of flowers in their hands. There 
are two female figures on each side of 
the main entrances supporting the 
pediments to right and left of door- 
ways. These entrances are guarded 
by large lions, one on either side, 
designed by Theodore Baur and A. 
Phimister Proctor. 

The official grouping of the con- 
tents of the Fine Arts Building, De- 
partment " K "(Halsey C. Ives, chief), 
is as follows: 

GROUP NO. 

139. — Sculpture. 
140. — Painting in oil. 
141. — Painting in water-colors. 
142. — Painting on ivory, on enamel, 
on metal, on porcelain, or other 
wares; fresco-painting on walls. 
143. — Engravings and etchings ; 

prints. 
144. — Chalk, charcoal, pastel, and 

other drawings. 
145. — Antique and modern carvings; 
engravings in medallions, or in 
gems, cameos, intaglios. 
146. — Exhibits of private collections. 

Loan collections which consist 
of the works of artists of various 
nationalities will be found massed to- 
gether in the space devoted to such 
collections in the United States sec- 
tion, regardless of the nationalities of 
the painters of the pictures. 

In the German section many beauti- 
ful statues and groups of statuary are 
to be found, among which the follow- 
ing are some of the most notable. In 
Room 30 in this section is the bronze 
figure, "The Messenger from Mara- 
thon," by Max Kruse, and the 
"Fisherman and Mermaid," also 
bronze, by Unger. In Room 34 are 
several very fine bronzes, and in 
33 is " Saved," by Adolph Brutt; 
also " Eve," by the same artist. 
"The Devil Catching Flies" is 
peculiarly Germanesque in treatment. 
The artist is Sommer. Herter shows 
a " Triton Catching a Mermaid." 
vSiemering has a strong figure typify- 
ing " Peace." Heiderich exhibits two 
hunting groups, " In the Open Field" 
and " Badger Hunting." In painting, 
Schlabitz has a beautiful " Church 
Interior," Norman a fine lake and 
mountain view. Wimmer's portrait 



of William II. is excellent, and a 
large nude figure by Stockinger is 
well drawn and colored. An " In- 
terior Scene " by Fischer-Corlin is 
good, and two marines by Bartels are 
excellent. Von Stettin's "Italian 
Boys in Paris " is particularly strong 
in color and drawing. In Room 34 
Bohrdt's " Marine," is magnificent, 




"Music." Philip Martiny, Sculptor. 

and nearly as good is the ' ' View on 
the Beach. " Gude's ' ' Marine " is also 
fine, but the most attractive picture 
in the room is Papperitz's ' ' Daughter 
of Herodias." Hildebrand's immense 
canvas, " Tullia attempting to drive 
her chariot over the body of her mur- 
dered father," is very strongly drawn 
and painted. In Room 33 perhaps 



154 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



the best canvas is Volz' " Mary." 
"The Nun," by Hcecker, is good, 
as are the "Death of Dante," by 
Friederich ; "Chamois Hunter" and 
" Rafting on the Isar River," by Karl 
Knabl — these are all from Munich; 
" Near Naples," by Achenbach; 
"Alone," by Alberts; "Village in 
the Spessart," by Andorf ; " The Wed- 
ding Morn," by Bachman; " The 
Martyr's Daughter," by Baur; " On 
the Heights," by Von der Beck; 
"The Vidette," by Carl Becker; 
" Sinai," by Bracht; " The Surprise," 
by J . von Brandt ;" Carnival in Greece , " 
Gysis; "North German Landscape," 
Malchin; "At the Sick Bed," by 
Vautier; "The Berlin Congress," by 
Von Werner; and many portraits. 
The above-named paintings display 
the merits of every school of paint- 
ing in the empire. In portraits, that 
of Professor Virchow, by Lehnbach, 
is probably the best of the collection. 
"The Spinners" isexcellent. "Sheep," 
by Ziigel.and " Cattle," by Baisch, are 
fine paintings. In Room 33 Branse- 
wetter's "Christ" is an exceedingly 
strong painting, as is the "Rolling 
Mill," by Menzel. Lehnbach's portrait 
of Pope Leo is above criticism. In 
Room 31 the strongest works are "The 
Review," by Schmidt; "A Portrait," 
by Lehnbach; and the " Congress of 
Nations," by A. von Werner. In Room 
30 are a fine marine and river view, a 
desert scene, and a mountain land- 
scape. 

In excellence but few, if any, of the 
exhibits surpass that of Austria. In 
Room 36 are five panels by Hans 
Makart, representing " The Five 
Senses." These are five nude female 
figures, and in drawing and color 
are unsurpassed. " Never Returns," 
by Payer, is a strong though somber 
canvas. Other fine pictures are 
"Equestrian Portrait of Washing- 
ton," by Huber; Von Bloss' "Children 
with Orange"; Bacher's " Mother of 
Christ," etc. In Room 35 is Brozik's 
magnificent picture "The Defense of 
Prague"; Knupfer's "Mermaid and 
Man"; Von Deffrigger's "Men and 
Girls Drinking"; Schmid's " Suffer 
Little Children"; Wertheimer's "Vis- 
ion"; Mliller's "Market Place at 
Cairo," and Deutsch's " Egyptian In- 



terior." Mme. Weisingen, Austria's 
most famous woman painter, sends 
" Morning at the Seashore," and 
others. Portraits of members of the 
royal family, by Victor Tilgner, the 
court painter, have been sent by the 
Emperor Franz Joseph himself. The 
microscopically small paintings of A. 
Pazmandy, a Hungarian artist, are 
very curious — one, " The Landing of 
Columbus," is half an inch square, 
and contains seventeen human fig- 
ures, besides boats, sea, land, etc. 
They are highly finished paintings. 

The French section contains a su- 
perb display. One group of statuary 
represents "The First Funeral" 
(Abel's); " The Return," a bronze re- 
lief; " Egyptian Harp Player, "bronze; 
" Jezebel Torn by Dogs; " " Genius of 
the Grave;" "Ninon;" "The First 
Sin; " " The First Born," and others. 
Probably the most intense work in 
this exhibit is "The Bullet in the 
Head," an old woman holding in her 
lap the dead body of her grandchild, 
killed during the Coup d '' Etat. Other 
fine ones are Fremiet's "Jeanne 
d'Arc," Falguire's " French Repub- 
lic," Idrac's " Salammbo";four figures 
from the Lamericiere Monument, by 
Dubois; two groups by Mercie; Cain's 
"Attack of the Tigers," and Ber- 
ria's famous " Child Mozart." 

In the French exhibit there is also 
a magnificent display of historic 
sculptures, consisting of a collection 
of casts, duplications of the most im- 
portant reproductions of works shown 
in the Museum of Comparative 
Sculpture, in the Trocadero Palace, in 
Paris. These casts show portions of 
the facades of churches and cathe- 
drals, grand portals, beautiful gal- 
leries, altars, statues, columns, capi- 
tals, etc. They are as perfect as the 
highest degree of French art and skill 
can make them, even the time-worn 
appearance of the originals being 
faithfully reproduced. These replicas 
are not reduced in size, and conse- 
quently some of them are very large; 
one, 41 x 24 feet, shows a portion of 
the Church of St. Giles; one, 20 x 36 
feet, is from the gallery of Limoges 
Cathedral; one, from the "Portal of 
the Virgin," from Notre Dame, Paris, 
is 18 x 25 feet, etc. The architecture 



ART BUILDING. 



155 



and sculptures represented begin with 
the art era of the twelfth century, 
and are followed down to the seven- 
teenth century era continuously. The 
" Christ of Amiens " shows the height 
to which the sculptor's art had risen 
in the medieval ages. 

In the French section are found, 
among hundreds of first-class can- 
vases, the following, of world-wide 
celebrity: Dagnan Bouveret's fa- 
mous "Conscripts"; "Love's Cap- 
tives," by Aubert; "The Twins," 
by Mme. Demont-Breton; "A Blessed 
One," by Coursois; "The Rehearsal," 
byAublet;" "Returning from Market," 
by Morceau; " La Paix," by Michel; 
"La Leda," by Souchetet; "Catha- 
rine de Russie," by Deloye; "Judith," 
by D'Aizelim; the Talleyrand " Por- 
trait of Columbus." Near the east 
door is seen "Dawn," by Madaline 
Lenoir, and St. Pierre's " Saadia," 
gorgeous in tone and perfect in draw- 
ing. Wencker's " Blacksmith," and 
" Marat," by Saulies, aregood. Dela- 
croix exhibits a beautiful nude figure, 
and Perairie a magnificent "land- 
scape," on a very large canvas. Clair- 
in's " Day on the Lagoon"; Berand's 
"Dead Christ"; " Blessing the Bread;" 
an old female figure, by Deully; a 
nude figure, by Ax iletti; a female fig- 
ure, by Bisson, and one by Brouillet; 
Adan's "Girl and Flowers"; Jules 
Breton's "Pardon of Kergoet"; Vir- 
ginie Demont-Breton's "Bathing" 
and "Children and Dog," and Dan- 
tan's " Studio," are exceedingly fine. 
In the second room to the left of the 
entrance is Bonnat's " Portrait of 
Cardinal Lavagierie," the finest por- 
trait at the Exposition. A "Girl 
Martyr," by Cave 1 , in the same room, 
is very fine. 

English artists exhibit numerous 
very fine portraits and landscapes, 
prominent among which may be men- 
tioned "The Roll Call," by Lady 
Butler, the greatest English woman 
artist. This is loaned by the queen, 
who also sends twenty-two portraits 
of members of the royal family. 
The original portrait of Pocahontas, 
painted in 1 612, is sent by a descend- 
ant of the Indian princess. There 
are " Needless Alarm " and " Bath of 
Psyche," by Frederick Leighton. 



Others in this class are "Halcyon 
Weather," by Sir John Miller; "Ro- 
man Bath," by Alma Tadema; " The 
Harvest Moon," by G. H. Mason; 
"The Maiden's Race," by Wegnin; 
" Forging the Anchor," by Forbes; 
" Storm at Harvest," by Losinell; 
"The Gentle Craft," by Marks; 




"Painting." Philip Martiny, Sculptor, 

"The Last Muster," by Herki- 
mer; " Monmouth Pleading for His 
Life," by Pettie; "Under the Sea 
Wall," by Pointer; "Victorious," by 
Sir James Linton; "Sons of the 
Brave," by Morris; "Sea of Galilee," 
by Goodall, and numbers of others. 

Belgium exhibits many notable 
works of art, among which there is 
only space to particularly mention: 



156 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



"The Avenue of Oaks" and "Win- 
ter," by Lamoriniere ; " Martyrs," by 
Verhas; " Nuns," by Tytgadt; " Girls 
and Cherries," by Bource; " Emi- 
grants," by Tarasyns, all in Room 63. 
In 64, "The Last Day of Pompeii," 
by Slingeneyer; "The Bather," by 
Fischepet. In Room 65 the finest are 
a " Lake Scene," by Kegeljahn, and 
" Jaloiisie." In Room 66, Claus' 
" Cock Fight," Oom's " Cupid in 
Ambush," and Bouvier's " Marine." 
In Room 67, Lefebvre's " Arab En- 
campment," Roszman's " Female 
Figure," and Carpentier's " Children 
and Goat " are excellent. 

Sweden contributes to the art dis- 
play the following fine canvases: 
" Night on the Swedish Coast," 
"Misty Night on the Oise," and 
" View on the West Coast of Swe- 
den," by Wahlberg; "The Forest," 
" Autumn Day," and " The Temple," 
by Prince Eugene; " Lap Running 
on Snow-shoes" and " Landscape 
with Laps," by Tiren; "Night" 
and others, by Nordstrom. In etch- 
ings, water-colors, and engravings 
there are some very fine productions, 
and the sculptures are likewise 
strong. 

In the Danish exhibit, among other 
paintings is the famous one of the 
royal family, by Tuxen, who also ex- 
hibits " Susanne and the Elders," and 
Matthieson's " Teamster and Horses" 
and " Imprisonment of Chancellor 
Griff enfeldt," the latter exceedingly 
fine in drawing and rich in color. 
Other fine ones are Hyerdahl's 
"Bathers" and "Girl and Boy," 
in Room 71. In Room 74 are Peder- 
son's very oriental " Isaac and Re- 
becca," and " Moses Striking the 
Rock," by Jerndorff. In Room 73 are 
Zahrtmann's " Job and His Friends "; 
a "Marine," by Lacour; "Night on 
the North Sea," by Locher; and a 
" Marine," by Ornesen. 

In the Norwegian gallery, where 
forty-five artists are represented by 
one hundred and fifty pictures, a 
striking one is the very large canvas 
of Krogh, representing " The Discov- 
ery of Vineland (America) by Lief 
Ericson." Dirik's "Winter Scene at 
Sea," Sindring's " Cattle," Munttie's 
"Winter Scene in Village," and 



Wentzel's " First Communion Feast" 
are all good. 

The collection from Italy is not large, 
but it contains some very fine pict- 
ures. The Pope sends four copies of 
Raphael's masterpieces done in 
mosaic. There are two genuine 
" Madonnas," known since 1548; a 
portrait of Cardinal del Monte, from 
the Medici gallery; a " Madonna and 
Child," and "The Saints." Among 
the water-colors is the immense one 
of Aureli, "The Presentation of 
Richelieu to Henri IV." Gabrini 
sends fourteen canvases, the most 
important one a large painting of 
" The Landing of Columbus." The 
exhibit of statuary is very fine. " The 
Republic of the United States " and 
"Companions in Misfortune" are by 
Bistolfi; " American Mythology" and 
a statue of " Burns," by Apolloni. 

Holland, " the land of Rembrandt," 
sends a complete and characteristic 
collection. On view are: "At 
Anchor" and others, by Mesdag; 
" Moonlight on the Rhine," etc., by 
Mrs. Mesdag; " Alone in the World" 
and "A Type of Fisherman," by 
Israels; " The Synagogue in Amster- 
dam " and others, by Bosboom; 
" Cows Going Home " and " Plowing 
the Fields," by Mauve; " Between the 
Hague and Delft," by Jacob Maris; 
" Under the Willows," by William 
Maris; " Girl Sleeping on the Dunes," 
by Artz; " Landscape with Cattle," 
by De Haas. Vos, Henrietta Reuner, 
Mrs. Rosenboom, and others are 
represented. The largest canvas is 
' ' An Old Woman's Almshouse. " Mr. 
A. Preyer is the Commissioner from 
this country. 

The art exhibit of Japan differs, of 
course, from that of other countries. 
It includes, however, paintings in oil 
and water-colors on canvas, wood, 
and silk; metal- work, artistic in itself 
as well as in its decorations; wood- 
carvings, tapestries, embroidery, 
lacquer- work, enamel and porcelain 
wares. 

Brazil displays about one hundred 
and fifty paintings and a number of 
pieces of statuary. Among the latter 
is " The Christ " of Brandao. 

In the American section the display 
of paintings, statuary, drawings, etc., 



ART BUILDING. 



157 



is bewildering in its riches and the 
immense number of subjects shown. 
American artists from Paris, Rome, 
and other cities of Europe, and from 
every part of the United States, are 
fully represented, and it is thus ren- 
dered extremely difficult to select 
from the innumerable canvases, all 
excellent in their lines, the particular 
ones most deserving of mention. In 
sculpture, are Gelert's " Struggle for 
Work," "Theseus," and "Little 
Architect"; Bush-Brown's "Indian 
Buffalo Hunt"; St. Gaudens' "Logan"; 
Pardridge's "Shakes- 
peare," "Hamilton," 
and others; Powers' (son 
of the great American 
sculptor, Hiram Pow- 
ers) " Figure of a Buf- 
falo"; Miss Peddle' s 
"Virgin Mary"; Bart- 
lett's bronze, " Bohe- 
mian Teaching Bear to 
Dance "; Tilden's " Bear 
Hunter"; Dollin's " In- 
dian Cavalier"; Hartley's 
"Pan"; French's "An- 
gel of Death and the 
Sculptor"; Nehau's 
busts, " Primavera" and 
" Portrait of a Lady"; 
Mrs. Shaw's ' ' Family 
Group"; Boyle's " Stone 
Age"; Calder's "Cor- 
delia" and "Boy with 
Ribbon"; Elwell' s 
' ' Dickens and Little 
Nell"; Grafly's "Daeda- 
lus"; Kretschmar's "Au- 
rora" and "Tempta- 
tion"; Murray's "Bust 
of Walt Whitman." Trie- 
bel, a young sculptor, 
shows some fine work, 
" Mysterious Music," a 
bronze; "The First 
Fish," " Love Knows no Caste," and 
a bust of General Logan, that is 
excellent. His low reliefs of Dona- 
tello and Savonarola are very strong. 
To show the utter impossibility of 
giving even mere mention to the hosts 
of fine American paintings and other 
works of art, it is best to give the 
reader some idea of their number, and 
this can be done by stating that of 
New York's 1,350 paintings offered, 



325 were accepted; Philadelphia pre- 
sented about 600— 112 accepted; Bos- 
ton, 600—139 accepted, etc. These of 
oil-paintings alone. Most of the 
noted American artists are repre- 
sented, as Chase in marines; 
J. G. Brown, known as "Gamin," 
from his paintings of street Arabs; 
Elihu Vedder, distinguished for his 
choice of weird subjects; E. A. Abbey, 
painter of genre subjects; William 
Hamilton Gibson, Peter Moran, East- 
man Johnson, Swain Gifford, S. J. 
Farrer, Carl Marr, O. L. Warner, 




"The Cider-Press." 

Blashfield, Gari Melchers, George 
Hitchcock, Anna Lea Merritt, J. 
Alden Weir, John G. Borglum, Carrie 
Brooks, Enella Benedict, Fannie E. 
Duvall, Charles Heberer, John H. 
Fry, Laurie Wallace, Douglass Volk, 
F. Reagh, Winslow Homer, H. F. 
Farny, E. A. Burbank, Jules Guerin, 
Charles Corwin, Frank Fowler, Diel- 
man, Stewart, Ida Waugh, and others. 
The loan exhibits are magnificent, 



158 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



comprising some of the finest works of 
the best masters — ancient and modern, 
American and European. 

These pictures have not been 
gathered into national groups, but 
have been hung solely with regard 
to the best effect of light and sur- 
roundings upon the paintings. Pict- 
ures by Constable, representing the 
early English school; Diaz' " Descent 
of the Bohemians"; Corot's " Even- 
ing," from the Jay Gould collection; 
"Orpheus" and "The Flight from 
Sodom," by the same artist; a " Land- 
scape," by Rousseau; Millet's " Pig 
Killers"; Delacroix' ."Columbus at 
the Convent of St. Anne"; Decamp's 
" Job and His Friends"; Fromentin's 
"Audience with a Caliph" and 
"The Falconer"; Daubigny's "Cooper 
Shop "; Troyon's " Cattle and Sheep "; 
Meissonier's "The Lost Game"; De 
.Neuville's "Spy"; Breton's "Colza 
Gatherers"; Mauve's "The Shep- 
herd's Flock"; Ingre's "Cardinal 
Bompiani Presenting His Niece to 



Raphael"; Gerome's " Son Emmence 
Grise"; Tadema's "Reading from 
Homer"; "The Beach at Portici," 
Fortuni's last work (unfinished) ; Puvis 
de Chavannes' " Summer," " Hope," 
and "Dawn"; Manet's "Dead 
Toreador"; Dega's "Ballet Girl"; 
Cazin's " Moonlight," and others; 
nearly every prominent artist in 
Europe and America being repre- 
sented by his works, secured through 
the untiring efforts of Miss Hallowell. 

Leaving this building by the west 
entrance of the main building, and 
walking southward, one beholds on 
the lawn of the Ohio Building a group 
known as the " Ohio Gracchi," and 
passing on, finds north of the 
Woman's Building the Public Com- 
fort Building (E iS). Here umbrellas, 
parcels, etc., may be checked. 

Southwest of this building is the 
Merck Building (F 14), whose exhibit 
will prove interesting to persons 
engaged in the drug or chemical 
line. 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE WOMAN'S BUILDING, ETC. 




O the women 
of America 
and their 
sisters 
throughout 
■ the world 
great credit 
is due for 
the part 
they have 
taken in the 
great Co- 
lumbian 
Exposition. 
Not only have the 
women of the great 
nations, such as France, 
England, etc., contributed of their 
talents and their works, but those of 
savage and half-civilized nations, 
such as Siam, Ceylon, and even 
Africa, are likewise represented in the 

WOMAN'S BUILDING 

(F 15). Foremost among the women of 
America, and one to whom so much 
of the Exposition's success is due, is 
Mrs. Potter Palmer, the esteemed 
President of the Board of Lady 
Managers. 

With considerable pleasure and 
pardonable pride the publishers here 
present to the reader the graceful and 
interesting article which Mrs. Potter 
Palmer has been good enough to pre- 
pare especially for " The Handbook of 
the Exposition." Entitling her contri- 
bution " Woman and Her Work at 
the World's Columbian Exposition," 
Mrs. Potter Palmer thus proceeds: 

The Woman's Building (F 15) in 
the Columbian Exposition is one of 
the most interesting of the great 
aggregation of wonderful exhibition 
structures. It was designed by Miss 
Sophia G. Hayden of Boston, and is of 



the style of the Italian Renaissance. 
The opportunity which it affords for 
a roof-garden accents the beauty of 
the design. The caryatids were 
modeled by Miss Yandell of Louisville 
and the groups of figures standing on 
the roof-line were designed by Miss 
Rideout of San Francisco. The inte- 
rior of the building has been arranged 
and decorated in a style harmonizing 
with the exterior. The scheme of 
color, which begins in the gallery 
with an ivory white, is carried out in 
cream and other tints, illustrating the 
radiation of light from a central point. 
There are a number of very important 
painted decorations. Mrs. MacMon- 
nies' large composition representing 
primitive woman occupies the tym- 
panum in the north end of the gallery, 
while that of Miss Cassat, showing 
modern women, is placed in the cor- 
responding position in the south end. 
The main parlor on the east was dec- 
orated and furnished by the women of 
Cincinnati, and on either side are 
smaller parlors furnished and deco- 
rated by the women of California, 
Kentucky, and Connecticut. On the 
west of the gallery is the library, the 
cases of which are filled by the literary 
works of women of all countries and 
periods. The finish and decoration 
of this beautiful room was donated by 
the women of New York. The ceiling 
is an important composition painted 
by Mrs. Dora Wheeler Keith. 

The assembly-room, at the north 
end of the gallery, will be the scene of 
many interesting gatherings during 
the time of the Exposition. Here will 
be given instructive talks by able and 
distinguished women. These talks 
will occur every day at stated hours, 
and will embrace domestic sciences, 
philanthropy, literature, and indeed 
every topic in which women are 



(159) 



160 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



interested, and which is illustrated in 
this Exposition. 

At the south end of the gallery is 
the association-room, in which is lo- 
cated the headquarters of the strong- 
est and most influential organizations. 
Here are represented the associated 
efforts of women in education, philan- 
thropy, and sociology. 

Upon the main floor the south end 
is devoted to exhibits of foreign coun- 
tries — curious and valuable exhibits 




Mrs. Potter Palmer. 

from Europe, Asia, Africa, the Amer- 
icas, and the islands of the sea being 
here suitably grouped. At the north 
end of the main floor is the English 
exhibit, and also the domestic exhibit, 
which represents the work of the 
women of the United States. This 
work will be found to cover schools, 
factories, applied arts, and inven- 
tions. 

The loan collection, installed in the 
main gallery, embraces the priceless 
laces of Queen Margherita of Italy, 
which were offered the board as a 



special mark of favor, they never 
before having left Italy. 

Relics of Queen Isabella have been 
given a place of honor, as indeed is 
fitting upon this occasion, which com- 
memorates the discovery of America, 
due in so great a degree to the ability 
of Queen Isabella to comprehend and 
promote the plans of Columbus. 

On the main floor are found the 
salesrooms, where is provided an op- 
portunity to sell articles which illus- 
trate the peculiar ability of 
women to apply art to ordinary 
fabrics and uses, and thereby 
produce articles of beauty and 
value. 

The Board of Lady Managers 
is looking forward to the erec- 
tion of a Memorial Building, 
by means of which may be 
commemorated the part taken 
by women in the Columbian 
Exposition, and which may pro- 
vide a permanent home for 
many of the beautiful decora- 
tions of the Woman's Building, 
and also for many of the most 
interesting exhibits which have 
been presented by foreign coun- 
tries. In order to create a fund, 
it has been decided to devote 
to this purpose the proceeds 
from the sales of certain sou- 
venirs in the Woman's Build- 
ing. Among these perhaps 
the most attractive.is a minia- 
ture model of the building 
itself. Its architectural beauty 
will thus be commemorated, 
and form a charming souvenir 
of the Exposition. Another me- 
mB * mento, quite in line with the 
present public taste, is the 
souvenir spoon, which is made in 
two sizes. This spoon has repre- 
sented upon the handle the god- 
dess of industry, upon the bowl an 
etching of the Woman's Building. 
Another memento of some interest is 
a photograph of the official flag of the 
Columbian Commission. The flag 
itself occupies a place in the Gallery 
of Honor, and has an interesting 
history, the silk being from cocoons 
raised in twenty-two States, and hav- 
ing been reeled and spun by women. 
The staff is composed of pieces of 




11 



169 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



historic wood. The eagle surmount- 
ing the staff is of metal from the old 
Chicago fire-bell. 

BERTHA HONORE PALMER, 
President Board of Lady Managers 
World's Columbian Exposition. 

The plan of the Woman's Building 
was laid out to serve the dual pur- 
pose for which the building was in- 
tended — that is, to be the headquar- 
ters for the women connected with the 
Fair, and also to afford space for ex- 
hibits. Under these circumstances 
it was necessary to divide the space 
granted, 200 x 400 feet, into several 
large floor-areas, and a larger number 
of small apartments, which should 
serve as committee-rooms, parlors, 
assembly-rooms, and offices. Most 
of these small rooms are on the second 
story, and a third story was added 
later, to afford still more space for 
offices. The ground-plan of the build- 
ing is symmetrical north and south, 
on the axis of the Midway Plaisance. 

The main feature is the great hall, 
67 feet wide by 250 feet long, and 
attaining an exterior height of 64 
feet. This is lighted by a skylight 
in the form of panels of the elliptical 
vault with which it is roofed. Around 
this all the small apartments are 
grouped in a lower two-story struct- 
ure, which forms the four facades of 
the building. Near each of the four 
corners of this hall staircases are 
placed which lead to a gallery over- 
looking the hall. This gallery, in the 
form of an arcade, extends entirely 
around the central court, and affords 
means of intercommunication for the 
second-story rooms. The latter, with 
the exception of an assembly-room in 
the north wing, are small rooms. 
The third story covers only a portion 
of the end pavilion. It is a low 
structure, occupying the middle of an 
open deck, which is the roof of the 
second story. This deck is surrounded 
by a screen of pillars, and is to 
be used as a roof-garden. The ex- 
terior treatment is evolved from these 
conditions. The horizontal dimension 
is divided into two stories — the first- 
story order being twenty-one feet; the 
second, twenty -three feet, the whole 
resting on a five-foot base. The lower 



order consists of round arches resting 
on Doric pilasters, between which the 
windows are placed. The second 
story is treated with coupled pilasters, 
of a modified Corinthian type, which 
support a wide frieze and cornice. 
The central features of the east and 
west facades, which are similar, are 
the entrance porticoes. These are two 
stories in height, and are broughtx 
forward some fourteen feet from the 
main wall. Three arches of the 
lower order form the entrance, Ionic 
columns being substituted for pilas- 
ters. 

The second story is an open balcony 
surrounded by Corinthian columns, 
which support a pediment evolved 
from the second-story cornice. This 
pediment is decorated with a bas- 
relief representing the occupations of 
women, and was designed and mod- 
eled by Miss Alice Rideout of San 
Francisco. Connecting the entrance 
porticoes to the end pavilions are open 
arcades, which form balconies to the 
second stories. The end pavilions 
have a frontage of 80 feet and are 
200 feet deep, forming the north and 
south sides of the building. To these 
a third order is added in the form of 
a screen of small columns and carya- 
tids, which surround the roof -gardens 
before mentioned. The walls of the 
central hall rise above the surrounding 
roofs and are pierced with clear-story 
windows. 

The oriental details of this building 
are modeled after classic and Italian 
Renaissance types, and on account of 
the comparative small size and scale 
of the building are more delicate and 
refined than those of the other main 
structures of the Fair. 

SOPHIA G. HAYDEN, 

Architect. 

Decorations of the Woman's Build- 
ing. — At the end of the Gallery of 
Honor are two mural paintings; one 
by Miss Cassat, representing " Mod- 
ern Women "; the other by Mrs. Mac- 
Monnies, " Primitive Women." On 
each side are two panel paintings, by 
women artists. Those on the south 
side represent a group of Puritan 
maidens, painted by Mrs. Sherwood 
and her sister, Miss Lydia Emmett; 



WOMAN'S BUILDING. 



163 



those on the north side are the work background for the canvases. Abroad 
of Miss Fairchild and Mrs. Amanda gold frieze surrounds the gallery, 

and on the panels 
between the arches 
are inscribed the 
names of famous 
women, from the 
earliest Bible hero- 
ines to the latest 
modern belles. The 
library ceiling was 
decorated by Mrs. 
Dora Wheeler Keith; 
the figures repre- 
senting science, ro- 
mance, and imagi- 
nation. The four 
corner paintings 
illustrate the four 
departments of lit- 
erature ; the whole 
design connected by 
a band of small 
winged Cupids and 
cherubs twining 
garlanded wreaths 
of flowers with the 
flowing draperies. 
In this room are 
book s by the 
women authors of 
the world, and auto- 
graphs, on winged 
screens, of many of 
the most famous of 
the gentler sex. 
The carvings on and 
about the cases and 
friezes were all done 
by women. The 
north and south 
porticoes are orna- 
mented with shell- 
pink tiling ; and the 
east and west tog- 
gle are finished in 
salmon pink, with 
panelings of pale 
green. On each 
side of the door- 
ways are canvas 
panels, bearing fig- 
ures representing 
the occupations of 
women. 
Sewell. The drapings between the The pediment and statues on the 
panels and end paintings are of gold- roof -line (reproduced) are by Miss 
colored cloth, forming an effective Alice Rideout of California. The first 




164 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



group represents woman's virtues; the 
central figure typifies woman's spirit- 
uality, with the pelican— which sym- 
bolizes love and sacrifice — at her feet. 
A nun laying her jewels upon the 
altar typifies "Sacrifice." "Charity" 
stands to the left of "Virtue." The 
second group represents woman as 
the genius of civilization, with a fig- 
ure at her right representing a stu- 
dent; on her left is a woman groping 
for the light, as yet in mental dark- 
ness. At the feet of the central fig- 
ure is the bird of Minerva, the owl, 
representing "Wisdom." The pedi- 
ment represents woman's work in the 
progress of civilization. The figures 
typify "Charity," "Beneficence," 
"Literature," "Art," and " Home 
Life." The caryatids sustaining the 
roof-garden are the work of Miss Enid 
Yandell of Louisville. The mural 
decorations of the Gothic dining-room 
are by Miss Pitman. " Youth," in the 
frieze of the building, by Ida J. Bur- 
gess, is quite charming; as indeed are 
all of the figures in the decorations. 
At the north end- of the building ap- 
pears the name of Bertha Honore 
Palmer, president of the Board of 
Lady Managers, and at the south 
end, that of Sophia G. Hayden, the 
architect. 

In the southeast corner of the first 
floor is the German exhibit, next to 
which is that of Ceylon. Spain comes 
next, with a staff pavilion in Moorish 
design. In the collection is the sword 
of Her Majesty Isabella of Spain, 
the patron of Columbus, which is 
preserved in the Royal Armory at 
Madrid; this, together with a portrait 
of Isabella and some jewels which 
belonged to her, occupies the place of 
honor in the Spanish women's exhibit. 
Spain is followed by Siam and Sweden 
and Norway, in the order named. 
The Japanese exhibit is also located 
in this section, with vases, screens, 
etc., all made by women. In the 
Swedish exhibit is a fine portrait of 
Queen Sophia of Sweden. This ex- 
hibit is in the southwest corner of the 
building. 

On the west wall of the main hall 
are the following, among other fine 
paintings: A " Female Portrait," by 
A. E. Klumpke; a " Female Figure," 



by Enilda Q. Loomis; an " Oriental 
Female Figure," by K. A. Carl, and 
" Children Blowing Bubbles," by the 
same artist; a "Female Figure," by 
M. H. Carlisle; and " Eurydice Sink- 
ing Back to Hades," by H. Roe; an 
" Army Scene " and a fine " Female 
Figure," by Louise Jopling. These 
are all fine paintings, strong in draw- 
ing and rich in coloring. On the east 
side are: A " Marine View," by Elodie 
Lavilette ; a " Female Figure," by 
Louise Abbema; "Flowers," by Jenny 
Villebesseyx; " Girl and Goat," by 
Euphemie Murciton; "Music," by 
Maximilienne Guyon, and an "Inte- 
rior," by I. Buchet. All of these are 
very fine. Ascending the staircase 
at the southeast corner, one finds at 
the e?itresol landing a case of dressed 
dolls, and at the head of the staircase 
the entrance to the board-rooms. In 
the first of these are several portraits. 
A painting of dogs, " Watching and 
Waiting," by Lilly I. Jackson, is good, 
as are also " The Mandolin Player," 
by Florence Mackubin ; " Head of 
Negro Woman," by M. Kinkead ; 
" Portrait of Boy," by L. M. Stewart. 
To the right of these rooms, as one 
faces south, is a large exhibition-room, 
the first door of which opens on the 
Australian display. In the American 
section are American female college 
displays, among which is a fine little 
boudoir in white and blue and gold, 
placed by La Salle Seminary. On the 
Avest side of this gallery-floor are 
three rooms, the central one a finely 
decorated library, already mentioned. 
In the northwest corner are the cook- 
ing-school exhibits, and next on the 
right a fine assembly-room. Here is a 
beautiful set of benches, desks, tables, 
etc., sent from Mobile, Ala. There 
are some fine portraits displayed, 
notably that of Angelica Kaufman. 
The eastern stained windows are rich 
and beautiful. First on the east side, 
as one goes toward the southern end 
of the building, are the Japanese 
rooms, decorated with bamboo screens 
and panels. The ceiling is finely 
decorated. The rooms of California, 
Cincinnati, and Kentucky come next; 
all handsomely decorated, as is also 
that of Connecticut. 

Owing to the large number of dis- 



WO MA J\TS B U1L DING. 



165 



plays, it can not be expected that all, 
or even a large part of them, can be 
mentioned. England's women artists 
have a splendid collection of their 
works. Miss Sears of Boston contrib- 
utes a fine stained-glass window. 
The following are the works of lady- 
artists and designers: Embroidered 
portieres, by Misses Foote and Fran- 



Building," adapted from " Three Girls 
in a Flat." Price, in paper, 50 cents; 
in blue and white cloth, $1. 

At this booth is sold a pencil which 
is an exact fac-simile of the nail of 
copper, silver, and gold presented by 
the State of Montana to the Board of 
Lady Managers, and driven by its 
president at the completion of the 




Fire-boat " Fire Queen. 



cis; fine pottery, by Mrs. E. S. March- 
all, and others. The exhibits by the 
women of foreign nations are superb, 
and consist of laces, embroideries, 
oil-paintings, water-colors, carvings, 
books, etc. Mexican women con- 
tribute fine feather-work and similar 
fabrics; the women of Fayal send 
very delicate needle-work on silk, 
linen, etc.; the French display em- 



Woman's Building. Price, 50 cents. 

After viewing the treasures in this 
temple devoted to Juno and Vesta, 
the visitor in search of novelties will 
find the Homeopathic Headquarters 
(G 14), immediately back of the south- 
west corner of the Woman's Building. 

If sufficiently fatigued to enjoy a trip 
on the beautiful lagoons, the visitor 
has but to walk to the landing at the 




Gondola. 



broideries, raised work, and similar 
decorations; the Armenian Christian 
women, unique but exceedingly fine 
work, and Turkish women, exquisite 
embroidery. 

In addition to other souvenirs to be 
had in this -building, Miss Laura 
Hayes has been granted a concession 
to sell, at the Violet Booth, a book 
entitled " The Story of the Woman's 



east entrance to the Woman's Build- 
ing, where he may have choice of 
many different kinds of crafts. Be- 
fore speaking of these, however, a 
few words in regard to a very useful 
though not ornamental feature, and to 
some curios, may not be amiss. 

The boat named the " Fire Queen," 
which has been provided to assist in 
quelling any fires that may occur on 



166 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



the Fair grounds, is 75 feet long and 
16 feet wide, and draws only 3^ feet. 
Her guards and housings are very- 
low, to enable her to glide easily 
under the lagoon bridges. She has 
the capacity of six ordinary fire- 
engines, and can throw two streams 
clear over the dome of the Adminis- 
tration Building. She has five plugs 
from which to throw water, and 
carries 2,900 feet of hose. She can 




throw 2,200 gallons of water per min- 
ute, and altogether is admirably 
adapted for the purpose for which she 
was built. 

Drawn up in the rushes that fringe 
the Wooded Island are half-a-hundred 



boats, each one unique in its way, 
and each in its construction empha- 
sizing the peculiarities of the land 
from which it comes. In a miniature 
harbor two birch-bark canoes, brought 
from Hudson Bay, swing at the end of 
grass ropes. A little farther along 
is seen the picturesque Klingit canoe, 
which the Alaskan Indians use on 
their rivers. The bragozza, with its 
colored sails, reminds visitors of Ven- 
ice, as seen in the picture-books. 
Among other boats are the Brazilian 
jangada, and two typical boats from 
Ceylon. They are the baisa, or mail- 
boat, and outrigger, or Ceylon yacht. 
Now to the craft by which the vis- 
itor's trip must be made. 

The Gondola Company has twenty 
gondolas and four bissones, propelled 
by sixty gondoliers. The costumes of 
the gondoliers are of bright colors, 
after the style of the fourteenth cent- 
ury. The canopies of the gondolas 
and bissones are of rich heavy velvet, 
with linings of delicate tints to match; 
the roofs covered with heavy satin. 
Gold fringe, tassels, and cords are 
used to ornament these canopies. 

There are also Electric Launches. 
The course over which they run meas- 
ures about three miles for the round 
trip, and there are landings at all the 
large buildings and principal points of 
interest. They are about sixteen feet 
in length over all, with a beam of 6 feet 
3 inches, and adraught of about twenty- 
eight inches. They are elegantly fin- 
ished in mahogany, are luxuriously 
cushioned and carpeted, and carry 
about thirty passengers each. Bat- 
teries and motors are placed beneath 
the seats and flooring, so that the 
utmost carrying capacity is availed of; 
and they are absolutely free from 
smoke, grease, offensive odors, and vi- 
bration. The speed of the launches on 
the lagoons is limited to six miles an 
hour, but they can be spurted to a 
rate of nine to twelve miles when 
desired. The launches are provided 
with gaily striped canopies to protect 
passengers from the sun, and with 
side weather-curtains for use on 
stormy days, or in case of a sudden, 
shower. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 




HE people 
of the civ- 
ilized world 
who failed 
to respond 
right roy- 
ally to Co- 
lumbia's invi- 
tation are few 
indeed in 
number, for 
either by a 
separate and 
distinctive 
building or by national exhibits, or 
both, most of the many nations of 
the earth are represented on the 
grounds of Jackson Park. 

The foreign buildings are in close 
proximity to the North Pier, which is 
reached by the smaller excursion 
steamers from Chicago's Lake Front; 
and within easy distance of the prin- 
cipal pier, by means of steam-launches, 
for those arriving by the larger vessels. 
Another method of easily reaching 
the foreign-building district, and 
especially suited for those going by 
any of the railroads, is by transfer 
from them to the Intramural Elevated 
Railroad, alighting at the Iowa State 
Building or at the loop by the Fisher- 
ies Building. Assuming the visitor 
will select the water-route, the first 
of the foreign buildings he notices 
after landing near the Naval exhibit 
is that of England. It is a typical 
English " half -timber " house of the 
style of the sixteenth century, and 
has been officially named " Victoria 
House " (E 20). The building is gen- 
erally characteristic of the best type 
of English half-timber houses of the 
time of Henry VIII. Terra cotta, 
however, is used extensively in the 
lower story, with red brick facing 
and mullioned windows. The upper 



portion is of half -timber construction 
of natural oak timbers, with over- 
hanging gables and tiled roofs. 
The plan forms three sides of a 
quadrangle, with the open side next 
the lake, inclosed by a raised terrace 
with balustrade. The center, on the 
front or inland side, is recessed, with 
steps leading from both sides up to the 
covered porticoes which open into a 
large central hall. On one side of 
the hall is a large library and recep- 
tion-rooms; and on the other side, the 
secretary's office, and other rooms 
required for the work of the Com- 
mission. On the first floor is a large 
suite of rooms and offices. The walls 
and ceilings of the principal rooms 
are elaborately paneled. Colonel Edis, 
the architect who designed the build- 
ing, has also furnished special designs 
for all internal fittings and furniture. 

The exhibits are numerous, some of 
which are as follows: A large scale map 




Walker Fearn. 

showing the discoveries made by 
England in America, for, excepting 
the claims of the Norsemen, it is 
conceded that Sebastian Cabot first 
landed upon the mainland of America. 
The Educational exhibit is very in- 



(167) 



168 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



teresting. The Post Office exhibit pre- 
sents the old and new methods of that 
department contrasted. The displays 
are especially fine in high art works 
and pottery. A Seychelles cocoanut 
tree, the coco-de-mer, is an extremely 
rare curiosity. Just west of the 
British Building stands a Soda Pavil- 
ion (E 20), where the visitor may 
quench his thirst before going on to 
the Clam Bake (E 19), near the 
Fisheries Building, which has a seat- 
ing capacity of 22,000 persons. 

An annex known as the Banquet 
Hall is 140 x 170 feet, two stories in 
height, with a casino roof. 



circular projection of twenty feet 
on the front and rear elevations. 
Over the front entrance the tower 
is circular as it issues through 
the roof. There is a veranda ten feet 
wide all round the building, having a 
balcony overhead of the same width 
supported by twenty-eight columns, 
with a balustrade divided into panels. 
The main cornice is carried on a level 
all around the building, and over it is 
a plain parapet wall. The building is 
covered with a low-pitched roof. 

Above the roof-line the tower is 
divided by detached pilasters into 
twelve panels, over which is the main 




From the Clam Bake the route next 
leads to the Canadian Building (E 20), 
which stands on the lake shore a short 
distance from the United States Naval 
exhibit. The main building is two 
stories high, and has three entrances, 
the principal one facing the lake. On 
the ground-floor, in the entrance-hall, 
is a post office, telephone, intelligence 
office, etc.; to the right is the recep- 
tion-room, and to the left the two offices 
of the executive commissioners and 
staffs for the provinces of Ontario and 
Quebec. 

A plain style of architecture had to 
be adopted for the construction 
of the building, which is 70 x 40 
feet, having in addition a semi- 



cornice, and above the cornice is an 
open balustrade. In order to show 
the different woods indigenous to 
Canada, the interior walls, ceilings, 
and floors of the pavilion have been 
finished in wood, highly polished, 
showing their natural grain. Each 
province has furnished the wood re- 
quired to finish the rooms to be occu- 
pied by its commissioners. The pavil- 
ion, with its finishings, cost about 
$30,000. It was designed by the De- 
partment of Public Works in Ottawa, 
Canada, and its construction was 
carried out under the direction of 
D. Ewart, assistant architect. Lying 
westward of and next to this building 
is that of another English colony — 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



169 



New South Wales — which is called 
the "Australia House" (E 19). The 
New South Wales Building is classical 
in design and ornamentation. It 
is 60 x 60 feet in exterior dimen- 
sions, with a portico 12 feet wide ex- 
tending across the front. There is 
a flight of three steps leading to this 
portico and extending across its front 
and ends. The portico roof is sup- 
ported by six Doric columns, 2 feet 6 
inches in diameter and 20 feet high, 
with a cornice, frieze, and balustrade 
extending around the entire building. 



number. There is a large toilet-room 
in the rear. The architects were 
Messrs. Holabird & Roche of Chicago. 
North of Australia House, and ly- 
ing between Canada and Germany, 
is the Spanish Building (D 19). The 
building erected by the Spanish gov- 
ernment at the World's Columbian 
Exposition is a three-fourths repro- 
duction of a section of the Silk Ex- 
change at Valencia, Spain. The erec- 
tion of this building was commenced 
in 1492, previous to the departure of 
Columbus' fleet. The section shown 




The Canadian Building. 

At each of the corners is a large Doric represents the column-hall and the 

pilaster corresponding to the columns tower, wherein all defaulting and 

of the portico. The entrance is in the bankrupt merchants were confined, 

center of the front. All openings have Eight large columns iy 2 feet in diam- 

molded architraves and cornices, and eter support the roof of column-hall, 

each window has a pair of molded A circular stairway, approached from 

modillions under it. an inside entrance, is the means 

The exterior of the building is staff, of reaching the top of the tower. 

The central portion is occupied by a This building has a frontage of 84 

hall thirty feet in width, and extending feet and 6 inches and a depth of about 

the entire depth of the building. In 95 feet. The height of the main 

the center is a polygonal dome, 30 building is about 50 feet, the tower 

feet in diameter, the top being 40 feet rising to the height of about 65 feet, 

from the floor. Arranged on three Rafael Gaustavino, New York City, is 

sides of the main hall are the various the architect of this building. It 

offices of the commission, eight in is occupied by the officers of the 



170 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Spanish Commission and as a recep- 
tion-room for visitors. Many relics of 
Columbus are shown in this structure ; 
some of his letters, a sword which be- 
longed to his beautiful and magnani- 
mous patron, Isabella, also one 
wielded by Cortez in his conquest of 
Mexico; ancient Spanish artillery, 
with its cannon, ammunition, etc. 

Still walking toward the northwest, 
the next structure to be visited is 
that of the German Government 
(D 19). The plans of this handsome 
edifice were drawn by Government 



In the belfry are hung three huge 
bells which will ultimately go into 
the " Church of Mercy," now being 
constructed at Berlin in memory of 
the late Empress Augusta. The 
building is a combination of several 
styles, and, though thus somewhat 
contrasting in its several parts, is not 
lacking in harmony of the total effect. 
The center is in the form of a chapel, 
rich in decorations. Bay-windows, 
projecting balconies, turrets, etc., 
lend the structure a most picturesque 
appearance, closely resembling that 




The Spanish Government Building. 



Architect Johannes Radke, in Berlin. 
The building has an imposing front- 
age on the lake shore of about 150 
feet, with a depth of 175. Its height 
is 78 feet, and the tower that overtops 
it measures 150 feet from the ground. 
Over the main entrance, in Gothic 
lettering, a characteristic German mot- 
to appears, which in English would be: 

Fruitful and powerful, 
Full of corn and wine, 
Full of strength and iron, 
Tuneful and thoughtful, 
I will praise thee, 
Fatherland mine! 



of an old German "rathhaus," or 
city hall. The massive walls are 
decorated and frescoed in South 
German style. The rather steep roof 
is covered with shining glazed tiles 
imported from Germany. The roof- 
corners, water-spouts, etc., down to 
the large lantern in front of the 
tower, are of shining brass or mellow- 
hued bronze. But the interior of the 
building is even finer and more im- 
pressive than the exterior. After 
passing through the magnificently 
decorated reception rotunda, to the 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



171 



left of which is the grand reception- 
room and the office of the imperial 
German Commissioner, Privy Coun- 
cilor Adolf Wermuth, a second hall 
is reached. This inner hall, with the 
exception noted, extends over the 
entire space in the building, covering 
an area of about 2,000 square feet. 
The pillars everywhere are heavy, 



ooo. This building houses some por- 
tions of the German exhibit. The 
German publishers have arranged for 
a comprehensive general exhibit of 
their wares, rare scientific works 
especially. 

Cartography, lithography, photog- 
raphy, chromography, engraving, 
etc., and all their cognate branches, 



short, and solid throughout, and the are thoroughly represented. A read- 
arches are semicircular, the style ing-room for the public has been 
being early German Renaissance, provided. The second exhibit con- 




The German Government Building. 



Balconies rise in tiers on all four 
sides, the heavy timber and castings 
used in their construction being richly 
decorated. Subdued color effects 
are everywhere visible, and the niches 
and corners show poetic paintings. 
August Fiedler, a well-known local 
architect, supervised the construction 
of the whole building up to midwinter 
of this year, since which time, how- 
ever, Herr Radke has taken sole 
charge of the work. The construction 
pf the German Building cost $250,- 



tains some ver}>- fine stained and 
painted windows and oriels; magnifi- 
cent church vestments of silks, vel- 
vets, linens, brocades, etc. ; costly 
and artistic vessels for sacred use; 
handsome missals, prayer-books, and 
Bibles; and lastly, plastic church 
art, such as statues and statuettes of 
saints, crucifixes, etc. The exhibits 
in this building are many, curious, 
and rich. 

South and a little westwardly of 
the German Building may be found 



172 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



a very interesting exhibit. Here Haiti 
(E 19) has erected a building in the 
Southern colonial style, adapted from 
the Grecian. Broad piazzas flank 
three sides, while a central dome 
rises above the building. The 
piazzas are 12 feet wide, and on 
the front portico the coat-of-arms 
of the republic is painted, with 
its motto, and below it appear the 
words " Republique Haitienne " in 
gold letters, and the figures 1492, 
1892, and 1804. The first is the date 
of the discovery of America, the second 
the celebration of its four hundredth 
anniversary, and the last the date of 



is a corridor between the left wing 
and the main hall, terminating in 
toilet-rooms. The exterior dimen- 
sions of the building are 124 x 100 feet, 
50 feet high. The exhibits of Haiti 
have all been concentrated here. One 
of Columbus' anchors, various relics 
of the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
island, the bust and relics of Toussaint 
L'Ouverture, pictures of the first pres- 
ident and others are gathered in 
this building. Coffee, sugar, liqueurs, 
syrups, fibers, minerals, plants, etc., 
and native women's work may be 
seen. 

Northwest of and across the walk 




The Haiti Government Building. 



Haitian independence. In front, sup- 
porting the dome, are eight Doric col- 
umns, and from the flagstaff on the 
dome floats the national standard — 
horizontal stripes of blue and red — 
with the coat-of-arms in its center. 
The front entrance opens on a hall 
50 feet square, and this hall, the dome 
interior, and part of the exterior are 
decorated with festoons of the na- 
tional colors. In the center of the 
main hall is a beautiful statue — ' ' Rev- 
erie" — by Laforestrie, a native sculp- 
tor. To the right opens another hall, 
26 x 54 feet, with a kitchen in its rear, 
where coffee of Haitian growth and 
made by a native cook is served to 
visitors at 10 cents a cup. The entire 
left wing is given up to offices. There 



from the building last visited is the 
site upon which the Siamese Govern- 
ment has erected its Royal Pavilion 
(D 19). A native architect furnished 
the design, and native w r ood and ma- 
terial and native labor have been 
used in its construction. It is a small 
building, 26 feet square, with a front 
elevation of 32 feet. The facade and 
roof have been beautifully carved and 
gilded. These carvings, all done by 
hand, are exquisitely beautiful, repre- 
senting the work of the best Siamese 
artists. Although her displays are 
not confined to this building, Siam 
has here many fine exhibits of gems, 
resins, dyes, silks, cottons, grains, and 
a very fine display of manufactured 
and leaf tobaccos. Some of the 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



173 



native boats are wonderful, and the 
work of the native women is very fine. 
Above the pavilion's roof floats the 
royal standard, a white elephant on 
a red field. 

Immediately east of Siam is the 
building of the East Indies (E iS). It 
was not erected by the government, 
which decided to make no exhibit 
officially. Mr. Taillene, collector of 
Indian curios, has done the orna- 
mental fitting of the building, etc., 
and he has within it all sorts of In- 
dian curios, rugs, etc., which are 
offered for sale. There are two tea- 
bars, similar to our liquor -bars, except 



repeated on the corners of the build- 
ing; the whole decorated in the high, 
striking colors of the Orient. 

Just back of this building appears 
that of Colombia (D 18). This hand- 
some little pavilion stands to the 
eastward of the Swedish Building and 
almost in front of that of the republic 
of Guatemala. It was designed by 
M. Gaston Lelarge, a French architect 
and resident of Bogota, the capital of 
Colombia. Lieut. H. R. Lemly, Third 
United States Artillery, United States 
Commissioner for the World's Fair in 
Colombia, was requested by the gov- 
ernment of the latter country to 




The East India Building. 

that tea is served instead of liquor, attend to the erection of its building 
The exterior is in East Indian style, upon his return to this country. The 
modeled remotely after the fashion of prevailing style of its architecture is 
the Taj Mahal. The most striking that of the Italian Renaissance. It 
part is the doorway. Associated with occupies a space of 45x45 feet, but 
Mr. Henry Ives Cobb in the construc- 
tion of this building was Mr. William 
Prettyman, formerly contractor of 
color at the World's Fair. He has 



on each side are conservatories filled 
with rare tropical plants, which give 
it the appearance of much greater 
dimensions. There are two stories, 



charge of its decoration^ The build- the first of which is occupied by a re 



ing is one story high with a gallery, 
and a piazza in front. It is built 
entirely of staff. In shape the struct- 
ure is rectangular, 80 x. 60 feet, 50 
feet high, and its architecture is gen- 
erally on Indian lines. The main 
entrance is through a lofty gateway 



markable and very valuable collection 
of antiquities, exhumed from prehis- 
toric graves in Colombia, comprising 
water-bottles, human images, helmets, 
trumpets, breastplates, necklaces, 
bangles, anklets, etc., all of pure gold. 
There are also several mummies and 



surmounted by minarets, which are a large collection of ancient pottery. 



174 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



The second story consists of a gallery, 
which is partly utilized for an office 
and sleeping-apartment for the Com- 
missioner. 

The building is surmounted by a 
glass dome and a condor, which is the 
national emblematic bird of Colombia. 
On each side a group of three figures 
supports a globe and flagstaff bearing 
the national colors — yellow, blue, and 
red. At a lower level, and occupying 



dent of the republic, of Bogota, the 
capital, and in the remaining three 
sides those of the nine departments 
into which the country is sub- 
divided. 

After the Exposition the collection 
of antiquities above mentioned will 
be presented to the Queen Regent of 
Spain, in recognition of her services 
as arbitrator in the question of the 
boundary between Colombia and 




The Swedish Government Building. 



the principal place in the facade, is 
the national coat-of-arms, consisting 
of a shield with three divisions, viz., 
two horns of plenty separated by the 
granada, a. native fruit, a liberty cap, 
and finally a representation of the 
Isthmus of Panama, with a ship in 
each ocean. The exterior of the build- 
ing is of staff. Its interior is pleasingly 
decorated. In the panels under the 
dome are found the names " Nunez" 
and " Caro," president and vice-presi- 



Venezuela, her decision having fa- 
vored the former republic. 

South of Colombia, and in the 
same plot of ground, framed by its 
triangular lines, is the Swedish 
Building (E 18). In preparing the 
plans a hexagon was inscribed be- 
tween the sides of the triangular floor 
plan, and the boundary of this figure 
decided the shape of the main hall of 
the building. The corner spaces of 
the structures form each a separate 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



175 



room of considerable size, and gal- 
leries run around the building, strik- 
ingly indicating its peculiar shape. 
The hexangular main hall is 60 feet 
square and the pitch of the cupola is 
70 feet. On the top of the latter is 
a steeple, carrying a flagstaff, from 
which the Swedish ensign floats, some 
150 feet above the ground. The en- 
tire area of the floor is 1 1 ,000 square 
feet. The building was manufactured 
in Sweden, where it was temporarily 
put together ; afterward taken to pieces , 
sent across the ocean, and erected on 
its three-cornered site at Jackson 
Park. Its entire cost has been nearly 



work being impregnated with a 
preserving liquid to prevent decay. 
The window-sashes are all painted in 
green, and some turned details of 
the balconies have been colored red, 
green, and white. The huge crown 
on the top of the steeple, as well as 
the framework around the bell, are 
gilded. The inside of the pavilion is 
painted in light colors, and richly 
decorated with bunting, coats-of- 
arms, crests, etc. 

The exhibition proper, which is to 
be found under the roof of this build- 
ing, conveys a very good idea of the 
cultural standpoint of the Swedish 




The Venezuela Government Building. 



$40,000. The design of the pavilion is 
the product of the personal taste and 
fancy of the architect (Mr. Gustaf 
Wickman, Stockholm), guided by the 
style of the Swedish churches and 
gentlemen's country-houses of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
and as far as possible the characteris- 
tics of this old Swedish architecture 
have been retained. The lower part 
of the front wall of the pavilion con- 
sists of modern brick, terra cotta, 
and cement work. Except the part 
just mentioned, the entire structure 
is built of wood. In accordance with 
the old Swedish fashion, the whole 
of the roof and walls are covered with 
shingles, the outside of the wood- 



people. Jarnkontoret has here ar- 
ranged a most complete exhibit of the 
best of the world-famed Swedish iron 
ores, also of manufactured products of 
iron. Several private firms and 
manufacturers also produce some 
splendid articles in this department. 
China goods and glass products are 
well represented, also gold and silver 
work, wood pulp and other manifold 
articles turned out by the numerous 
paper manufactories in Sweden, as 
well as unrivaled safety matches. A 
complete collection of Swedish min- 
erals and of instructive geological 
maps has also been brought together. 
The lady visitor will at once notice, 
and probably be delighted with, the 



176 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



lovely embroideries and other needle- 
work exhibited in this building. A 
greater collection of similar articles 
will, however, be found in the 
Woman's Building. A further at- 
traction of the pavilion is the ex- 
cellent representation of a genuine 
Swedish home, which consists of 
four rooms fully furnished, and dec- 
orated according to the custom 
of the country. Beautiful suites of 
furniture, artistically arranged, and 
splendidly executed draperies, etc., 
testify to the high standard of Swed- 
ish home industry. Across the hex- 
angular hall, and exactly opposite 
the main entrance, an interesting 



Photos, oil-paintings, models of an- 
cient churches, and the like, com- 
plete the exhibit 'in this department. 
A carefully executed bust of the 
great Swedish sovereign, King Gustaf 
Adolph II. , has also been placed in this 
room. At other places in the build- 
ing portraits of the present monarch, 
King Oscar II., and of the heroic 
Carl XII., will be found. In the gal- 
leries are gathered exhibits illustrat- 
ing the school system and gym- 
nastics, which are admitted to be 
second to no others. The office of the 
chief Commissioner, Mr. Arthur Leff- 
ler, is situated at the north corner 
of the building. 






J 




The Guatemala Government Building. 

exhibit meets the gaze of the West of and across the walk from 
visitor. In the background is placed the Swedish pavilion is found the 
a large picture of the handsome Venezuela Building (E iS). In view 
capitol ^ of vSweden, "the Venice of the recent troubles in this State, 
of the North." There are also placed and the depleted condition of her 
wax-figures, of full size, dressed in the treasury consequent thereon, the de- 
gaily colored national costumes of the cision to make a creditable exhibit of 
country. Two panoramas, one on the country's resources at the great 
each side of the room, represent, the Columbian Exposition is indeed corn- 
one a typical Swedish landscape, the mendable, showing, as it does, the 
other a peasant's cottage with its ambition and energy of this little 
occupants. The sport exhibit proper republic. The building is a single 
includes specimens of all the various story in height, and is constructed of 
means of transportation used at dif- white marble, in the Greco-Roman 
ferent seasons and in different parts of style of architecture. The graceful 
the country, such as skates, snow- facade is ornamented with three hand- 
shoes, sleighs, canoes, yachts, etc., and some towers, on the left of which 
can not possibly fail to arouse the stands a life-size statue of Columbus, 
interest of the sport-loving public. On the right is the statue of Bolivar, 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



177 



the " Liberator." Great credit is due 
to President Crispo for the efforts 
made by him to insure a creditable 
building and exhibit from his country. 
The work was placed under the charge 
of Mr. J. M. Larralde and Dr. M. 
U. Toledo, two citizens of Venezuela 
resident in the United States. Pre- 
historic relics, mineral and vegetable 
products, fine arts, manufactures, etc., 
are displayed. The flag carried by 
Pizarro during his marvelous conquest 
and subjugation of Peru is shown, as 
are also many other historic curios. 

Along the walk to the east of Vene- 
zuela is a building of a different type, 
erected by an Asiatic power, that of 
Turkey (E 17). It is a reproduction 
of a fountain in Constantinople built 
200 years ago by Selim the Great. 
On three sides of the structure are 
marble basins, into which spout crys- 
tal waters, while upon the fourth side 
is a beautiful portal for entrance to 
the interior. Intricate carvings adorn 
the exterior walls, which are composed 
of mucharabia, a Turkish hardwood 
of great beauty. There are also alter- 
nate panels of inlaid wood and 
mother-of-pearl work, with here and 
there a text in Arabic characters taken 
from the Koran, the Mohammedan 
Bible. The effect of this dazzling 
work is magnificent, and is enhanced 
by the gaudy uniforms of the turbaned 
guards who night and day patrol the 
building. Glorious mosaic floors and 
draped and festooned hangings of 
rich fabrics make up the interior dec- 
orations, and everything is made 
more magnificent by the rare display 
of rich silks, costly jewelry, and 
brilliant gems that abound. There 
are also gums, gold and silver wares, 
daggers, soft fabrics, and other ori- 
ental wares. Here may also be seen 
many curios from the Stamboul mu- 
seum, and historic relics of the great- 
est value. 

Lying west of Turkey is the Brazil- 
ian Building (E 17). The designs for 
this building were prepared early in 
September of 1892 by Lieut. -Col. 
Francisco de Souza Aguiar of the 
Brazilian army, who is also a delegate 
to the World's Fair. The entire work 
was placed with Mr. A. L. R. Van den 
Berghen as contractor. The ground- 
12 



plan of the building is in the 
form of a Greek cross, the outside 
dimensions being 148 x 148 feet. 
The elevation has two stories, 25 feet 
6 inches and 25 feet high, respectively, 
surmounted by a central dome con- 
structed of steel, 43 feet in diameter 
at base and 43 feet high at the crown. 
The entire height from grade to the 
top of finial is 120 feet. All girders 
having a span over twenty-five feet 
are composed of heavy steel beams, 
and all braces are of iron, the whole 
forming a rigid and substantial 
structure without the aid of wood 
bracing. 

The style of architecture is strictly 
French Renaissance. The Indian 
figures in the bas-reliefs of the facades 
and those on the stylobate of the 
dome are allegorical, and representa- 
tive of the republic of Brazil, and are 
very fittingly used in this connection. 
The windows are liberal in size, 
containing about 4,500 square feet of 
plate-glass, weighing 15,750 pounds. 
The sashes are hung on pulleys and 
weights; a feature being that the sash 
when raised will be concealed, leaving 
the entire opening of frame below 
the transom free and unobstructed. 
The transoms, which are semicircular 
in form, are filled with stained glass, 
hand-painted in appropriate designs 
and harmonious colors. The columns 
and capitals of the four facades are 
Corinthian in order. There are four 
campaniles, each with an open ob- 
servatory seventy feet from grade. 
These points are reached by spiral 
iron stairs from the second floor to the 
roof, at which point wood stairs com- 
plete the means for ascent. The 
entire roof, except the dome, is flat 
and surrounded by a balustrade. A 
wood floor is laid over the roof -cover- 
ing proper, thus affording a large, 
convenient, and safe place for observa- 
tion. The interior is in perfect keep- 
ing with the exterior in all architect- 
ural fixtures. A broad flight of cir- 
cular stairs affords easy access to the 
second floor. The cost of this building 
was $90,000. 

Northeast of Brazil is the Guatemala 
Building (E 18). This building is 
square, with 11 1 feet at each side, 
and occupies a space of 1,200 feet. 



178 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



Its architecture is original, but in no 
way classical. It is in the Spanish 
style, and corresponds well with the 
country it represents. The height of 
the first floor is twenty-four feet. In 
the center of the building a large court 
is arranged, 33 x 33 feet, with a gallery 
built on colonnades. The court re- 
sembles the old Palos Spanish House, 
and affords freshness and ventilation 




The Norwegian Government Bu 

to the entire building. In the court 
is a fountain, from which the water 
plays as from over a large rock. The 
four corners of the building are 
crowned by towers, 23 x 23 feet, sur- 
mounted by beautifully decorated 
domes. The entire height of the 
towers is sixty-five feet, and in two of 
them are large staircases, giving ac- 
cess to the floor above, which extends 
as a terrace around the entire build- 
ing. The structure is of wood and 



staff. The ornaments on the walls 
represent tropical plants and flowers. 
The building contains four large 
rooms on the first floor, and on the 
second a reception-room, two offices, 
and toilet-rooms. The most inter- 
esting exhibit of Guatemala is her 
coffee, and at a distance of about 
thirty- five feet from the main 
building is found a small rustic 
kiosk in which 
this product is to 
be exhibited. The 
space around the 
v •- . * ' . „ building has been 

converted into a 
large garden, with 
coffee, bananas, 
and other tropical 
plants natural to 
the country. The 
amount spent in 
the entire work 
has been about 
$40,000. The 
building is painted 
in two colors — imi- 
tation of stone and 
salmon-rose. 
North of Guate- 
mala is the Costa 
Rica Building (D 
18), situated at the 
east end of the 
North Pond. The 
building, which in 
style would be 
called Doric, is 103 
feet long by 60 
feet wide, with 
two stories and 
clear-story, mak- 
ing the full height 
50 feet. On each 
side is a Doric 
ildin S- portico, twenty- 

two feet wide, supported by four 
large pilasters. Three easy steps 
bring one up to the main floor, sup- 
ported by eighteen columns, rising to 
the full height of the clear-story. The 
cornices, frieze, moldings, caps and 
bases, window casements, etc., are 
made of iron. The main walls are 
cemented, and all is painted in effect- 
ive colors. The inside walls are 
plastered, and the walls and timber- 
work are frescoed in a modest and 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



179 



becoming manner. The building is 
lighted by twenty large double case- 
ment windows in the first story and 
ten large skylights in the roof of the 
clear-story, while on all sides of the 
latter the windows are pivoted, so 
that when opened they will afford 
perfect ventilation. Ample toilet- 
rooms have been provided on each 
floor. Over each main entrance to 
the building is placed the national 
shield of the Central American repub- 
lic in bold relief, making a striking 
addition to the decorative part of the 
work. The building cost about 



similar to those with which the Norse- 
men of the time of Lief Ericsson — 
their alleged discoverer of America^ 
were wont to embellish the prows of 
their sea-going vessels. In size the 
building is 60x25 feet, and is con- 
structed of Norway pine. It was 
planned and built in sections in Nor- 
way, then taken down and sent here 
and set up. All of its workmen and 
materials are Norwegian. 

Northeast of Norway, an antique 
Buddhist temple, facing Lake Mich- 
igan, presents an attractive appear- 
ance. It is the Ceylon Court (Ci 8),con- 




Ceylon Court. 



$20,000. The exhibit of tropical birds 
and plants displayed here is magnifi- 
cent. 

To reach the building of Norway 
(D 18), which is the next of the foreign 
exhibits to be visited, it is necessary to 
take a course due northeast. From 
Costa Rica's building cross under the 
Intramural tracks, and the next build- 
ing on the right, going north, is the 
desired one. In style it is built after 
the model of the old " Stavkirke," a 
peculiarly Norwegian style of archi- 
tecture, which dates back to the 
twelfth century. It is an oddly built 
cross-gabled edifice, the peaks of its 
gables ornamented with decorations 



sistingof a central octagonal building 
with two wings facing, respectively, 
north and south. The length of the 
entire court is 145 feet; the width of 
the central hall, 50 feet. The archi- 
tecture partakes of the Dravidian 
style, as it appears in the ruins of the 
ancient temples throughout the island. 
The beautiful Singhalese woods have 
been used in the building, cut and 
fitted in Ceylon, and shipped here and 
put together. A projecting basement , 
four feet above the ground-level, 
sustains the entire court, which is 
reached by four highly carved stair- 
ways, two leading into the central 
building and one into each wing. 



180 THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXrOSLTLON. 

These stairways and the general very large group of statuary on the 

scheme of the court are copied from north facade, and several historical 

the ruined temples of Anuradhapura paintings placed on the exterior of 

and Polonnaruwa, the capitals of the building. The general effect of 

Ceylon between 543 B. C. and 1235 this structure is quite pleasing. In 

A. D. The doorway is beautifully dimensions it is 250 x 175 feet, and 

hand-carved in imitation of those of is but one story high. In addition 

ancient temples. So rich are the to the exhibits already alluded to 

decorations in this building, and at are models and plans of the schools, 

the same time so intricate' and prisons, hospitals, and sewerage sys- 

numerous, that space can not be terns of Paris, and many others of 

spared for a mere mention of them, great interest. 

though they are well worthy of a No visitor to the World's Fair 
faithful description, and should be should miss getting a glimpse of the 
seen and studied by all. Northwest- Great Central Court and Basin from 
wardly from the Ceylon Building, and the water approaches, 
adjoining it, is the French Govern- There are two piers for landing 
ment Building (C 18), the last of the passengers at Jackson Park within 
European national structures. There the Fair grounds. The Main or 
are two pavilions, connected by a Casino Pier extends 2,500 feet into 
semicircular colonnade, at the center the lake and is 400 feet wide. Its 
of which is a very fine fountain foundation piers are stone, and it is 
elaborately decorated with bronze so constructed that there is safe land- 
statuary brought over from France, ing in any kind of weather. This pier 
The court of the pavilion faces the is used by the larger steamers of the 
lake, the inclosure thus made form- Henry syndicate and by excursion- 
ing a delightful retreat. The smaller boats. 

pavilion is on the south side, and The other pier, at the north end 

contains the large room for the city of the grounds, is somewhat smaller, 

of Paris, fitted up and decorated by being 800 feet long by 60 feet broad, 

the best merchants of that city, the where steamers of "light draught land 

walls being hung in the finest gobelin their passengers. 

tapestry, and the room containing At the Casino Pier there is from 

only works of art and fine bric-a-brac, fifteen to eighteen feet of water, suffi- 

The pavilion on the north contains cient for the new whaleback steamer, 

one very large room, elaborately built especially for World's Fair 

decorated in staff, with ornamental traffic, and with a capacity of 5,000 

ceiling and cornices. The panels passengers. 

between the pilasters and walls con- The World's Fair Steam Launch 

tain some of the best pictures of Company takes passengers in and out 

France. The room of this pavilion of the various water-gates to the Fair 

is entitled " De La Fayette," and it grounds, giving them a short ride on 

contains all the gifts, mementos, his- Lake Michigan. This company has 

torical relics, and things of interest a special concession, and its launches 

regarding the dealings between La ply between three principal landings. 

Fayette and this country. This pa- Starting from a landing in the North 

vilion includes, besides this room, Lagoon, adjacent to the Clam Bake 

suites of offices for the French Ex- exhibit, they pass out into Lake 

position officials. The sketches for Michigan through the North Channel, 

this building were made in France, round the Battle-ship, and enter the 

and most of the staff models were Grand Basin and land at the south 

made there and sent here. The end of the Manufactures and Liberal 

French architects are Motte & Du Arts Building. Returning to the 

Buysson, and R. A. Deuelle, asso- outer harbor, they continue their 

ciate architect. The exterior of the trips to the South Pond, adjoining the 

building is in the style of the French Agricultural Annex, where is located 

Renaissance, entirely of staff, and the Live Stock exhibit. They do not 

elaborately decorated, there being a venture from this prescribed route, 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



181 



and can not embark passengers from 
any point outside the grounds. 

The Electric Launch and Naviga- 
tion Company has forty electric 
launches plying on the interior water- 
ways. Their course is three miles 
long, and includes the Grand Basin, 
North Canal, East, North, and West 
lagoons, and North Pond. On this 
course are about fifteen landings; one 
in front of each of the main buildings. 
The point of starting is in the Grand 
Basin, and the northerly extremity 
of the route is in the North Pond, 
where there is a landing 200 feet wide 
in front of the Fine Arts Building. 
These launches make the round trip 
in about forty minutes. Stops are 
made at every landing. There are 
one or more launches always in 
front of each landing, so that intend- 
ing passengers never have to wait. 
Their capacity is about twenty-four 
passengers. 



Purely pleasure travel on the in- 
terior water-ways is attended to by 
the Venetian Gondola Company, 
which keeps twenty gondolas and two 
steam-barges. The Italian craft are 
all of the fourteenth century pattern, 
and are gorgeously upholstered in 
velvets. They were built in Italy, 
and approved by the United States 
Consul-General before being shipped. 
Their capacity is about twelve; that 
of the barges twenty-five. 

For Exposition officials there is a 
special fleet of four electric launches. 
The uniforms of all the officials con- 
nected with water transportation at 
the Fair are navy-blue. 

Every species of craft under World's 
Fair control flies two flags — the Amer- 
ican and the Columbian maritime 
flag. The latter is of white bunting, 
with an orange wreath of oak leaves 
in the center, and a blue anchor in 
the center of the wreath. 



CHAPTER XIV. 




THE STATE BUILDINGS. 



LOQUENTas is very attractive. Mines and min- 
have been the erals, grains and grasses, fossils, pot- 
praises of this, tery, clays, etc., have been given due 
the greatest of attention and form a large display, 
all expositions, showing the diversified interests and 
the visitor, like resources of the State. Its dairy, 
Queen Sheba of sheep, and cattle products have not 
old, must feel been neglected. Those who imagine 
that ' ' not the that no fruits are grown in South 
half had been Dakota will be agreeably surprised 
told him," when at the pomological exhibit. The 
he sees the educational department is very fine, 
thirty handsome Curious fossils from the bed of Chey- 
structures enne River, immense blocks of fine 
erected by the coal from her coal-fields, and photo- 
States and Ter- graphic views of her varied scenery, 
ritories and artesian wells, etc., make up a grand 
District of Co- display for this young State, 
lumbia, which constitute the greatest The Washington State Building 
and grandest English-speaking nation (C 15) is found lying just south, and is 
on the earth. the next State structure. This is a 
How to See the State Buildings.— very unique edifice, built largely 
These structures are grouped in the of lumber and materials brought 
extreme northern portion of Jackson from the State, and it shows in 
Park. Let the visitor take the Illinois a marked degree the immense tim- 
Central Railroad from the city and ber resources of that far-off section, 
alight at its South Park Station, The largest logs used in the foun- 
where he will find the Fifty-seventh dation are 52 inches in diameter 
Street entrance to the grounds. and 120 feet long, perfectly clear, 
The Esquimau Village (A 14) is sound timbers. Much larger could 
upon his left. For a fee of 25 cents have been obtained, but the rail- 
one can see the natives, their wolfish- roads were unable to transport them, 
looking dogs, their sledges, spears, The dimensions of this building are 
stoves, canoes, lamps, etc. There are 140 x 220 feet. The exterior is cov- 
men, women, and children in the vil- ered with Puget Sound lumber, 
lage, and their modes of life and the and it is roofed with the famous 
sanitary conditions (or rather the want ' ' Washington cedar " shingles. The 
of them) peculiar to them and their 2,000,000 feet of lumber used were 
crowded quarters do not ' ' lade the donated and placed in Chicago by 
pulsing air with sweetest perfumes." the Lumbermen's Association of the 

South Dakota's Building (C 15) is State, 
next, and first of the State structures. The Colorado Building (D 14) is 

This building is 60 feet wide by 100 next. This building is 125 feet long 

feet long, and two stories high, each by 45 feet deep, and 26 feet from the 

story being fourteen feet. The exte- ground to the main cornice, with two 

rior is coated with Yankton cement slender towers 80 feet high. The 

finished in imitation of cut-stone, and tone is an ivory-white, with a faint 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



183 



color suggestion, and the architectural 
style that of the Spanish Renaissance. 
The entrance is 40 feet wide and 28 
feet deep, and on either side are the 
main stairways by which the second 
floor is reached. Smoking, reading, 
toilet, assembly, and ladies' rooms 
are provided, and the front balcony, 
8 x 24 feet, extends the entire length 
of the building. Each tower is 
ascended by a spiral staircase by 
which the lanterns are reached, and 
a beautiful view obtained. A rear 
balcony overlooks one of the lagoons, 



common in that State. The length is 
435 feet, the width 144 feet, from the 
ground to the eaves 50 feet, and 
to the roof-center 65 feet. To the 
top of the dome is 113 feet. The 
walls are a close imitation of the 
adobe, or sun-dried brick, used in the 
original structures. The roof is cov- 
ered with tiles similar to those cover- 
ing the Jesuit missions. The principal 
features of the building are copied 
from the beautiful old mission at 
Santa Barbara; the other facades recall 
those of San Luis Rey and San Luis 




'South Dakota State Building. 



while an open court is surrounded 
with another balustraded veranda. 
The two reading-rooms and the as- 
sembly-room can be thrown together, 
making one room ninety-two feet 
long. The two hanging balconies at 
the end of the building form an attract- 
ive feature. The fittings in onyx and 
Tennessee marble are especially 
beautiful, and the ornamental front 
and the red Spanish-tiled roofs give a 
picturesque and pleasing effect to this 
building. 

The California Building (D 15) is 
next in order, and it is a reproduction 
of the typical mission that was once 



Obispo. The whole mass is relieved 
by a large central dome, around which 
is an open roof-garden filled with 
semi-tropical plants. The building is 
further embellished by the rich molded 
windows over the arched entrances, 
and made musical by the old mission- 
bells in its towers. The departments 
for exhibits are arranged along the 
sides of the building on the ground- 
floor; the offices are grouped in the 
second story. The exhibits consist 
of minerals, petrified woods, native 
wines and other viticultural displays, 
brandies, State industries, etc. 
The Illinois Building (E 16) is in the 



184 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



form of a Greek cross, one axis of which 
is 450 feet long by 160 feet wide; the 
other 285 feet long and 98 feet wide. 
At the intersection of the arms of the 
cross rises a dome with an internal 
diameter of 75 feet and an inside 
height of 152 feet. Two galleries 
circle the interior of the dome, one 15 
feet the other 96 feet 6 inches above 
the floor. Over the entablature rises 
the drum, covered with galvanized 
iron. A round lantern, 12 feet in 



ern end is a fire-proof room called 
the Memorial Hall, which contains 
historical objects usually kept in the 
State capitol at Springfield. 

The building of the State of Indiana 
(D is). This structure is Gothic in 
design, with cathedral windows, tur- 
rets, and towers. At either end a 
tall spire rises above the roof to a 
height of 150 feet from the ground. 
The ground dimensions, including 
the wide veranda which extends en- 




Colorado State Building. 



diameter and 35 feet high, ojowns the 
whole, its height above the ground 
being 234 feet. At the east a/id west 
ends are large entrances. Within the 
building are rooms for the governor 
of the State and his suite ; others for 
the members of the State board; a 
great exhibition-hall, ante-rooms, and 
rooms for the accommodation of the 
woman's board. There are rooms at 
the east end for school-exhibition pur- 
poses, one being devoted to the use of 
a model kindergarten. In the north- 



tirely around the building, are 53 
x 152 feet. The building is three 
stories high. The first story is In- 
diana graystone, the second and 
third are wood covered with staff. 
The doors and interior finish are in 
oak, carved and polished; the floors 
are laid in mosaic. On the first and 
second floors a wide hall extends from 
tower to tower, separating the offices, 
parlors, toilet and reception rooms 
from the large assembly-hall and the 
hall of exhibits. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



185 




a State Building. 



On the ground-floor are separate two toilet-rooms, and the offices of the 

parlors for women and men, with president and secretary of the State 

toilet and check rooms attached to board. There are fine displays of his- 

each. On the second floor are a torical portraits; archaeological, min- 

reading and writing room, a woman's ing, manufacturing, agricultural, and 

room and private office, amen's room, educational exhibits. On the front of 



w 




Illinois State Building, 



186 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



the building is a statue of heroic 
proportions, the work of an Indiana 
sculptress, Miss Jeannette Scudder. It 
represencs the typical Indiana beauty, 
and is called the ' ' Maid of the 
Wabash." 

The Wisconsin Building (D 15) 
is 50 feet deep and has a frontage 
of 90 feet, exclusive of the porches, 
of which there are four — two run- 
ning the entire length of the build- 
ing on the east and west fronts, and 
one each in the centers of the north 
and south elevations. For three feet 
above grade the walls are of Lake 
Superior brownstone, and the first 
story of Menominee red pressed brick. 
The rest of the exterior finish is chiefly 
in dimension shingles. The front 
and rear porches are supported by 
massive brownstone pillars — one at 
each corner and one at each side of 
the main entrance. There are also 
polished granite columns in these 
porches. In the angles of the gables 
is seen the coat-of-arms of the State, 
modeled by Miss Eunice Winter- 
botham of Eau Claire. The building 
is modern in architectural style, and 
is that generally used in club-houses 
and large private residences. The 
first floor contains the lobby, or recep- 
tion-room, the ladies' reception-room, 
the intelligence office, post office, and 
men's lavatories, all finished in Wis- 
consin woods. About three-fourths 
of the way up the grand staircase is 
a Venetian stained-glass window, rep- 
resenting Superior City. The lobby 
is floored with colored tiles. The 
second floor has three large rooms, 
one occupied by an art exhibit and 
two by the State Historical Society. 
There are also smaller rooms, as the 
men's reading-rooms and board of di- 
rectors' office. The third floor is occu- 
pied entirely by sleeping-rooms. The 
building has several fountains and is 
lighted by electricity. 

Ohio's Building (D 15), which is 
next reached, is not intended for ex- 
hibits of any kind, but rather as a 
social headquarters for people of that 
State visiting the Fair. The archi- 
tecture is of the style of the Italian 
Renaissance. The dimensions are 
100 x 80 feet, exclusive of bay-windows, 
porticoes, and terraces, and its two 



stories are about thirty-five feet high. 
The semicircular portico has eight 
Ionic columns the full height of the 
building, surmounted by an open 
balustrade and roofed with red tile. 
The entrance vestibule leads to the 
reception-hall, 23x48 feet, the vaulted 




Ground Plan Illinois State 
Building. 

roof of the building forming its ceiling. 
Around it run galleries level with the 
second floor. Opposite the entrance is 
a spacious alcove with an open fire- 
place, above which is a stained-glass 
window bearing the State's coat-of- 
arms. The frieze of this hall is a 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



187 



decoration of buckeyes, the State em- 
blem. From the central hall open the 
rooms of the commissioner, bureau of 
information, ladies' and gentlemen's 
parlors, writing-room, etc., with a 
smoking-room in the rear wing. The 
assembly-room, 30 x 42 v£ feet, is ap- 
proached by way of the main stair- 
case. The stained glass in the upper 
portions of the windows in the various 
rooms shows the names of the sixteen 



veranda across the entire front, from 
the center of which rises a tall tower, 
balconied, and pierced with windows, 
and 131 feet high . The main entrance 
opens into a tiled reception-hall, sixty- 
two feet wide and extending the entire 
depth of the building. Near the front, 
opening out of this hall, are the sec- 
retary's office, post office, check-rooms, 
and barber-shops. On either side of 
the halls are reception, reading, and 




Indiana State Building. 



chief cities of the State. James W. H. 
McLaughlin, architect of this building, 
was born in Cincinnati in 1834, and 
commenced the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1855; and from that time to 
the present, with the exception of one 
year (from 1861 to 1862), he has been 
actively engaged in its pursuit. 

The Michigan Building (D 15) is 
next. This is quite an imposing 
structure, 104 x 144 feet in ground area 
and three stories high. There is a 



toilet rooms for men and women. 
Wood fire-places with high oak man- 
tels adorn each room. On the second 
floor is the assembly-room, 32 x 60 
feet, in which is a fine pipe-organ ; also 
an exhibit-room, 31 x 100. Here are 
shown specimens of the flora and fauna 
of this State. On the third floor are 
twelve sleeping-rooms, for members 
of the commission and other State 
officers. On the second floor is the 
press exhibit, showing sample front 



188 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



€fk, 



■-■■ .--"■. -: ■ ■••-:-- 




Wisconsin State Building. 

pages of every paper and magazine The salt display is especially interest- 
published in the State. The porno- ing, as are also those of woman's 
logical display presents 500 models of work, educational, grains and grasses, 
the various fruits grown in Michigan, etc. Probably the most unique exhibit 




^W^Ci.^p^^^^s-'- 



Ohio State Building. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



189 



is the poem entitled ' ' The Red Man's 
Rebuke," composed by the last chief 
of the Pottawatomies, and printed on 
birch bark. The exterior of the build- 
ing is of Michigan pine and shingles, 
the latter stained soft red. The gen- 
eral color tone is light-gray. 

Minnesota's Building (B 15) has an 
area of 80x90 feet, and its height to 
the main cornice is 41 feet. The frame 



of the State. Here are also specimens 
of her grain, minerals, and other 
products. In the center of the hall is 
a drinking-f ountain of Mankato stone; 
on the left is a relief map, 23 x 25 feet, 
of Duluth and its harbor, and in the 
rear the superintendent's room, check- 
rooms, post office, and information 
bureau. In the mezzanine story are 
sleeping-rooms for the officials and 




Michigan State Building, 



is of wood covered with staff; the style 
of architecture being that of the 
Italian Renaissance. The roof is 
covered with metallic Spanish tiles. 
On the front portico stand statues of 
Hiawatha and Minnehaha executed 
by Jacob Fjielde and contributed by 
the school children of Minnesota, aided 
by the Woman's Auxiliary Board. 

The first floor is devoted chiefly to 
an exhibition -hall, where is shown a 
fine collection of the birds and beasts 



employes. One side of the second 
story contains the Woman's Auxiliary 
Board room, with reception, reading, 
and toilet rooms. In the rear are two 
guest-chambers. On the west side is 
the State Board room, with the recep- 
tion, reading, and toilet rooms. The 
interior is decorated in plain tints, 
with elaborate friezes selected from 
designs by women artists of the State. 
William Channing Whitney was the 
architect of this building. 



190 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 




Minnesota State Building 



The Nebraska State Building (B covered with staff, made to represent 

15) is of the colonial style of archi- stone. On each side of the building 

tecture. Its exact size is 60 x 100 is a large portico, with eight massive 

feet. The outside of the building is columns, running the full height of 




Nebraska State Building. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



191 



both floors, supporting the gables over 
the porticoes. Six rooms open onto 
these porticoes, giving space for ex- 
hibits. On the first floor are found a 
large exhibit-hall, reception, check, 
waiting, commission, and men's toilet 
rooms. Reaching the second floor 
from this floor, by a large staircase 
ten feet wide, a large exhibit-room is 
entered. The janitor's and reading 
rooms are located on this floor, as are 
also waiting, reception, and toilet 
rooms for ladies. The building is 
amply equipped with stand-pipes and 



the steps leading up to which are 
granite. 

From this a triple arcade leads into 
the rotunda, 30 x 30 feet, extending 
the entire height of the building, rising 
to a square dome thirty feet in diam- 
eter. The unique feature of the build- 
ing is the fountain in the center of the 
rotunda, donated by the Ladies' Co- 
lumbian Club of Hot Springs. From 
the center of the basin, which is ten 
feet in diameter, rises a granite base 
bearing the figure of a boy holding 
over his head a passion-flower, the 




North Dakota Stale Building. 



other apparatus for extinguishing fire, 
and has every convenience for the com- 
fort of visitors. Henry Voss of Omaha 
is the architect, and for the money ex- 
pended ($15,000) he has produced a 
very creditable building. 

Arkansas' State Building (B 15) in 
architecture resembles the French 
rococo style, selected as appropriate 
because Arkansas was first settled by 
the French. Staff constitutes the 
chief material of construction. The 
building proper is 92 feet deep by 66 
feet wide. The main entrance is 
through the ornate elliptical veranda, 



floral emblem of the State. Around 
the base is grouped a fine collection 
of Hot Springs crystals, while crushed 
crystals cover the petals of the flower. 
Aquatic plants are placed at the cor- 
ners of the basin. When illuminated 
by electric lights it is exceedingly 
unique and attractive. This feature 
was designed by Mrs. P. H. Ellsworth 
of Hot Springs. The three rooms, 
15x15 feet each, on either side of the 
rotunda are used as ladies' reception 
and exhibit rooms; the large one in the 
rear, 25 x 65 feet, extends the width of 
the building, and is devoted to gen- 



192 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



eral exhibits. It is extended through 
triple arches, opposite which is a 
beautiful mantel (twelve feet long) 
made of Arkansas white onyx. In 
the second story a broad gallery en- 
circles the hall, affording entrance to 
six rooms, 15 x 15 feet each, corre- 
sponding to similar rooms on the first 
floor. The two large rooms over the 
exhibit-rooms are used as parlors for 
ladies and gentlemen. Almost the 
entire first floor is laid in clear rift 
Arkansas pine, donated by the various 
lumber companies of the State. Mrs. 
Frank Middleton Douglas, nee Miss 



in the temperate zone — whether from 
field or forest, farm, garden, or 
orchard. A feature of this room is a 
large fire-place facing its main en- 
trance, flanked on either side by stair- 
ways, which meet at a landing and, 
merging into one, give access to the 
second floor, where are found recep- 
tion, press, and committee rooms, and 
toilet accommodations. The deco- 
rations of the building, both interior 
and exterior, are conventionalized 
representations of the natural and 
agricultural products of the State 
of North Dakota. Wheat, corn, 








Kansas State Building. 



Jean Loughborough, the architect, 
was born in St. Louis, Mo. 

The North Dakota State Building 
(B 15) is in the style of architecture 
known as the ' ' colonial. " In the North 
Dakota edifice the solid structure of 
the front elevation is essentially 
classic, with large exterior colonnades, 
or porches, carried up to cover two 
stories. The ground-floor colonnade 
forms the porch and the second story 
a "gallery" (as it is called in the 
South). The whole first floor is 
thrown into one room, 60x90 feet, 
affording ample room for display of 
the State exhibit, which includes 
nearly every product of the soil found 



grasses of many kinds, etc., 
are shown in bas-relief on bands, 
panels, and angles; and pedestals are 
occupied by allegorical figures and 
groups appropriate to the time and 
place. The extreme dimensions of 
the building are 40 x 70 feet and its 
height is 30 feet. It cost $11,000. 

The Kansas State Building (A 15) 
is cruciform in plan, measures 135 feet 
from north to south and 140 feet from 
east to west. The rear of the build- 
ing was especially designed for the 
valuable natural history collection of 
the State University, which is one of 
the most notable exhibits of the Fair. 
The bas-reliefs in front of the tower 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



193 



represent the State as she was when 
admitted into the Union in 1861, and 
again under her present prosperous 
aspect, crowned with the wealth of 
her endless resources. Seymour 
Davis, the architect, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1863, and moved 
to Topeka, Kan., in 1883, andhasbeen 
actively engaged in his profession 
since 1886. 

Just north of the Kansas State Build- 
ing is a department of the Public 
Comfort (A 15). There is a park gate 



finished in the natural woods of 
Texas. The administration wing con- 
tains a register and rooms for a bureau 
of information, messengers, tele- 
phone, telegraph, secretary, president, 
directors, Texas Press Association 
headquarters, lady secretary, presi- 
dent, and executive committee, lobby, 
historical museum, and library; also 
toilet-rooms, rooms for county collect- 
ive exhioits, etc. The main entrances 
are through vestibules, flanked on 
either side by niches and colonnades. 




Texa9 State Building 



here where but one class of visitors 
will be allowed to enter — the bicyclers. 
The Texas State Building (A 15), 
which is next, was provided entirely 
by the women of that State. Plans 
were prepared by J. Riley Gordon 
of San Antonio for a structure of 
considerable architectural grace and 
beauty. The building contains as- 
sembly-rooms, 56 feet square and 20 
feet high, provided with a large art- 
glass skylight in the ceiling, with 
a mosaic Texas star in its center. 
The rostrum, ante-rooms, etc., are 
13 



The main vestibule terminates in a 
large auditorium, from which entrance 
is afforded to the various working 
departments above mentioned. The 
building cost $40,000, the contract 
having been awarded to Messrs. W. 
Harley & Son of Chicago. J. Riley 
Gordon, the architect of this building, 
was born at Winchester, Va., in 1863. 
In 1873 his family moved to San 
Antonio, Tex., and in 1881 Mr. Gordon 
began the study of architecture under 
W. K. Dodson of Tennessee, and has 
a large patronage in Texas. 



194 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



In the Kentucky State Building 
(B 16), the architect's idea is to 
typify the Southern colonial style 
as distinguished from that of New 
England; the most striking feature 
of the former being the great pil- 
lared porch in front. Another ob- 
ject is to suggest the better class 
of the old Kentucky homestead, and 
at the same time to give enough va- 
riety to meet the demands of the oc- 
casion and furnish an attractive club- 
house where Southern hospitality can 
be dispensed. The exterior of the 
building is covered with staff colored 
a rich cream, trimmed with pure white 
for all columns, cornices, etc. The 
size of the building, exclusive of 



ground." On the left side of the hall, 
in a recess, is the great fire-place, 
where huge "back-logs" will be 
burned to combat the chill blasts of the 
"Windy City." The ladies' parlors 
are on the left side of the building, 
off the reception-hall, and adjoin the 
check-room and post office. Opposite 
are the gentlemen's parlors, smoking 
and toilet rooms, with side entrance. 
The dining-room, 20 x 40 feet, well 
lighted, and recessed for a fire-place 
opposite the entrance, communicates 
with the kitchen, store-room, etc. 
Three large exhibition-rooms extend 
across the entire front of the building 
and open out onto the wide gallery. 
The commissioner's room, a private 




Florida State Building. 



porches, is 75 x 95 feet, with the main 
entrance in the center of the principal 
facade, under the cover of the porch. 
This entrance leads into the large 
central hall, from which open offices, 
parcel-rooms, post offices, etc., and 
under a wide platform just opposite 
the front door, at the other end of the 
hall, is the entrance to the dining- 
room. This platform is midway 
between the two stories, and as the 
greater part of the hall extends up- 
ward to the roof, with galleries around 
the second story, it is an excellent 
" coign of vantage " for the orators (of 
which this State produces such an 
abundance) to glorify the past, present, 
and future of the ' * dark and bloody 



hall, the lady commissioner's room, 
sleeping-rooms, and bath-rooms are 
also on the second floor. When de- 
sired, the exhibition-rooms can be 
thrown into one. The woodwork 
throughout is finished in white en- 
amel. Mason Maury and W. J. Dodd 
of the firm of Maury & Dodd, Louis- 
ville, Ky., were the architects of this 
building. The former is a native of 
Louisville; the latter was born in 
Chicago. This firm is a noted one, 
and has a large clientele in the " Blue 
Grass " State. 

The Florida State Building (B 15) 
is a fine reproduction of old Fort 
Marion, St. Augustine's remarkable 
Spanish fortress, which will serve as the 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



195 



Florida headquarters during the Expo- 
sition. This structure probably out- 
ranks any other building at the Fair 
in the antiquity of its historic interest. 
The old fort has figured in the stirring 
events of three centuries. It was 
called by the Spaniards San Juan 
de Pinos, San Augustin, San Marco, 
and by the English St. Mark, the 
name of Fort Marion being given by 
the United States Government in 
honor of Gen. Francis Marion of Rev- 
olutionary fame, in 1825, when the 
peninsula came into the Union. The 
fortress is built after the style of the 
Middle Ages. The foundations of the 



composite order of architecture, has a 
long facade, pierced with deeply re- 
cessed arches; is two stories high, the 
upper lighted by square windows. 
At the west end is a low square tower, 
with a steep roof running to a point, 
terminating in a flagstaff. At the east 
end is a taller tower, also square, sur- 
mounted with a lantern, which has a 
towering flagpole on its summit. At 
each corner of this tower is also a 
shorter pole, from which flags are float- 
ing. A beautiful view is obtained 
from the upper story of this tower. 
The interior of the building is di- 
vided into large halls for displays of 




Missouri State Building. 



fort, as it now stands, were laid in 
1620. After more than a century of 
toil, the great bastions were finally 
completed, under the name of Fort 
San Marco, in 1765. It then required 
an armament of 100 guns and a gar- 
rison of 1,000 men. The reproduc- 
tion is faithful; bridge and moat, 
watch-tower, sentry-box, and para- 
pet, curtain and bastion are exactly 
as in the original. In the interior in 
addition to the court is a hall and 
several rooms for the convenience of 
guests and others. 

The Missouri State Building (B 16), 
which is a massive structure of the 



women's work, curios, and historical 
relics, and there are also numerous 
reception-halls, toilet and check 
rooms, parlors for men and women, 
reading and writing rooms, etc. The 
building, as far as practicable, was 
built of Missouri materials, by Mis- 
souri mechanics, and its rugs, car- 
pets, curtains, and other furnishings 
are largely the product of the labor 
of the women of this State — the 
wool clipped from the native sheep 
having been carded, spun, and woven 
by them. Although the products of 
this member of the Sisterhood of 
States are distributed chiefly in their 



198 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



appropriate national buildings, the 
exhibit here is of great interest. 
Specimens of the fruits of the Olden 
Farm, in Howell County, the largest 
orchard in the world, show what this 
favored section can do in that direc- 
tion. Grains, grasses, and the fine 
cabinets of woods and economic min- 
erals displayed rank this exhibit 
among the best. 

The Louisiana Building (B 15) 
contains eight rooms- one devoted to 



els designed and executed by women 
of the State form a feature of the ex- 
hibit that is quite charming. The 
rice industry, from the planting of the 
grain on through its growth to harvest- 
ing, and final use, is shown, as is also 
the operations of the sugar industry. 
Other agricultural products are not 
neglected, and the display of woods is 
very fine. Last but not least is the 
Creole kitchen, where those who have 
never eaten a real Creole meal now 




Pennsylvania State Build 



the Acadian exhibits from the quaint 
old French colony in the lovely Bayou 
Teche country. Another room is de- 
voted to the relics of the French and 
Spanish days of Louisiana; and a 
third contains the richly carved an- 
tique furniture of Governor Galvez, 
which is usually kept in the museum 
of the capitol at Baton Rouge. A 
Creole concert company and a com- 
prehensive exhibit of the schools for 
negro children are worthy of a 
visit. Eleven beautifully carved pan- 



have an opportunity to obtain one, 
cooked and served in ante-bellum 
style by snowy turbaned and aproned 
colored cooks and waiters, superin- 
tended by young ladies of Caucasian 
blood, representing the beauty and 
hospitality of that grand common- 
wealth. 

Pennsylvania's Building (B 16) is 
colonial, reproducing the historic 
clock-tower of Independence Hall, in 
Philadelphia. The first and second 
stories are of Philadelphia pressed 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



197 



brick, the floors of native marble and 
woods, and the walls ornamented with 
wainscot panelings from Pennsyl- 
vania forests. The front entrance 
opens into a central rotunda 30 
feet in diameter and 40 feet high. 
To the right and left are general 
reception, toilet, and dressing rooms. 
In the rear, the exhibition-room ex- 
tends the entire width of the build- 
ing, its walls ornamented with 
portraits of distinguished Penn- 
sylvanians. Many rare documents 
and relics of historical interest are 
displayed, the grandest of which is 
the old Liberty Bell, whose tocsin 



ures of William Penn and Benjamin 
Franklin, heroic in size, about twelve 
feet high, and the allegorical groups 
at the right and left angles of the 
building. These last are indicative of 
mines and mining on the one hand, 
and of science, manufactures, and 
agriculture on the other; with the 
central figure, in either case, of their 
sheltering and guiding spirits. 

The designer of the building was 
Mr. Thomas P. Lonsdale, a noted 
Philadelphia architect. 

The Joint Territorial Building (B 
16), which next follows, was designed 
by Seymour Davis of Topeka, Kan. 




West Virginia 

proclaimed to all the world the birth 
of the republic. Broad staircases 
lead to the second story, where the 
waiting-room and offices of the execu- 
tive commissioner are located; also a 
room for the use of press correspond- 
ents, and another containing Penn- 
sylvania newspaper-files. The doors 
and windows of the second floor open 
upon broad verandas, and outside 
staircases lead to the roof-garden. 
Historical maps, books, portraits of 
governors and other prominent citi- 
zens, and relics are exhibited. Sur- 
mounting the main facade of the 
building are several pieces of statuary, 
the Pennsylvania coat-of-arms, fig- 



State Building. 

Though these Territories are yet in 
their infancy, their exhibits are ex- 
ceedingly fine. Oklahoma, with her 
grains, grasses, fruits, and cattle prod- 
ucts; Arizona, with her minerals, her 
sub-tropical fruits, her cacti and other 
flowers, and the handiwork of her 
Indians — such as Navajo blankets, 
Moqui water-baskets, and Apache 
whips and braided work; and New 
Mexico, with her display of gold, sil- 
ver, and mining appliances, her glo- 
rious fruits and wines, her artistic 
gold and silver filigree- work, done by 
Indian and Mexican artists, are certain 
to attract attention. Characteristic 
views of the dwellings, the scenery, 



198 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



and the people of these Territories are 
shown. 

The West Virginia Building (B 16) 
in its style is strictly colonial. It is a 
wide-spreading house, with great hos- 
pitable piazzas. The broad veranda 
makes almost a complete circuit of the 
mansion, and on the northern and 
southern fronts forms a semicircular 
porch. The doors and windows are all 
of generous width, and the stairways 
and halls of similarly hospitable pro- 
portions. The ornamentation follows 
the same idea, being carried out in 
classic forms in the way of festoons 



things beautiful and curious connected 
with mining and metallurgy, prepa- 
rations have been made for their dis- 
play and safe-keeping in cabinets of 
great size, number, and variety. The 
building is of wood, with high-pitched 
shingle roof, the outside being 
weather-boarded and painted. The 
interior is plastered, with hardwood 
finishing, and the ceilings are of 
ornamental ironwork from Wheeling, 
W. Va. In fact all the exterior is made 
of material native to the State. It is 58 
x 123 feet (including the semicircular 
verandas), and the cost was $20,000. 




and other graceful arrangements of 
flower and leaf. The main entrance 
is surmounted by the arms of the State 
in bas-relief. On each floor are two fine 
colonial fire-places, with wood mantels 
elaborately carved. The main floor is 
entered through a vestibule flanked by 



Montana State Building. 

Utah's Building (A 16) is quite 
attractive, and is situated at the ex- 
treme north end of the Fair grounds, 
and is go feet long by 50 feet wide, 
with the major axis running east and 
west, the principal front facing south, 
and two stories high. The first floor 



committee-rooms, and after passing contains an exhibition-hall extending 

through this the visitor enters the up through the second story and form 

large reception-hall, having parlors ing a semicircular light-well and gal 

with drawing-room and toilet-rooms, lerj 



The second story contains other com 
mittee-rooms, and also an assembly 
room of generous proportions, being 
76 x 34 feet and 13 feet high. The 
exhibits from West Virginia being 



at the intersection of the second 
floor; the secretary's apartment, the 
bureau of information, and ladies' 
reception-rooms, together with toilet- 
rooms, etc. On the second floor are 
located the officers' quarters, and a 



largely composed of minerals and large room for special exhibits. The 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



199 



architectural style chosen for the ex- 
terior of the building is Renaissance. 
The entrance is reached by a spacious 
approach and broad steps leading to 
a semicircular portico, which forms the 
principal feature of the south front. 
It is used as a headquarters for Utah 
people visiting the Fair, also as a 
bureau of information generally, 
where people can get reliable infor- 
mation, statistics, and data regarding 
Utah and its people. There are also 
kept in the building some special 
exhibits — many of which are of great 



story, in Roman style, the dimensions 
being 62 feet 10 inches front by 113 
feet deep; height of story, 16 feet in 
front and 20 feet in rear, with gallery. 
Its frame is constructed of wood and 
iron, covered with glass and staff, and 
the building contains spacious recep- 
tion-rooms for men and women. 
The main entrance, through the vesti- 
bule, leads to the lobby, reception- 
hall, with gallery, smoking and toilet 
rooms, ladies' parlors and toilet-rooms, 
and office, baggage-room, kitchen, and 
two janitor's rooms. The exterior 




Maryland State Building. 

interest — and such others as do not of the building is ornamented with 
enter into competition in the general heavy molded and fluted pilasters, 



buildings. Dallas & Hedges of Salt 
Lake City are the architects. The 
cost of the building and furniture 
complete was $18,500. Mr. Dallas of 
the firm of Dallas & Hedges, archi- 
tects for the Utah Building at the 
World's Fair, is a native of Utah, born 



Roman caps and bases. The two side 
wings in front, with main entrance, 
are ornamented with heavy pediments 
representing clusters of fruit. The 
main entrance between these wings 
is 28 feet wide and 16 feet high, with 
a large Roman arch supported with 



in Salt Lake City in 1857. He has columns, molded caps and bases, and 

designed many of the finest buildings balustrades between. On either side 

in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Wyo- of this arch are two panels containing 

ming. the seal of the State and the date in 

The Montana State Building (A Roman figures. These are 4 x 5 feet, 

16), which was designed by Galbraith and solid sheet gold. Above the arch 

& Fuller, Livingston, Mont., is one is a pedestal supporting a miniature 



200 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



mountain-peak, upon which stands an 
elk nine feet high, the antlers meas- 
uring ten feet from tip to tip. Enter- 
ing the building, you pass through 
the arch into a spacious vestibule, 
24 x 28 feet, with 16-foot ceilings, 
finished in staff, and painted and 
grained in oak. The walls and ceil- 
ings are paneled; the heavy arches 
over openings supported with molded 
pilasters. The floor is of marble. 
From this vestibule are entrances to 
the lobby, the ladies' reception-rooms 
and parlors, and men's reception- 
rooms and parlors. In the lobby are 
entrances to ladies' and men's recep- 
tion-rooms and parlors; also to a rear 
banquet-hall. The lobby is 22 x 22 
feet, and is covered with a glass dome 
38 feet high. Its walls contain eight 
panels of Georgia pine, recording 
historical events of the State. To the 
right and left are entrances to two 
reception-rooms, parlor for ladies, 20 
x 22, and smoking-rooms. These are 
finished in Georgia pine, having 16- 
foot ceiling, and heavy wood cornices 
painted in oil tints. From the lobby 
to the banquet-hall, 52 x 40 feet, we 
pass through a large arch in the front, 
on either side of which are located two 
offices, 12x12 feet; also entrances to 
lavatories. The stairs at either side 
reach a gallery 40 x 52 feet, surmounted 
with a glass dome, 32x32 feet, used 
for special exhibits of the State. On 
the first floor, on either side of the 
rear entrance, are baggage-rooms and 
offices, 14 x 16 feet; also a kitchen with 
pantry. All are ceiled with pine 
painted in oil tints. There are ladies' 
and men's lavatories, toilet and recep- 
tion rooms, with recess drinking-fount- 
ains. The interior is lighted with 128 
clusters of electric lights. The cost 
of the building was $15,125. 

The Idaho Building (A 17) is on 
the same side of the walk as Mon- 
tana's. This Indian name, a word 
of the Shoshone tongue, signi- 
fies " light of the mountains," and is 
indicative of its glorious beauty. 
Though its progress toward refine- 
ment and riches has been, and is, 
rapid, yet the log-cabin of the pioneer 
is still a familiar sight, and the forests 
and hills abound with game. These 
have given to the architect his motive 



in creating a structure which should 
truly typify the spirit and conditions 
of young Idaho. Hence this struct- 
ure, which is three stories high, with 
a foundation of lava and basaltic 
rock, is made to resemble a three- 
story log-cabin. The timbers used 
are stripped cedar-logs, stained to 
present the weather-beaten appear- 
ance of age. Swiss balconies hang 
about it, and it is roofed with 
"shakes" held in place by rocks. 
The chimneys are large and roughly 
stuccoed to imitate the chimneys of 
actual pioneer days. An arched stone 
entrance opens into a large hall, at the 
end of which is a stone fire-place with 
log mantel. The remainder of this 
floor is divided into offices, sleeping 
and toilet rooms. By stairways on 
either side of the fire-place, an upper 
hall is reached, the windows of which 
are glazed with Idaho mica. In front 
of this hall is the women's reception- 
hall, representing a miner's cabin, its 
fire-place of metalliferous rock, and 
andirons, door-latches, etc., made in 
imitation of miners' tools. At the rear 
of the hall the men's reception-room, 
an imitation of a hunter's and trap- 
per's cabin, has a fire-place of Idaho 
lava, the andirons made of bear-traps 
and fish-spears; the other hardware 
therein representing arrows and other 
Indian weapons, etc. The entire third 
floor is one large hall for exhibits, 
receptions, etc. 

The Maryland Building (B 17) is 
78 feet deep and 142 feet wide. The 
architecture is of the so-called free 
classic Corinthian order, the style from 
which the colonial work of the last 
century developed. The building is 
three stories high. The main entrance 
is through a Corinthian portico two 
stories high. At each end of the 
building are smaller ones. A spacious 
piazza extends the full length of the 
building, its top having a deck roof. 
A similar roof covers the two wings 
of the building, from which a view 
of the entire park may be had. The 
building is of frame, with iron sup- 
ports, finished exteriorly with staff or 
plaster work. The interior is finished 
in wood and plaster, carrying out the 
old colonial style as it appears in 
early Maryland country-seats. The 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



201 



front entrance leads into a reception- 
hall, 38x40 feet, from the center of 
which a main stairway, branching 
from a landing into two lesser stair- 
ways, leads to the second floor. To 
the left of the hall is the principal 
exhibition-hall, 36x26 feet, extending 
upward through two stories, with a 
gallery at the second-floor level. To 
the right of the main hall is another 
exhibition-hall, 25x26 feet, used for 
the women's exhibit, and adjoining it 
is a ladies' parlor and toilet-room. In 
either corner of the hall is an office, 



of architecture, and is wholly con- 
structed of Delaware State material. 
The building is 60x58 feet and cost 
$7,500. It has arched and pillared en- 
trances and ornamental balustraded 
cornices, and a very handsome por- 
tico on the west end, with fluted 
columns reaching the full height of 
the building. In the interior are seen 
models of many interesting structures 
in the State — some of them built dur- 
ing the seventeenth century — and 
many other objects worthy of atten- 
tion. 










New York State Building. 



bureau of information, and passenger 
elevator. The second floor contains 
three parlors on the front, and on the 
end an office, reading, smoking, and 
toilet rooms. On the third floor are 
the janitor's rooms and those of the 
commissioners in charge. The build- 
ing was designed and executed under 
the direction of Baldwin & Penning- 
ton, architects, of Baltimore, Md., 
whose fame is not limited to the 
boundaries of their own State. 
The State Building of Delaware 



New York's Building (C 17) is 

next. Its architects were McKim, 
Meade & White. The building ex- 
tends over an area of 14,538 feet — 
exclusive of terraces, porticoes, or 
exedras, which cover an additional 
area of 3,676 feet — is 214 feet in length, 
142 feet in depth, and in height 96 
feet. The approach is from the south, 
by a flight of fourteen steps, forty-six 
feet wide, giving access to a terrace 15 
x 80 feet, from which the loggia, 46 x 
17.6 feet, is reached. At the entrances 



(B 17) is of the Southern colonial style to the building are casts of the cele> 



202 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



brated Barberini lions, and the four 
pedestal lamps lighting the terrace 
are reproductions of the best unique 
examples in the Museum of Naples. 
The porticoes east and west of the 
building have a diameter of fifty feet, 
the open portion of which is covered, 
in the Italian fashion, by a colored 
sail. On either side of the main en- 
trance, in the niches outside the build- 
ing, are placed the busts of George 
Clinton and Roswell P. Flower, the 
first and present governors of the 
State. In the other niches in the 
facade of the second story are two 



being on the grand staircase-hall, 37 x 
46 feet; the dome ceiling being 46 feet 
high. These paintings are adapted 
from Pompeian designs not previously 
used by any artist. In the well of the 
staircase is a room, 36 x 46 feet, in 
which is placed the relief map of the 
State, on a scale of an inch to the mile. 
On the west of the entrance-hall are 
the women's State apartments, con- 
sisting of three rooms, 28.7x32.8 feet, 
and 20 feet high. The walls of the 
suite of rooms are covered by a light 
silk of Renaissance pattern, the floors 
of hard oak covered by Indian rugs. 




Massachusetts State Building. 



heroic-sized figures of Henry Hudson 
and Christopher Columbus — the four 
works of art being the production of 
Olin Warner. The exterior of the 
building is lit by electricity. Above the 
arched entrance is the great seal of 
New York (ten feet high), illuminated 
by myriads of tiny lamps, set close 
together. The main floor of the 
building consists of a vestibule, 17.6 
x 46 x 33.10 feet. On either side of 
this vestibule are three niches in 
mosaic. The entrance-hall, 46 x 84 
feet, and 20 feet high, is light in 
color, the main mural decorations 



On the east of the entrance-hall is a 
similar suite of rooms, designed for 
the use of men, papered and furnished 
according to the general design. On 
the same floor are the lavatories, etc. 
The second floor consists of a stair- 
case-hall, giving access through three 
double doorways to the reception-hall, 
84x46 feet, and 45 feet high. The 
general scheme of decoration is white 
and gold. The panel in the center, 
the work of Frank D. Millet, repre- 
sents an allegorical subject. On the 
west of this hall is the women man- 
agers' board-room, 32. 8 x 56.7 feet, and 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



203 



15 feet high. In the eastern wing is 
the museum, 32.8x56.7, and 15 feet 
high, which is filled with historical 
relics and documents relating to the 
history of the country and State. Ad- 
joining is the general manager's board- 
room, 22.6x28.7 feet. Two other 
rooms, 18 x 21 feet, complete the 
space on this floor. The roof forms 
a triple terrace garden enriched by 
terra cotta pots, decorated with palms, 
bay-trees, and flowering shrubs, and 



with old-fashioned flowers and foli- 
age. Two flights of steps reach the 
building. The main entrance opens 
into a spacious hall, with a tiled floor, 
and facing it is a broad colonial 
stairway leading to the second floor. 
On the right of the hall is a large 
room used as a registration-room, post 
office, and general reception-room. 
The floor is of marble, the walls 
covered with tiles, the beams and 
rafters bare, and the mantel high. 




New Jersey State Building. 



furnished with awnings, arbors, 
tables, and chairs. 

The Massachusetts Building (B 17) 
is an exemplification of the Northern 
colonial style of architecture, a repro- 
duction of the residence of John 
Hancock, which stood on Beacon "Hill, 
Boston, Mass., near the State capitol. 
It is three stories high, surmounted in 
the center by a cupola, the exterior 
finished in staff in imitation of cut 
granite. Above the cupola is a flag- 
staff, and a liberty-pole, eighty-five 
feet high, stands in the front court. 
The house is surrounded by a raised 
terrace, filled in front and one side 



On the left of the hall are two large 
parlors, forming a room 80 x 25 feet 
when thrown together. The front 
parlor is furnished by the Essex Insti- 
tute, an old historical society. The 
second-floor rooms, furnished with 
antique cedar chairs,' etc., are given 
over to the women's use. Peabody 
& Stearns of Boston are the architects. 
The cost was $50,000. 

Rhode Island's State Structure 
(B 17) was built by Messrs. Stone, 
Carpenter & Wilson, architects, Provi- 
dence, R. I. This building is in the 
style of a Greek mansion, and is in 
plan a parallelogram, 39 x 34 feet, 



204 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



with a semicircular porch, 12 x 22 feet, 
on the west front toward the avenue 
which marks the front entrance; and 
is flanked by a north and south porch, 
about eight feet deep, the full width 
of the building. The building is 
amphiprostyle, the two porches being 
of the full width of the building and 
having four fluted Ionic columns, 24 
inches in diameter and 21 feet high; 
while the rear entrance is between 
fluted Ionic pilasters of the same size 



main hallway, running the whole 
depth of the house from front to 
rear entrance, is 18 feet wide and 
30 feet long. In the center of the hall 
is a fire-place and marble mantel 
taken from the old colonial mansion 
in which was formed the plan for the 
destruction of the British schooner 
" Gaspee," by citizens of Providence, 
June 9, 1792. From the hall on the 
right opens the women's parlor, 12 x 
24 feet, and on the left is the office 




"l:S»npT -" 



Virginia State Building. 



and height. The front entrance is 
through three semicircular arched 
openings between the pilasters of 
the semicircular porch. The columns 
and pilasters are surmounted by en- 
riched Ionic entablature with deco- 
rated moldings, modillions, and den- 
tils, and above the entablature the 
building is finished with a balus- 
trade surrounding the four sides of 
the roof, with ornamental urns over 
each pedestal in the balustrade. The 



of the secretary, 11 x 13.6 feet; behind 
which is the grand staircase leading 
to the second story. On this story 
are placed toilet-rooms for men and 
women, and the whole floor is fitted 
with antique furniture and its walls 
hung with portraits and pictures of 
historic value. The staircase leads to 
a landing the whole width of the hall, 
from which by easy flights the second 
story is reached. The hall in this story 
is of the same width as in the first. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



205 



Opening from the hall in the front 
of the building is the governor's 
private room, which communicates 
with the commissioner's room and that 
of the secretary. In the rear of the 
building is located a vine-covered 
arbor, and the grounds are planted 
witn flowers and shrubs. 

The New Jersey Building (B 17) is in 
the colonial style, and is on the lines 
of the building in Morristown, N. J., 
occupied by General Washington dur- 
ing the winter of 1779 and 1780. It 
is said that it has sheltered more 
people celebrated in the colonial times 
than any building in America, among 



wing are located the secretary's office 
and the offices of the State commis- 
sioners and president. The general 
contractor was James W. Lanning of 
Trenton, N. J.; the architect, Charles 
Ailing Gifford of Newark, N.J. 

The Virginia Building (A 17) is a 
representation of the Mount Vernon 
mansion (in Fairfax County, Va. , near 
Washington City), the building in 
which George Washington lived and 
died. It was a present from his 
brother, Lawrence Washington, and 
was built in the early part of the 
last century by their father. The 
main building is 94x32 feet, with 




^uq$ 



Iowa State Building, 



them Alexander Hamilton, Generals 
Greene, Knox, Lafayette, Steuben, 
Kosciusko, Schuyler, "Light Horse" 
Harry Lee, " Mad Anthony " Wayne, 
Israel Putnam, and Benedict Arnold. 
The original design has been modified 
by the addition of another wing and 
more piazzas front and rear. The en- 
trance is into a large general assembly- 
hall two stories high, with balconies 
at the second story, a large fire-place, 
and also the coat-room, and staircase 
leading to the second story. In the 
right wing of the building are placed 
the meeting-room for the Board of 
Lady Managers and several parlors 
for general use. In the right-hand 



two stories and an attic, and a two- 
story portico, with large columns ex- 
tending along the whole front, being 
94 feet long, 18 feet high, and 14 feet 
wide. The portico extends up to the 
cornice of the roof, with an orna- 
mental railing around the top, and is 
furnished with settees along the whole 
length next the wall. There are two 
colonnades running back from each 
wing of the building to the rear, about 
20 feet long, 9^ feet wide, and 11 
feet high, connecting each with a 
1 x / 2 -story annex, 40x20 feet. Alto- 
gether there are twenty-five rooms in 
the structure. The largest in the 
building is the banquet-hall, 31x23 



206 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



feet; the library, 16 x 19 feet; the 
main hall, Washington's chamber — in 
which he died; and Mrs. Washington's 
chamber — in the attic — to which she 
removed after her husband's death, 
and occupied on account of its being 
the only room in the house that looked 
out upon his tomb. The height of the 
first story is 10 feet 9 inches; of the 
second, 7 feet 11 inches; of the attic, 
6 feet 9 inches; the distance from the 
ground to the top of the cupola is 50 
feet. In the main hall is a large 



the people and the library of books by 
Virginia authors. As far as could 
be done the building was furnished 
with articles which were collected 
from all over the State — the heirlooms 
of old Virginia families; and with por- 
traits of the same character. The 
building is presided over by the lady 
assistant of the Virginia board, Mrs. 
Lucy Preston Beale. She has for at- 
tendants in the building old Virginia 
negroes, and undertakes to represent 
in every particular an old home of the 




Connecticut State Building 



staircase, four feet wide, ascending 
by platforms to the floor above. On 
the first landing of the stairway is 
an old Washington family clock, a 
very interesting historical relic. This 
hall is furnished with antique sofas 
and pictures of the last century. The 
rooms upon the first floor are orna- 
mented by heavily carved and molded 
wood trimmings, and handsome man- 
tels, very antique. This Virginia 
building is an exact representation of 
the old Mount Vernon structure. 
Nothing modern is seen in it except 



colonial period. There is a rare col- 
lection of relics of colonial times and 
of the Revolutionary War, and other 
antiquities, among which is the origi- 
nal will of George Washington. The 
library is furnished entirely with 
books written by Virginians, or relat- 
ing to Virginia, and ornamented with 
old Virginia portraits, views, and 
other relics of the colonial period and 
of the last century. 

The State Building of Iowa (A 18) 
is next. This structure is made up of 
the permanent building known as the 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



20? 



" Shelter" and several subsequent 
additions. The permanent portion 
is built of brick and. stone, with the in- 
terior open to the roof, and broad pro- 
jecting eaves. The newer portions 
are 60 x 140 feet, two stories high. 
On the two principal dormers and 
capitals is to be seen the emblematic 
bird of the " Hawkeye State." In the 
spandrels of the porch-arches are the 
State, National, and Territorial seals. 
Various industries are portrayed in 
low relief in the columns, and on the 
main walls under the porch are 



Connecticut's Building (B 18) is 

intended to type the prominent feat- 
ures of the high-grade residences of 
this State, with the addition of cir- 
cular windows in the north and south 
and a circular piazza in the rear. Its 
ground area is 72 x 73 feet, including 
the piazza, and is two stories high. 
The exterior is weather-boarded and 
painted white. The roof has five dor- 
mer windows, and is decked on top, 
the deck surmounted with a balus- 
trade, and from its center rises a flag- 
staff. The main entrance is through 




New Hampshire 

authentic relief portraits of the Indian 
chiefs Black Hawk and Keokuk. On 
the high friezes of the towers are va- 
rious dates of important events in the 
history of the Territory and State, 
with the names of the largest cities. 
The "Shelter," which is one large 
room, is used for an exhibition of the 
natural products of the State. On the 
first floor of the new part are parlors 
and other apartments for the accom- 
modation of visitors and of the com- 
mission, while upstairs is a large hall 
with an exhibit of art-work, rooms for 
the press, and small rooms for the use 
of those in charge of the building. 



State Building. 

a square porch, covered by the pro- 
jecting pediment, which is supported 
by heavy square columns. A balcony 
runs along the entire front of the 
second story, its columns being 
square, but of smaller dimensions 
than those of the two-storied porch. 
The interior is finished in the North- 
ern colonial style, with tiled floors, 
paneled walls, and Dutch mantels. 
On the first floor is a reception-hall, 21 
x 48 feet, lighted by a well in the cen- 
ter above. In the rear of the hall a 
stairway reaches the second floor. 
Flanking the hall are parlors. The 
second floor is divided into several 



208 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



living-rooms. There are many inter- or clap-boards, of hard pine, oiled, 

esting relics to be seen in this build- and left in the natural wood color, 

ing, among them a lately discovered The plan is that of a rectangle with a 

shaving-mug of George Washington, large central hall, 22 x 35 feet, extend- 

a copy of a New York paper of Octo- ing through both stories to the roof, 

ber 8, 1789, and various others. lighted by a large skylight, and win- 

The New Hampshire Building (B dows in the first and second stories. 

18) is next in order, and is in im- The roof trusses are shown in the 




Maine State Building. 



itation of the heavily bracketed and 
balconied chalets of the Swiss vil- 
lages, symbolizing the " Switzerland 
of America," as New Hampshire is 
so often called. The first story is of 
plaster-work, with quoins to the doors 
and windows of various kinds of New 
Hampshire granite. 
The second story and gables are 



ceiling. The hall is surrounded by a 
wide balcony on the second story, and 
has two large fire-places. Upon the 
right of the hall you enter the com- 
missioner's room, the men's parlor, 
post office, and rear vestibule. On the 
left is the ladies' parlor, and back of 
this the lavatories. In the second 
storv are the general reception-room, 



covered with heavy molded sidings, reading-rooms for ladies and gentle- 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



men; a retiring-room for ladies; smok- 
ing, secretary's, and janitor's rooms. 
There is an L, forming an annex, 
used as a gallery for New Hampshire 
views, in tne center of which is a 
large map of the State. A second- 
story gallery, surrounding the room, 
extends from a broad landing in the 
main staircase. The coloring of the 
building is in the burnt sienna and 
black tones of the Tyrolese peasant 
chalets. Stone walls compose the 
first story. The cost is about $12,000. 
Geo. B. Howe, architect of this build- 
ing, was born in Concord, N. H., in 



round bays projecting over the gran- 
ite below, finished in wood and plas- 
ter panels. Entering the vestibule 
through the arcade of polished col- 
umns, an octagonal rotunda two 
stories high is reached, upon which 
open the parlor, committee, reception, 
toilet, and smoking rooms. The main 
staircase leads to a balcony extending 
around the central rotunda, giving 
access to the various offices and small 
exhibit-rooms of the second story. 
Besides serving as a State headquar- 
ters, the building contains maps, 
profiles, and paintings illustrating the 




Vermont State Building. 

he entered the office scenic beauty of Maine, and many 



1867. In 1 

of Walker & Kimball of Boston and 

Omaha, and is still with them. 

The Maine Building (B 18) is in 
shape a regular octagon, and is 65 feet 
in diameter and two stories high, 
with a high dome surmounted by a 
lantern, the floor of which is 64 feet 



historic curios. The cost of the 
building was $20,000. Charles S. 
Frost, the architect, was born in Lew- 
iston, Me., May 31, 1856. In 1SS2 
he opened an architect's office in 
Chicago in partnership with Mr. 
Henry I. Cobb. Since iSSoMr. Frost 



above the ground, and the point of its has continued the successful practice 

roof 20 feet higher. The first story is of his profession alone. 

of granite from many of the State The Vermont Building (B 18), last 

quarries, showing the various textures of these structures, is unique and 

and colors. These specimens have attractive. After examining tenta- 

received various treatments, as rock- tive plans, submitted by various archi- 

face, carved, and polished surfaces, tects, the one outlined by Jarvis Hunt 

etc. The second-story exterior con- of Weathersfield, Vt., was preferred, 

sists of four balconies, separated by Vermont's assignment is a narrow lot 
14 



210 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



between the imposing structures of 
Massachusetts and Maine. The gen- 
eral idea is that of a Pompeian resi- 
dence, suggested by the adaptation of 
the leading industrial product of Ver- 
mont (white marble) to classic forms of 
architecture. Passing through a vesti- 
bule, between pillars surmounted by 
emblematic figures, the visitor enters 
an open court, having in the center a 
white marble fountain. This court is 
flanked by small rooms, affording 
space for committees and other neces- 
sary conveniences, while beyond, an 



reach the landing he must leave the 
Vermont Building and go east along 
the walk in its front until he comes 
to the elevated railroad. Here the 
walk turns to the right (south); follow 
this, keeping on its right side until 
the Art Galleries are reached, and 
continue on around them until in their 
front. Here are steps leading down 
to the launch-landings, and getting 
aboard, the tour of the lagoons is 
begun. Looking backward, the beau- 
tiful front of the Art Galleries is seen 
from the water; on the right the Illi- 




Rhode Island State Building. 



entrance opens to a semicircular re- 
ception-hall of considerable height, 
and occupying the rear- half of the 
building. The material of the walls 
and of most of the ornamentation is 
staff, but considerable marble is em- 
ployed in the internal finish and dec- 
oration. 

If the visitor has conscientiously 
followed out the itinerary suggested, 
he will not be disinclined to a trip on 
the lagoons, which will give a wel- 
comed rest to his somewhat fatigued 
muscles, and offer to his gaze a feast 
such as he may rarely enjoy. To 



nois State Building is again in view, 
while upon the left the Fisheries 
Building looms up, a beautiful sight. 
On the right again is the Woman's 
Building, grouped with the smaller 
but beautiful Puck and Children's 
buildings, and then comes the ex- 
quisite Horticultural Building. The 
Choral Building (also known as Fes- 
tival Hall) next comes to view, followed 
closely by the " Golden Door " of the 
Transportation Building. All of this 
while the visitor has had the Wooded 
Island, with its picturesque Japanese 
structures, upon his left; but now, 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



211 



curving a little north of east, his boat 
glides under a Venetian bridge, with 
the Mines and Electricity buildings on 
his right, and Hunter's Island, with 
its Davy Crocket's Cabin and Aus- 
tralian Hut, on his left. Once through 
the bridge, a curve to the north is 
made, the launch skirting the right 
bank of the Wooded Island and pass- 
ing near its upper end and into the 
eastern arm of the lagoon between 
the Fisheries and Government build- 
ings. A number of minor buildings 
are also seen, and a glimpse under an- 
other graceful bridge reveals the blue 
waters of Lake Michigan. The little 
craft, turning upon its course, dashes 
southward past the immense front 
of the Manufactures and Liberal Arts 
Building, and gliding under a bridge 
enters the North Canal, fronted its 
entire length by the Electricity Build- 
ing on its right and the Manufactures 
and Liberal Arts Building on its left. 
Another bridge passed and the beau- 
tiful Basin is reached, showing on its 
right bank glorious fountains and the 
Administration Building. Beneath 
another bridge glides the launch, and 
is in the South Canal, the Machinery 
Building to the right and the Agri- 
cultural Building to the left, while 
straight in front towers an Egyptian 



obelisk, and beyond it are seen the 
Colonnade and Stock Pavilion. 
Another turn, the bridge repassed, 
and sweeping off to the right, between 
the front of the Agricultural Building 
(on the right) and the south end of the 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts Build- 
ing (on the left), the boat plows its 
way to the end of the Basin, where 
from its clear water rises French's 
beautiful "Statue of the Republic" 
(or " America," for it is known by 
both names), and disembarks its pas- 
sengers. Pausing to study his sur- 
roundings, the visitor beholds imme- 
diately in his front the graceful 
Peristyle, while to the south is the 
Casino and to the north Music Hall. 
In the angle of these buildings are 
two graceful pavilions, erected by 
private parties for the sale of their 
products. Passing between the tall 
columns and under the heroic statues 
of the Peristyle, the visitor emerges 
onto the Main Pier, and after making 
a round trip on the sidewalk, which 
furnishes the means of locomotion 
instead of the pedestrian doing so, 
he may embark on one of the steamers 
lying at the pier, and return to 
Chicago by the water route on Lake 
Michigan, landing at the Van Buren 
Street wharf. 



CHAPTER XV. 



THE MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 




URING his 
tours the 
visitor has 
seen the 
monumen- 
tal edifices 
of Ameri- 
can architect- 
ural skill and 
exhibits of the 
production 
and manu- 
factures of the 
entire world; now he turns to the 
interesting reproductions of noted for- 
eign buildings, of classic Old World 
towns, and huge panoramas of en- 
trancing scenery. To proceed sys- 
tematically, let him board the cable- 
cars of the Cottage Grove Avenue 
line (taking those marked "Seventy- 
first Street, Oakwoods "), and alight 
at the Fifty-ninth Street entrance to 
the Midway Plaisance. 

The first attraction is on the right- 
hand side at the extreme southern 
edge, the Barre Sliding Railway (G i). 
It is a French invention, and was first 
given a practical demonstration before 
the public during the Paris Exposition 
of 1889. It is an elevated road, the 
cars having no wheels, the substitute 
for the wheel being a shoe which sets 
over the side of the rail. The power 
is delivered from a water pipe. The 
speed claimed is 120 to 160 miles per 
hour. A speed of about one hundred 
miles an hour has been demonstrated 
on a track less than one-third of a 
mile long. 

Next on either side of the walk is 
found the Nursery Exhibit (G 2), 
which contains about five acres, de- 
voted chiefly to flowers, fine shrubbery, 
ornamental plants, etc. There are 
fruit trees of every kind, including an 
orange-grove in bearing. In a corner 



is a cranberry -bog, where this acid 
and useful berry is cultivated for 
the fall crop. On the left side of 
the Plaisance the next attraction is 
the Blue Grotto of Capri (F 2), con- 
tained in a rough rock mass 175 feet 
long, 100 feet wide, and 150 feet high. 
On entering the mass through a 
jagged rent in its side is found a 
lovely grotto, with a pool of water in 
its center, of a deep-blue tint. This 
water is kept in continual agitation by 
mechanical means, and resembles the 
waves of the in-dashing sea, which 
ebb and flow into the original cavern 
in the Island of Capri. Historical 
relics, photographs, street scenes of 
daily life in Capri, and other curios 
are to be seen. 

To the southward is the Hungarian 
Orpheum (G 2). The exhibit consists 
of a cafe and concert pavilion, con- 
tained in a building 75 x 195 feet, with 
a covered garden on the roof. The 
theater is in the lower part, and con- 
certs are given every half-hour. The 
performers are Hungarian artists, 
brought direct from Budapest, Hun- 
gary's capital city. The native cos- 
tumes and modes"of life of the differ- 
ent nationalities which compose this 
empire are shown. The roof-garden 
is filled with chairs and tables where 
meals, lunches, etc., are served. The 
guests are waited upon by seventy- 
five Hungarian maidens, dressed in 
their rich national costumes; and at 
intervals Hazay Natzy's famous Hun- 
garian band discourses choice music. 
There is also a gypsy band under the 
leadership of Paul Olah. 

Next to the Hungarian Orpheum 
is the Lapland Village (G 3), in which 
may be seen thirty-seven native Lap- 
landers — twelve of whom are women 
and six children. Six of the females 
are artists,' musicians, hair-workers, 



(212) 



MID WA Y PLAISAXCE. 



213 



etc., and there is in the number one 
Lap nurse. Within the village con- 
fines are twenty-five reindeer and a 
number of sledges. The natives have 
their peculiar costumes, and they 
exhibit quite a number of curios, 
mechanical products, etc., in their 
native huts. 

Next to this exhibit is the Dahomey 
Village (G 4), which consists of three 
houses — one of them fitted up for a 
museum— a group of huts for the 
women, and others for the men. In 
addition there are four open sheds 
used for cooking. The rustic front of 



Crossing the walk one finds, on the 
north side, the park containing the 
Captive Balloon (F 4). The balloon 
is a fac-simile of the one used at the 
Paris Exposition in 1SS9. Its car 
accommodates sixteen to twenty 
people, and three ascents per hour 
are made, in good weather, to a 
height of 1,493 feet. In the balloon 
park is a restaurant, the seating capac- 
ity of which is 3,000. Admission to 
this park is 25 cents; for balloon ascen- 
sion a charge of $2 is made. 

The Chinese Village (F 4) is next to 
the Captive Balloon Park. It consists 




Chine 



Theater, Joss-house, Etc 



the exhibit is constructed of wood 
brought from Dahomey, and on plat- 
forms on each side "of the gates 
are seated two warriors attired 
in their native costumes. These 
grounds are divided into two parts, 
one for the women's huts, the other 
for the men's. Of the latter there are 
sixty persons; of the former, forty. 
The various dances and other cere- 
monials peculiar to these people are 
exhibited, and their songs, chants, and 
war-cries given. They also sell prod- 
ucts of their mechanical skill, such 
as quaint hand-carved objects, domes- 
tic and warlike utensils, etc. 



of a theater, joss-house, bazaar, res- 
taurant, and tea-garden. The restau- 
rant is conducted upon both the Amer- 
ican and Mongolian plans. The tea- 
garden shows a fine collection of teas. 
The bazaar has fine silks and em- 
broideries, elaborately decorated table 
and toilet wares, and other curiosi- 
ties. 

Crossing to the south side of the 
walk, the Austrian Village (G 4) is 
found, adjoining that of Dahomey. 
" Old Vienna" is one of the interest- 
ing sights of the Plaisance. It covers 
a space of 195 x 590 feet. There are 
thirty-six buildings in all, by far the 



214 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



largest of vvhich is the rathhaus, or 
city hall. Then there is a church 
where services are held according to 
the Austrian custom, and thirty-four 
shops and dwelling-houses. In these 
shops are sold all sorts of Viennese 
wares of the present and early days. 
One of the buildings is fitted up as a 
grand restaurant, with seats for 1,000 
people. Here Viennese women serve 
coffee, Vienna bread, and other deli- 
cacies from a Viennese bill of fare. 
Arnold Weissberger, of the Imperial 
and Royal Bank of Austria, has estab- 
lished a branch of the bank in the 
" Old Vienna " settlement. This is in 
the nature of an exhibit, showing the 
working of banking affairs as con- 
ducted in the Austrian Empire. 



m> 




In the Austrian Village. 

Opposite the eastern end of the 
Austrian Village is the Cyclorama of 
the Volcano of Kilauea (F 5). The 
building is polygonal in shape, 140 
feet in diameter and 60 feet high. 
Circling the walls hangs a canvas 54 
feet high and 412 feet long, upon 
whose 22,248 square feet of surface 
the artist has depicted the weird sub- 
limity of the world's greatest volcano, 
the "Inferno of the Pacific," in the 
Island of Hawaii. 

The point of view selected for the 
visitor is the center of the crater, and 
to this point he is transported for 
the time being, and gazes upward 



and around him upon bubbling and 
seething pools and lakes of fire; tall, 
jagged crags; toppling masses of 
rocks, great fathomless pits, and 
fierce flames. Of all this the cyclo- 
rama gives a vivid representation, 
with its built-up foreground, which 
blends imperceptibly into the paint- 
ing on the canvas, aided by skillful 
pyrotechnic displays, colored electric 
lights, and other mechanical means, so 
that we have in miniature every feat- 
ure of this grand crater, whose circum- 
ference is fully nine miles. Over 
the entrance portal of the building 
stands the figure of Hawaii's goddess 
of fire, Pele, the work of Mrs. Ellen 
Rankin Copp of Chicago. The pose 
of this awful divinity was suggested 
by an island legend which tells of a 
race between the goddess and a 
native prince. Winning at the first 
trial, he taunted her to try again, and 
looking back beholds her seated on a 
wave of molten lava in fierce pursuit, 
her hands bearing fire-brands and hot 
lava, which she hurls after him as he 
takes refuge in the sea. 

Leaving this exhibit the visitor finds 
on the same side of the walk a typical 
Indian Bazaar (F 5), where the natives 
of the Orient vend their unique, char- 
acteristic wares; and opposite is a Fire 
and Guard Station (G 5), for the pro- 
tection of the Plaisance. Back of the 
Indian Bazaar may be seen the 
Algerian and Tunisian Village (F 5), 
which occupies an area 165 x 280 feet, 
and consists — in addition to the large 
Algerian concert hall, with a seating 
capacity of 1,000 people — of a Moor- 
ish cafe, Kabyle house, an Arab 
tent-village, desert tents, etc. The 
main building has a Moorish dome, 
towers, and minarets, and its exterior 
is covered with the richly colored and 
glazed tiles of Tunis and Algiers, as 
are indeed most of the buildings. 
The L-shaped building in the center 
shows the street in Algiers; that 
immediately to its right a Tunisian 
street. Next to the concert hall, half- 
hidden by the cafe, is one of the 
curious Kabyle Arab houses. Jew- 
elry, embroideries, and other North 
African wares are sold. No charge is 
made for entrance to the village, and 
but a small entrance fee to concerts. 



MID WA Y PLAISANCE. 



215 



Having exhausted the sights here, 
the visitor next enters the Vienna. 
Cafe (F 5), a very ornamental struct- 
ure, the lower floor devoted to regu- 
lar meals and the upper to cold 
lunches and wine and beer tables. 
The rooms are decorated with Japa- 
nese screens, etc., and a fine orchestra 
is employed. The site of the cafe is in 
the middle of the central walk, at the 
west end of the Ferris wheel. 

Just south of the Vienna Cafe is 
the French Cider-Press (G 5), an 
open pavilion where cider is made 
from apples, in a typical French press, 
by French peasants, and served to 
visitors by French country maidens 
in Normandy caps and short skirts. 



dimensions. Arranged in the corners 
are four small ancient models of 
religious and medieval monuments 
in Italy, as follows: The Cathedral of 
Milan, in carved wood; The Piombino 
Palace, in carved wood; St. Ahnese 
Church, made of different colored 
marbles. This church was erected by 
Pope Inniocenze X., of the Doria 
Panfili, and by his command this 
model was made. The last is a unique 
model, in carved wood, representing 
the Roman Pantheon of Agrippa. 

The visitor now turns south and 
enters the Ice Railway (G 6), an ex- 
hibit partaking of the nature of a 
skating-rink and a toboggan-slide. 
By means of ice-making machinery a 




Model of St. Peter's, Rome. 



East of this exhibit is the Model of 
St. Peter's Cathedral at Rome (G 5). 

This wonderful masterpiece of work- 
manship represents, in its minutest 
details the most magnificent monu- 
ment in the world. This model was 
begun in the sixteenth century and 
the minutest details of the bas-relief 
of the facade, the stucco, statues, and 
inscriptions are faithfully reproduced 
on a scale of one-sixteenth of the 
original cathedral, measuring about 
30 feet in length by 15 feet in width, 
and 15 feet in height. The interior 
of the building in which it is exhib- 
ited has an array of rare portraits of 
several popes, together with a num- 
ber of papal coats-of-arms of large 



surface is kept continually coated with 
a layer of ice for sleighing purposes. 

The next point of interest is the 
Glass-spinning Exhibit (G 6), just 
west of the Moorish Palace, where all 
of the curious processes of spinning 
this delicate and. fragile material into 
products which will bear considerable 
rough handling may be viewed. 

North of the glass-spinning booth 
may be seen the Ferris Wheel (F 6), 
resembling a huge bicycle wheel hung 
between two towers. The wheel is 
264 feet high, and between its outer 
rims are suspended thirty-six passen- 
ger coaches, balanced upon great steel 
trunnion pins. These coaches accom- 
modate sixty passengers each, or a 



216 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



total of 2,160 when all are loaded. 
The two steel towers upon which the 
axle rests and revolves are 137 feet 
high, 5 feet square at the top, and 40 
x 50 feet at the bottom. Six cars can 
be loaded or imloaded at the same 
time. The time required for what 
we may truly call a round trip is 
twenty minutes. From this exhibit 



plaza are seen Turks, Arabs, Nubians, 
Kabyles, donkeys, donkey-boys, cam- 
els — in short, the passing pageant so 
familiar to all who have visited 
Egypt. Mocha coffee may be had in 
its cafes, and in its shops all kinds of 
oriental wares are sold. 

Leaving this representation of the 
world's most ancient civilization, the 




The Street in Cairo. 



the visitor will next walk toward the 
northern boundary of the Plaisance, 
where he will find the Street in 
Cairo (F 7), which presents a realistic 
reproduction of the old street " Bein 
el Kasrein," in the city of the Khalifs. 
Here we are transported, as if by 
magic, to the shores of the mystic 
River Nile, and behold its typical 
scenery. In the street are mosques, 
bazaars, and palaces, and upon the 



visitor next finds a model of the Eiffel 
Tower (F 6), which was one of the 
features of the last Paris Exposition. 
This model is a perfect reproduction, 
one-fiftieth the size of the original. 
Gardens, lawns, flower-gardens, two 
little lakes with swans gliding idly 
across the water, and all the bronze 
statuary are reproduced with ac- 
curacy. A charge of 25 cents is made 
for admittance to the booth. 



MID WA V PLAISANCE. 



217 



Next to the tower, on the same side 
of the walk, is the Persian Conces- 
sion (F 7 , where may be seen Persian 
rugs, damascened scimiters, curious 
daggers, and others of the wares for 
which Persian artisans are famous. 

Next to the east is the Lecture Hall, 
or the Zoopraxiscopic exhibit (F 7), 
which will prove of vast interest to 
artists and scientists. Animal locomo- 
tion is a new study, pursued chiefly 
by electro-photographic investigation. 
Lectures on "animal locomotion" in 
its relation to "design in art" are 
given at this hall. Across the walk 
from the three last-described exhibits 
is the Moorish Palace (G 7). The 
building is of Moorish architecture, 
suggestive of the Alhambra. Arab 
attendants, in native costume, wait 
upon the visitor. Objects of art, 
bronzes, rugs, tiles, and other curios 
are sold in the bazaar in this structure. 

Southeast of this palace is a station 
of the Barre Sliding Railway. East- 
ward is the Turkish Village (G 8), 
which lies on the south side of the 
Plaisance, opposite the German Vil- 
lage, and consists of a street in imita- 
tion of one of the old streets in Con- 
stantinople. A pavilion said to repre- 
sent the Bagdad Kiosk is a fine 
specimen of early Turkish archi- 
tecture, and the effect of the street is 
quite oriental. A tent, formerly be- 
longing to the Shah of Persia, and a 
silver bed, once the property of a 
Turkish sultan, are among the curios- 
ities shown. Turkish, Smyrna, and 
other oriental wares abound. 

On the north side of the Plaisance, 
just across from this village, is the 
German Village (F S). It covers a 
space 223 x 7S0 feet, and consists of 
a restaurant and wine-hall built in the 
style of a German castle, and an open- 
air garden. There are exact repre- 
sentations of houses of the Bavarian 
Mountains, of the Black Forest, and 
of Westphalia; domiciles of the 
Silesian peasants, those of middle 
Germany, lower Saxony, and others 
from Spreewald and Niederdeutsche. 
Every feature is purely German. 
Twenty-five cents is the charge for 
admission to concerts. 

Facing the German Village, on the 
opposite side of the walk, is the Pano- 



rama of the Bernese Alps (G 9), the 
work of Messrs. Durmand, Furet, and 
Brand-Bovy, three weil-known Swiss 
artists. It is 65 feet high and over 
500 feet long, and so perfect is the 
representation that it is difficult to 
believe that the scenes are but cre- 
ations of the painter's art. 

The Natatorium (G 9) is situated 
011 the south side of Midway Plai- 
sance, next east of the Panorama of 
the Bernese Alps. This building is 
devoted to baths, etc., a bakery, 
lunch-room, and cafe. There are one 
large and many small dining-rooms, 
and an open-air dining-room. 

Continuing eastward, the visitor 
next enters the Dutch Settlement, 




Street Confectioner. 

occupying spaces on each side of the 
walk. The exhibit known as the 
Dutch Settlement (G 10) is really a 
collection of South Sea Island vil- 
lages. It occupies a space of 200,000 
square feet, contains eighty dwell- 
ings, and a cafe built after the fashion 
of Dutch dwelling-houses in these 
islands, and is peopled with 300 
natives from the islands of Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, Jehore, Samoa, 
Fiji, New Zealand, and the Sand- 
wich group. There are two theaters 
in the settlement; one erected by the 
Hawaiians, the other by the Javanese. 

The Singhalese, Malays, and other 
South Sea nations have their jugglers, 
medicine-men, acrobats, and dancers, 
who also give exhibitions of their 
skill; and some of their performances 
are really wonderful. 

Crossing Madison Avenue where it 



218 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



intersects the central walk, first on the 
left hand is the Japanese Bazaar (F 
n). Here one sees the characteristic 
exhibits of this ingenious people, 
consisting of screens, fans, lacquered 
wares, steel, iron, and brass-work, 




Panorama of Bernese Alps. 

etc. All of the articles exhibited are 
for sale. 

Crossing the walk to where a large 
and handsome building is visible the 
tourist will find Hagenbeck's Trained 
Animals (G u). A large and beauti- 
ful building has been erected, which 
serves to house Mr. Hagenbeck's 
menagerie, and which has in its cen- 
ter a large arena surrounded by an 
auditorium with a capacity of 4,500 
seats. 

The menagerie shows to visitors a 
large collection of lions of all sizes and 
ages to the number of twenty; two 
large, beautiful Bengal tigers, one 
polar bear, two black bears, a col- 
lection of the finest boar-hounds which 
has ever been brought to this country, 
a large number of young panthers, 
leopards, tigers, monkeys, and parrots. 
The dwarf elephant "Lilly" is the 
smallest elephant of which the records 
give any account. She is only thirty- 
five inches high, four and a half feet 



long, and weighs 155 pounds. There 
are three exhibitions every day. 

The Venice-Murano Glass exhibit 
(G 11) is contained in a building in the 
Italian-Gothic style, richly decorated 
with glass enamel, and surmounted 
by the winged lion of St. Mark, the 
emblem of Venice. Here thirty Ve- 
netian artists produce the blown-glass 
wares for which their factory is famous. 
Back of this exhibit is another rail- 
way station, and north and a little to 
the west, across the walk, is the Irish 
Village (F 11). As the visitor passes 
down the Midway Plaisance he sees 
the gray towers of a medieval gate- 
way, a faithful reproduction of the 
St. Lawrence Gate at Drogheda, 
which was built in the year 1200. At 
the end of the street are the beautiful 
ruins and banqueting-hall of Donegal 
Castle, beyond which is a tall round 
tower, and a fine carved Celtic market- 
cross. The houses are reproductions 
of Irish cottages. In the first cottage 
a man is seen weaving the " Kells 
Art Linens." A girl in the same cot- 
tage is embroidering linens in polished 
flax- threads, and in the next cottage 
are two women employed in lace- 
making. In the third cottage is found 
wood-carving and drawing designs for 
the marble-carvers, who will be found 
at the end of the court-yard. 

In the banqueting-hall of Donegal 
Castle are em- 
broidered 
hangings and 
coverlets; un- 
equaled home- 
spuns, spun, 
woven, and 
plant-dyed by 
peasants; iri- 
descent and 
colored linens, 
Irish and 
" Kells "laces, 
stitched and 
embroidered ladies' underwear, eccle- 
siastical vestments, wood-carvings, 
hammered iron, knitted hosiery, 
sprigged and veined handkerchiefs, 
and house linen; Irish marbles, bog- 
oak carvings, jewelry, blackthorn 
sticks, photographs of scenery, etc. 

Among the art works are the great 
statue of Mr. Gladstone by Bruce Joy, 




Mrs. Ernest Hart. 



MID WA Y PLAISANCE. 



219 



the Irish sculptor; portraits of great 
Irishmen; paintings by Irish artists; 
replicas of the old Celtic illuminations; 
engravings of the Irish carved crosses, 
and reproductions of ancient Celtic 
metal-work and jewelry. In the 
court-yard is a round tower, a replica 
of one of the eighty still standing in 
Ireland. In the court-yard of the 
tower are found faithful reproductions 
of Ogham, Bullen, and Hole stones; 
of cromlechs and crosses; chief among 
the latter is a cross twenty-seven 
feet high, splendidly carved, in inter- 
laced Celtic design, in Irish limestone. 
At the end of the court-yard is the 
Wishing Chair of the Giant's Cause- 
way, standing on real Irish soil, 
covered with a carpet of shamrocks, 
and every effort has been made to 
keep them green and fresh. In the 



walk, just east of the Libbey Glass 
Co.'s pavilion. It consists of a dis- 
play of scenery shown by the latest 
electric methods of scenic effects by 
electricity. The scenery was exe- 
cuted in Germany, and is considered 
a triumph of art. The seating ca- 
pacity of this pavilion is about 350, 
and a charge of 25 cents is made for 
each person. 

Across the central walk from this 
theater is the Log Cabin (G 12). In 
this cabin is shown New England life 
of one hundred years ago. This cabin 
is furnished in old-time style, and 
the inmates are attired in the cos- 
tumes of that day. Back of the cabin 
is the dining-hall, where old-fashioned 
dinners, consisting of pork and beans, 
pumpkin pie, etc., are served at the 
rate of 50 cents per meal. 




Libbey Glass Works. 



next cottage is seen the process of 
homespun-making. 

East of and adjoining this village, 
on the north side of the walk, is the 
beautiful building of the Libbey Glass 
Company (F 12). One of the most in- 
teresting of the exhibits of the Fair is 
the complete cut-glass manufactory 
of the Libbey Glass Co. of Toledo, 
Ohio. Here the many processes of 
glass-making, from the mixing of the 
sand with oxide of lead, lime, and 
alkalies to the latest and most ap- 
proved methods of cutting, polishing, 
and finishing, are displayed. Glass 
blowing, cutting, painting, firing, 
spinning, and weaving are likewise 
exhibited. This building accommo- 
dates 5,000 visitors at a time, and 
there is no charge for admission to 
any part of it. 

The Electric Scenic Theater (F 12) 
is erected on the north side of the 



Crossing to the north side of the 
walk and making his way toward the 
east, the tourist encounters the exhibit 
of the International Dress and Cos- 
tume Company (F 13). The forty-five 
or more beauties who display their 
charms of form and face, and their 
striking national costumes, at this 
point, are of many different countries, 
and were selected from France, Eng- 
land, Austria, Japan, etc., by the 
managers. 

East of the Beauty Show is the 
Philadelphia Model Workingman's 
Home (F 14). The ground-plan of 
this model structure covers a space 
16 x 43 feet, and the exterior is plain 
and unpretentious; the front is com- 
posed of Bedford rock and pressed 
brick. It is two stories high and con- 
tains seven rooms, including the bath- 
room. There is a basement the full 
length of the house, Cost, $2,500. 



220 



THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. 



At the end of the Plaisance, on 
this side of the walk, is the booth of 
the Diamond Match Company (F 14), 
which here displays its wares, the 
materials from which they are made, 
and the processes by which the raw 
material is converted into the finished 
product. Across the walk, on the 
south side of the Plaisance, is the 
Adams Express Company's Office 
(G 13), with facilities for transacting 
its usual business. 

East of this office, on the same side 
of the Plaisance, is the Irish Industries 
Exhibit (G 14), in charge of Lady 
Aberdeen. The Irish Industrial Vil- 




Lady Aberdeen. 

lage (G 14) is located on the south 
side of Midway Plaisance, at its east- 
ern end. This exhibit is under the 
presidency of the Countess of Aber- 
deen, the wife of the Earl of Aberdeen, 
formerly Viceroy of Ireland, and 
newly appointed Governor-General of 
Canada. While in Ireland, Lady 
Aberdeen founded the Irish Industries 
Association, which has for its object 
the development and organization of 
cottage or home industries throughout 
Ireland. The Irish Industries Asso- 
ciation has already been able to do 
much in making the work of the Irish 
poor known in Great Britain, and in 
finding a market for it, and they now 



seek, through this Irish village at 
the World's Fair, to demonstrate the 
expertness of the workers, and find 
a market for their goods on this side 
of the Atlantic. 

The gateway of the village is mod- 
eled after the entrance to King 
Cormac's chapel, Rock of Cashel. 
Just beyond the entrance is a replica 
of the cloister from Muckross Abbey. 
The visitor passes from the cloisters 
through a succession of cottages, in 
each of which a home industry is 
exhibited in course of production, 
such as the methods of making 
different kinds of lace embroidery, 
hand-loom weaving, spinning, knit- 
ting, a model dairy — in which dairy- 
maids of the Munster Dairy School 
show both old and new ways of 
making the best of butter. Bog-oak 
and wood carving are also repre- 
sented, and a most beautiful selection 
of oak and Galway marble goods 
are exhibited for sale under the care 
of Miss Goggin of Dublin. Another 
cottage devoted to a show of jewelry 
in special designs, as replicas of 
the Tara brooch, the Fingal pin, 
initials from the Book of Kells, the 
old Celtic traceries — all being made 
by Irish workmen in the village. 

Here Irishmen may once more stand 
on true Irish turf, and carry away a 
piece of it or a native blackthorn as a 
memento. A beautiful specimen of 
an old Irish cross stands in the village 
square. A village concert hall, mu- 
seum, village store, and public house 
are prominent features, as is Blarney 
Castle, from the top of which it is 
true to say that ' ' all Ireland may be 
viewed," and the more adventurous 
may gain eloquence by kissing the 
Blarney Stone. 

ISHBEL ABERDEEN, 

President of 

Irish Industries Association. 



HOTELS ADJACENT TO WORLD'S FAIR. 



The following list of the hotels out- 
side the business district, along the 
road or in proximity to the World's 
Fair grounds, will be useful to the 
traveler. They will accommodate 
50,000 visitors or more without over- 
crowding: 

Alabama Hotel (Am. and Eu.), 
Bowen and Berkeley avenues. Rates 
$2.50 to $3. 

Aldine (Am.), Sixty-sixth Street and 
Oglesby Avenue; 350 rooms. Rates 
$2 and up. 

Boston Hotel (Am. and Eu.), 
Madison Avenue and Fifty-seventh 
Street. 

Boston, The (Eu.); 200 rooms. 
Rates $1 and up. 

Barron, The (Am.), Washington 
Avenue and Sixtieth Street; 200 
rooms. Rates $5 and up. 

Chicago Beach Hotel, Fifty-first 
Street and East End Avenue. Rates 
$4 to $15. 

Columbia European Hotel (Eu.), 
196 Fifty-fifth Street. Rates $1.50 
and up. 

Columbian Central Hotel (Eu.), 259 
Sixty-secoad Street. Rates $1 and 
up. 

Columbian Hotel, Seventy- third 
Street and Kinney Avenue. 

Commercial Hotel (Am.), 243 Sixty- 
third Street (Englewood). Rates $2 
and up. 

Cornell Avenue Hotel (Eu.), Cornell 
Avenue between Fifty-first and Fifty- 
second streets. Rates $1.50 to $4. 

Englewood World's Fair Hotel (Am. 
and Eu.), Sixty-first and State streets. 

Exhibitors' Union, Stony Island 
Avenue and Seventy-first Street; 1 ,000 
rooms. 

The Exposition Depot Hotel (Eu.), 
corner of Seventy-first Street and 
Avenue B; 300 rooms. Rates$i andup. 

The Family Dormitory Association 
(Eu.), Yates Avenue and Seventy-fifth 
Street; 750 rooms. Rates $1 and up. 



Fraternity Hotel (Eu.), Lake Shore 
and Seventy-first Street; 350 rooms. 
Rates $1 and up. 

Grand Crossing Hotel (Am.), Sev- 
enty-sixth Street and Woodlawn Ave- 
nue. Rate $2. 

The Great Eastern Hotel (Eu.), Six- 
tieth Street and St. Lawrence Ave- 
nue; 1,100 rooms. 

Greenwood Avenue Hotel (Am.), 
Greenwood Avenue and Grand Cross- 
ing. Rate $1. 

Great Western Hotel, Seventy-third 
Street and Stony Island Avenue. 

Hampden Hotel (Am. and Eu.), 
Thirty-ninth Street and Langley 
Avenue. Rates $2 to $5. 

Hyde Park Hotel (Am. and Eu.), 
Fifty-first Street and Lake Avenue. 
Rates $3 to $8. 

Hotel Alfonzo, 222 Sixty-third 
Street. 

Hotel Alvord (Am.), northwest cor- 
ner Oakwood Boulevard and Cottage 
Grove Avenue. Rate $2. 

Hotel Beatrice (Eu.), corner Fifty- 
seventh Street and Madison Avenue. 
Rates $2.50 to $5. 

Hotel Buckner (Am. and Eu.), 5479 
Lake Avenue. Rates $2.50 andup. 

Hotel Caldwell (Am. and Eu.), 315 
Sixty-third street (Englewood). Rates 
— American, $2 andup; European, $1 
to $3. 

Hotel Damon (Eu.), for Knights of 
Pythias and friends, Sixty'-fourth 
Street and Wentworth Avenue. Rates 
$1 and up. 

Hotel Drexel (Am.), 3956 Drexel 
Boulevard. Rates $2 to $4. 

Hotel Endeavor (Eu.), Lake Shore, 
South of Seventy- first Street; 900 
rooms. Rates $1.50 and up. 

The Harvard (Am. and Eu.), 5714 
Washington Avenue. Rates $2 and 
up. 

Hotel Helene (Eu. and Am.), 10S to 
114 Fifty-third Street. Rates $1.50 
to $3. 



(221) 



222 



HOTELS ADJACENT TO WORLD'S FALR. 



Hotel Holland (Am. and Eu.), Fifty- 
third Street and Lake Avenue. Rates 
$2.50 to $4. 

The Howard (Eu.), 6802 and 6804 
Yale Avenue (Englewood). Rates $1 
and up. 

Hotel Norwalk (Am. and Eu.), op- 
posite South Park Station. Rates $2 
and up. 

Hotel Royal (Am. and Eu.), 51S 
Sixty-third Street (Englewoo d). 
Rates — American, $2; European, $1. 

Hotel Security (Eu.), Stony Island 
Avenue and Seventy-third Street. 

Hotel Thomas (Eu.), Sixtieth Street 
and Madison Avenue; 280 rooms. 
Rates $1.50 and up. 

Hotel Thomas (Eu.), Sixtieth Street 
and Ellis Avenue; 250 rooms. Rates 
$1.50 and up. 

Hotel Vendome (Am. and Eu.), 
Fifty-fifth Street and Monroe Avenue. 
Rates — American, $1. 50 to $2. 50; Euro- 
pean, 50 cents to $1. 

Hotel Veteran, 7302 Stony Island 
Avenue. 

Jackson Park Hotel and Restaurant 
(Am. and Eu.), 135 Fifty-sixth Street. 
Rates $2.50 to $4. 

Julian Hotel (Am.), Sixty -third 
Street and Stewart Avenue. Rates 
$3 to $6. 

Keene, The, Fifty-fifth Street and 
Ellis Avenue; 300 rooms. Rates $1 
and up. 

Montreal, 6234 Madison Avenue. 

Morgan House, Sixty-second Street. 
Rates $1 and up. 

New England Hotel, Seventy-third 
Street and Stony Island Avenue 1 240 
rooms. 



The Oak View (Eu.), Sixtieth Street 
and Edgerton Avenue. Rates $1 and 
up. 

Oakland Hotel (Am. and Eu.), Oak- 
wood Avenue and Drexel Boulevard. 
Rates $2.50 to $5. 

Park House (Eu.), corner Fifty-sixth 
Street and Lake Avenue (Hyde Park). 
Rates $2 and up. 

The Park Gate Hotel, Sixty-third 
Street and Stony Island Avenue. 

The Parkside Hotel (Eu.), Stony 
Island Avenue and Sixty-third Street. 
Rates $2.50 to $6. 

The Pullman Hotel (Am. and Eu.), 
Fifty-fifth Street, Washington and 
Madison avenues. Rates $2 to $5. 

The Raymond & Whitcomb Grand 
Hotel (Am.), Washington Avenue and 
Fifty-ninth Street, for Raymond & 
Whitcomb tourists; 387 rooms. Rates 
$10 per day. 

The Soldiers' World's Fair Hotel, 
Seventy-third Place and Ston} T Island 
Avenue. 

The World's Inn, Sixtieth Street 
and Madison Avenue. Chas. E. Le- 
land, Prop. 

South Shore Hotel, Seventy-third 
Street and Bond Avenue. 

Vendome Club (Eu.), Sixty-second 
Street and Washington Avenue; 400 
rooms. Rates $2.50 and up. 

Western Reserve Hotel (Eu.), 6345 
Wharton Avenue. Rates ($1 and up. 

Windsor Beach Hotel (Eu.), Lake 
Shore and Seventy-fourth Street; 200 
rooms. Rates $1 to $2. 

Woman's Dormitory (Eu.), Fifty- 
third Street and Ellis Avenue; 700 
rooms. Rates 75 cents to $1. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Adams Express Co.'s Office 220 

Administration Building 49 

Agricultural Building. 102 

Algerian and Tunisian Village 214 

Amusement, Places of 17 

Anthropological Building 90 

Arkansas State Building 191 

Art Building 150 

Australia House, The 169 

Australian Squatter's Hut 143 

Austrian Village 213 

Baggage and Baggage-Checking... 14 

Baker's Cocoa and Chocolate Pavilion.. 113 

Banking Facilities at the Fair 57 

Barre Sliding Railway 212 

Baths --. 16 

Beauty Show.. 219 

Bernese Alps, Panorama 217 

Bethlehem Iron Works. Inside back cover, 34 

Blooker's Dutch Cocoa Exhibit 85 

Blue Grottoof Capri 212 

Boarding-houses 16 

Boatstothe Fair 28 

Brazilian Building 177 

British Building 167 

Buildings and Grounds, Area and Dimen- 
sions 26 

Buildings of the Exposition 23 

Bureau of Construction 23 

Bureau of Public Comfort 16 

Cab Fares 14 

Cable-cars to the Fair 28 

Cafe de Marine 149 

California Building 183 

Canadian Building 168 

Captive Balloon... 213 

Caravels of Columbus 99 

Car-shops 88 

Casino 102 

Central Terminal Exposition Depot 48 

Ceylon Court 179 

Children's Building 136 

Chinese Village.. 213 

Chop-houses and Restaurants 16 

Claim Checks 14 

Clam Bake Building. 168 

Cliff Dwellers' Exhibit 87 

Colorado Building 182 

Colombia Building. 173 

Columbia Coach Co 29 

Columbia Navigation Co 28 

Columbian Fountain 64 

Connecticut Building . 207 

Construction Begun 20 

Convent of Santa Maria de la Rabida... 97 

Costa Rica Building ■... 178 

Dahomey Village 213 

Dairy Barns 88 

Dairy Buildings 88 

Delaware Building 201 

Depots 13 

Dimensions of Buildings... 26 

Driving to the Fair 28 

Ducker Hospital 136 

Duplicate Baggage Checks 14 



PAGE 

Dutch Settlement 217 

East Indies. 173 

Eiffel Tower 216 

Electricity Building.. 66 

Electric Launches 166 

Electric Scenic Theater _ 219 

Entrances to the Exposition 29 

Esquimau Village. 182 

Ethnographical Exhibit 91 

Exposition, How to Reach 27 

Exposition Station.. 29 

Fair Grounds, The 58 

Fair Grounds, How to Reach.. 27 

Ferris Wheel 215 

Festival Hall 142 

Fire and Guard Station 214 

Fire Queen, The 165 

Fisheries Building 143 

Florida Building 194 

"Forest King" Restaurant .. 86 

Forestry Building 92 

French Bakery Exhibit 85 

French Cider-Press 215 

French Colonies 85 

French Government Building 180 

Furnished Rooms 16 

Garbage Furnace, Engle 89 

German Government Building 170 

German Village 217 

Glass Spinning Exhibit 215 

Gondola Co 166 

Great Central Court and Basin 66 

Greenhouses 142 

Ground Plan of Agricultural Building.. 105 

Ground Plan of Art Building. 152 

Ground Plan of Electricity Building 70 

Ground Plan of Fishery Building 144 

Ground Plan of Forestry Building 94 

Ground Plan of Horticultural Build- 
ing 140 

Ground Plan of Illinois Building 186 

Ground Plan of Machinery Hall 77 

Ground Plan of Manufactures Building, 

Main Floor _ 116 

Ground Plan of Manufactures Building, 

Gallery 117 

Ground Plan of Mining Building 42 

Ground Plan of Transportation Building 32 
Ground Plan of United States Govern- 
ment Building 130 

Guatemala Building 177 

Hagenbeck's Trained Animals 218 

Haiti Building, The.. 172 

History of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position 19 

Homeopathic Headquarters 165 

Hoo-den, or Phoenix Palace 143 

Horticultural Building 137 

Hotels Down-town 15 

Hotels near World's Fair 221 

How to Reach the Exposition 27 

How to See the State Buildings 182 

Hungarian Orpheum 212 

Hunter's Island 142 

Ice Railway 215 



224 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Idaho Building 200 

Illinois Building 183 

" Illinois," Man-of-War .. 134 

Indiana Building 184 

Indian Bazaar 214 

Indian School Exhibit 97 

Information, How to Obtain 16 

International Dress & Costume Co 219 

Intramural Elevated Railroad 100 

Iowa Building. 206 

Irish Industries Exhibit (Lady Aber- 
deen's) 220 

Irish Village (Mrs. Hart's) 218 

Isabella Booth .. 126 

Izaak Walton, Home of 149 

Japan Buildings 143 

Japanese Bazaar 218 

Japanese Tea House 149 

Joint Territorial Building 197 

Kansas Building 192 

Kentucky Building.. 194 

Krupp's Exhibit 96 

Lagoon Trip 210 

Lapland Village 212 

Leather Exhibit 96 

Lecture Hall... 217 

Libbev Glass Co... 219 

Live Stock Exhibit 83 

Log Cabin (Bernheim's) 86 

Log Cabin, New England. 219 

Loggers' Camp 84 

Louisiana Building.. 196 

Lowney Pavilion 113 

Machinery Hall 75 

Machinery, Outside Exhibit.. 81 

MacMonnies Fountain 66 

Main Columbian Pier 101 

Maine Building 209 

Manufactures and Liberal Arts Build- 
ing 114 

Maryland Building 200 

Massachusetts Building 203 

Merchant Tailors' Building 149 

Michigan Building 187 

Midway Plaisance 212 

Mines and Mining Building 41 

Minnesota Building 189 

Missouri Building. 195 

Model Workingman's Home 86 

Montana Building __ 199 

Moorish Palace 217 

Movable Sidewalk 101 

Music Hall n 3 

Natatorium 217 

Nebraska Building 190 

New Hampshire Building 208 

New Jersey Building 205 

New York Building 201 

North Dakota... 192 

Norway I79 

Nursery Exhibit 212 

Ohio Building 186 

Oil Industries 84 

Oil Tank Vault.. 89 

Old Times Distillery 87 

Omnibus Fares 14 

Oyster Saloons.. i 7 

Panorama of Bernese Alps 217 

Panorama of Kilauea 214 

Pennsvlvania Building. . . 196 

Peristyle x \ 2 

Persian Concession 217 

Philadelphia Model Workingman's 

Home 219 

Phoenix Palace .. i 43 



PAGE 

Photographer's Building i 42 

Piers, Launches, and Steamers 180 

Places of Amusement 1 7 

Polish Cafe i 49 

Power House 8 y 

"Progress," Old Whaling Bark 9 6 

Public Comfort Building.. i 93 

Public Service Building i 42 

Puck Building I37 

Pumping House 89 

Pumping Works.. 80 

Quadriga Statuary "" I12 

Railroads I3> I4 

Restaurants... z q 

Rhode Island Building 203 

Rolling Chair Around the Grounds n 3 

Rooms, Furnished rf 

Rooms with Board I5 

Rose Garden I43 

Sewage Cleansing Works 89 

Siamese Government Pavilion 172 

Site of the World's Fair 2 o 

South Dakota Building 182 

South Sea Island Villages 217 

Spanish Building 169 

St. Peter's at Rome, Model of.. 215 

Statuary of Main Basin 81 

Statue of Columbus.. _ 57 

Statue of the Republic m 

Steamer Landings 29 

Steamers to the Fair Grounds 2 8 

Street-car Fares 28 

Street in Cairo 216 

Swedish Building .. 174 

Swedish Restaurant 149 

Texas Building i 93 

Theaters .. 17, z 8 

Tickets, Where to Purchase 29 

Transfer Co 14 

Transportation Building 3 o 

Trip to the Fair 29 

Turkish Building i 77 

Turkish Village... 217 

United States Government Building. .. 127 

United States Life-Saving Station i 33 

United States Model Armv Hospital 127 

United States Naval Exhibit i 34 

United States Naval Observatory 134 

Utah Building 198 

Van Houten & Zoon's Exhibit 126 

Van Rensselaer's (Mrs. Schuyler) Article 58 

Venezuela Building.. .. 176 

Venice-Murano Glass Exhibit 218 

Vermont Building 209 

Victoria House 167 

Vienna Cafe 215 

Viking Ship 90 

Virginia Building 205 

Volcano of Kilauea 214 

Washington State Building 182 

Weather Bureau, The _ 133 

West Virginia Building.. 198 

Whaling Bark, The Old 96 

White Horse Inn 99 

White Star Steamship Co.. 137 

Windmill Exhibit 85 

Wisconsin Building 186 

Woman's Building. 159 

Wooded Island 21 

World's Congress Auxiliary 21 

World's Fair Location 20 

World's Fairs 22 

World's Fair Steam Launch Co 180 

Yucatan, Ruins of 91 

Zoopraxiscopic Exhibit _ 217